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Transit Panel (William Kohn Fleissig) - ULI fall meeting - 102711

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  • 1. Reframing Transit & Development to TOD 3.0 TransACT William Kohn Fleissig ULI Fall Conference October 27, 2011 © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 2. TOD Is Evolving to Deliver Livability Benefits TOD 1.0 TOD 2.0 TOD 3.0 A. Route Alignment 1. Route Alignment 1. Route AlignmentTransit B. Station Location 2. Station Location 2. Station Location C. Station Area 3. Station Area 3. Station Area 4. Land Assemblage 4. Land AssemblageReal Estate A. Land Assemblage 5. Infrastructure 5. Infrastructure B. Infrastructure 6. Vertical Development 6. Vertical Development C. Vertical Development 7. Livability Benefits UMTA Era: Uncoordinated Since ISTEA: Greater regulatory Livable Communities Era: transit infrastructure coordination between transit and Transit investments are aligned implementation and real estate local land use planning that with real estate development development processes resulted focused on TOD outcomes, potential so that TOD can in one-off real estate projects though TOD projects still generate corridor-wide livability built only when markets and occurred on a one-off basis when benefits via corridor-wide regulations fortuitously markets supported development financing tools supported development © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 3. Potential TOD 3.0 Livability Benefits Category Livability Benefits Category Livability Benefits • Pedestrian/Bicycle • Street/Sidewalk cleaning service improvements • Increased police patrols / Mobility • Parking Services Ambassador force • Local shuttles • Farmers‟ markets • Car/bike sharing facilities • Other social services • Low-income housing • Job training Economic Housing • Workforce housing • Business development Development • Supportive housing • District marketing • Site remediation • Kindergarten / Daycare / After- • Air quality programs school servicesEnvironment • Noise abatement Education • Charter Schools • Water resources • Magnet Schools • Habitat preservation • Public Schools • Open/green space • School facility improvements • Recreation/active space • Community facility construction • Streetscape enhancements • Undergrounding utilitiesPublic Space Infrastructure • Trails • Upgrading infrastructure • Façade enhancements • Alternative energy production • Historic structure preservation © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 4. Kendall Square, Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 1975-1981© All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 5. 15th and Pearl Garage, GAGID1998-1999, Boulder CO © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 6. LODO District Zoning and Infrastructure,Denver 1984-1987 Sugar Cube Building, Denver, CO 2004-2005 16 Market Square, Denver, CO 1998-2000 © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 7. 103 Acre Old Villa Italia Shopping Mall © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 8. 23 Block Belmar District © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 9. Belmar, Lakewood, CO 2000 - present © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 10. Drivers of GrowthSB 375 and AB 32 impacting state,regional and local policies and $$$ABAGMTCUtilitiesWater DistrictsTransit AgenciesCountiesMunicipalitieswww.growsmartbayarea.org © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 11. Bay Area Context:Priority Development Areas• Housing Affordability• Jobs/Education Access• Neighborhood Vitality/Identity• VMT/SOV Trip Reduction• Mobility/Access Improvements• GHG Reductions• Energy Use Reductions• Water Conservation• Waste Conservation © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 12. Sub Region © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 13. Pleasanton | Hacienda TODPLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 14. Hacienda Development Plan © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 15. Hacienda Land Use © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 16. Circulation © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 17. Existing Transit System © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 18. Potential Redevelopment Parcels © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 19. Existing Development Criteria7. “Development standards for Mixed Commercial Office Industrial PD uses shall be determined by the use proposed for the site. These standards shall be based on the number of floors proposed in the tallest proposed building on the site and shall be as follows:Number Of Maximum Minimum MinimumFloors Floor Area Ratio Landscape Ratio Parking RatioOne 35% 20% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf)Two 40% 25% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf)Three 45%* 25% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf)Four 50% 25% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf)Five 60% 30% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf)Six 60% 30% 1 per 300 sf (3.3 per 1,000 sf) © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 20. Development Criteria8. Development standards for MCOIPD uses shall be determined by the use proposed for the site. These standards shall be based on the use and the number of floors proposed. If a commercial use is proposed, the development standards shall be as follows:Uses Maximum Minimum Minimum Floor Area Ratio Landscape Ratio Parking RatioFree-StandingRestaurant 12.5% 25% 1 per 150 sf (6.7 per 1,000 sf)Hotel/Motel 60% 30% 1 per room plus 1 per employee at maximum shiftCommercial/Retail 30% 25% 1 per 200 sf (5.0 per 1,000 sf)Other specialized commercial land uses shall be reviewed on a case by case basis, and modifications to the above standards may be approved. Combined retail/office uses on a Parcel shall follow the development standards for office use, except that parking shall be provided for each use, treating each individually. © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 21. Pleasanton Transit Village: Core PUD Regulations*• Density: Minimum of 30 Units per Acre• Affordability: The greater of (a) 15% of all units, or (b) 130 units, will be made available exclusively to very-low income (50% of AMI) households. Affordable units will be deed-restricted in perpetuity..• Section 8 Rental Assistance Vouchers: developments will be required to accept HUD Section 8 Rental Vouchers• Bedroom Mix of Affordable Units: minimum of 10% 3br units minimum of 35% 2br units• Location of Affordable Units: Affordable units will be dispersed throughout the development.*Note: Core PUD Regulations are from the Term Sheet of final settlement agreement issued July 20, 2010 © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 22. Pleasanton BART - Livability Benefits Category Livability Benefits Category Livability Benefits • Pedestrian/Bicycle • Street/Sidewalk cleaning service improvements • Increased police patrols / Mobility • Parking Services Ambassador force • Local shuttles • Farmers‟ markets • Car/bike sharing facilities • Other social services • Low-income housing • Job training Economic Housing • Workforce housing • Business development Development • Supportive housing • District marketing • Site remediation • Kindergarten / Daycare / After- • Air quality programs school servicesEnvironment • Noise abatement Education • Charter Schools • Water resources • Magnet Schools • Habitat preservation • Public Schools • Open/green space • School facility improvements • Recreation/active space • Community facility construction • Streetscape enhancements • Undergrounding utilitiesPublic Space Infrastructure • Trails • Upgrading infrastructure • Façade enhancements • Alternative energy production • Historic structure preservation © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 23. TOD FRAMEWORKPLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 24. TOD FRAMEWORK• Iron Horse Trail• Pedestrian StreetSections• PedestrianConnections• Public OpenSpaces• Key Retail / ServiceEdges• Internal StreetHierarchy PLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 25. Phased Framework• Private Developer -- BART PARCELMixed Income ResidentialAdjacent to BART w PedConnections, Retail andOpen Space © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 26. Phased Framework• Private Developer -- BART PARCELMixed Income ResidentialAdjacent to BART• Private Developer –2nd Mixed Income ProjectContinues PedestrianLinks © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 27. Phased Framework• Private Developer -- BART PARCELMixed Income ResidentialAdjacent to BART• Private Developer –2nd Mixed Income Project• Major Employer --Expansion for Parking withIron Horse TrailConnections © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 28. Phased Framework• Private Developer -- BART PARCELMixed Income ResidentialAdjacent to BART• Private Developer –2nd Mixed Income Project• Major Employer --Expansion for Parking• Parking District ? --Shared Garage(s) forEmployees, Commuters,and Shoppers © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 29. BART SITE – ALLOWABLE DEVELOPMENT MATRIX 40% trip reduction 20% trip reduction Orig. Base/Max. (if supported by traffic (allowed for TOD) study / TOD Data) Office 289,000 s.f. 350,000 s.f. 494,000 s.f. Hotel 200 rooms 240 rooms 280 rooms Retail 15,000 s.f. 25,000 s.f. 25,000 s.f.Or any combination of these uses which does not exceed trip generation.Note: Residential densities allowed (by proposed regulations) create less trip thancommensurate office, retail or hotel uses. PLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 30. PARKING CONFIGURATIONS BART PLATFORM BART PLATFORM ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) BART S NLY BUSE O PLAZA PRIVATE GARAGE LOOP DRIVE HACIENDA IRONH OR PRIVATE GARAGE BART S GATEWAY ET RAIL PARKING PLAZA 1250 SPACES ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) BART S NLY BUSE O OWENS DRIVE PLAZA PRIVATE IRO GARAGE LOOP DRIVE BART NH ORSE TR IRONH PRIVATE AIL HACIENDA ORS GARAGE NEW TRAFFIC GATEWAY ET R PARKING W AL O D R SIGNAL I L I PLAZA 1250 SPACES BART PLATFORM OWENS DRIVE IRONH S NLY BUSE O AC E R AD (MIXED TRAFFIC) C SS O OR BART SE PLAZA TR PRIVATE AIL GARAGE LOOP DRIVE IRO HACIENDA NH ORSET MULTI-USE NEW TRAFFIC W GATEWAY R PARKING O A D R IL SIGNAL L PLAZA I [1250 BART] OWENS DRIVE IRONH OPTION 1: ORSET RAIL NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L I STAND ALONE BART STRUCTURE BART PLATFORM BART PLATFORM Option 1 has a stand alone BART parking structure ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) AC E R AD (MIXED TRAFFIC) C SS O MULTI-USE PARKING BART PLAZA LOOP DRIVE IRO S NLY BUSE O MULTI-USE PARKING [720 BART] and private garages to handle the development. PRIVATE BART PLAZA S NLY BUSE O [530 BART] HACIENDA NH ORS LOOP DRIVE GATEWAY PLAZA ET RAIL GARAGE IRO HACIENDA NH ORSET MULTI-USE GATEWAY PLAZA RAL I PARKING OWENS DRIVE [1250 BART] IRONH ORSET RAIL NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL OWENS DRIVE L I IRONH ORSET RAL IPLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011 I
  • 31. OWENS DRIVE IRONH O PARKING CONFIGURATIONS RSE TR AIL NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L I BART PLATFORM BART PLATFORM ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) BART S NLY BUSE O PLAZA PRIVATE GARAGE LOOP DRIVE HACIENDA IRONH OR PRIVATE GARAGE BART S GATEWAY ET RAIL PARKING PLAZA 1250 SPACES S NLY BUSE O AC E R AD (MIXED TRAFFIC) C SS O BART OWENS DRIVE PLAZA PRIVATE IR GARAGE LOOP DRIVE ONH IRO ORSE TR AIL HACIENDA NH ORSET MULTI-USE GATEWAY NEW TRAFFIC RAL I PARKING W O D R SIGNAL PLAZA L I [1250 BART] BART PLATFORM OWENS DRIVE IRONH AC E R AD (MIXED TRAFFIC) C SS O OR BART S NLY BUSE O SET PLAZA RAL I PRIVATE GARAGE LOOP DRIVE IRO HACIENDA NH OR MULTI-USE NEW TRAFFIC W SET O D R GATEWAY R PARKING SIGNAL L AIL PLAZA I [1250 BART] OWENS DRIVE IRONH ORSET RAIL OPTION 2: NEW TRAFFIC ONE MULTI-USE BART STRUCTURE W O D R SIGNAL L I BART PLATFORM BART PLATFORM Option 2 has one multi-use garage on the eastern MULTI-USE BART PLAZA S NLY BUSE O ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) parcel that includes all of the BART parking and BART S NLY BUSE O ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) MULTI-USE PLAZA additional parking for the private development. BART] PARKING LOOP DRIVE IR MULTI-USE PARKING [720 BART] [530 BART] HACIENDA ONH ORS PARKING LOOP DRIVE GATEWAY PLAZA ET RAIL MULTI-USE PARKING [720 IRO [530 BART] HACIENDA NH OR Option 2 could be developed with a long parking SET GATEWAY RAL I PLAZA OWENS DRIVE IRONH ORSET RAIL structure similar to the design of Option 2. NEW TRAFFIC W OWENS DRIVE O D R SIGNAL L I A multi-use parking structure is a parking garage with separate and dedicated IRONH ORSET RAL IPLEASANTON TOD STANDARDSassociated private development. Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011 parking areas for BART patrons and AND GUIDELINES NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L I © All Rights
  • 32. OWENS DRIVE IRONH PARKING CONFIGURATIONS ORSET RAL I NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L I BART PLATFORM BART PLATFORM ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) BART S NLY BUSE O PLAZA PRIVATE GARAGE LOOP DRIVE HACIENDA IRONH OR PRIVATE GARAGE BART S GATEWAY ET RAIL PARKING PLAZA 1250 SPACES ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) BART S NLY BUSE O OWENS DRIVE MULTI-USE PLAZA PARKING LOOP DRIVE IRONH O IRO MULTI-USE PARKING [720 BART] [530 BART] RSE TR AIL NH HACIENDA ORSET NEW TRAFFIC GATEWAY RAL W O I D R SIGNAL L PLAZA I BART PLATFORM OWENS DRIVE IRONH S NLY BUSE O AC E R AD (MIXED TRAFFIC) C SS O OR BART SET PLAZA RAL PRIVATE I GARAGE LOOP DRIVE IRO HACIENDA NH ORSET MULTI-USE NEW TRAFFIC W GATEWAY R PARKING O D R A SIGNAL L IL PLAZA I [1250 BART] OWENS DRIVE IRONH ORSET RAIL OPTION 3: NEW TRAFFIC TWO MULTI-USE BART STRUCTURES W O D R SIGNAL L I BART PLATFORM Option 3 has two multi-use garages on the eastern MULTI-USE BART PLAZA S NLY BUSE O ACCESS ROAD (MIXED TRAFFIC) and western parcels with the BART parking split PARKING LOOP DRIVE [530 BART] HACIENDA GATEWAY PLAZA IRONH ORSET RAIL MULTI-USE PARKING [720 BART] between the two. The distribution of BART parking in OWENS DRIVE the two structures could change depending on IRONH ORSET RAIL amount and type of private development. NEW TRAFFIC W O D R SIGNAL L I A multi-use parking structure is a parking garage with separate and dedicated parking areasPLEASANTON and associated private development. for BART patrons TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 33. DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS: MIX OF BUILDING TYPESTo provide maximum flexibility within theurban design framework, each parcelcould be developed with office,residential and/or hotel uses. PLEASANTON TOD STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 34. Subsequent Developer Application – Open Space / Retail Plaza © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 35. Retail/Live Work Streetfront © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 36. Live/Work Corner Condition © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 37. But TOD’s Take Many Years To Create ValueRequiring a different approach…To realize that value…In a shorter time frame…Reducing risk and generating returns….. © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 38. Twenty-five Potential TOD Value Capture Mechanisms Transit Local Transit- Property PPP Finance Revenue owned land Taxes Districts Sharing1. Ground/Air 1. Development 1. Benefits 1. Ad valorem 1. Business taxes leases partnerships assessment realty tax & fees2. Land 2. Ownership districts 2. Land-only 2. Parking development dedication 2. Infrastructure tax assessment3. Vertical 3. Route assessment 3. Split rate tax districts Development location districts 4. Vacant/ 3. Capitalized4. Station auction 3. Tax increment Underutilized zoning changes connection 4. Station financing land tax 4. Redevelopment fees location 4. Parking 5. Windfall agency RE auction districts value tax partner 5. Rail 5. Transit 6. Highest and concessions redevelopment best use tax to private districts developer 6. Developer infrastructure provision 7. Quasi-public developer © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 39. Key is to Align Property Owner, Municipal and Transit Agency Interests around Station Districts Transit Local Transit- Property PPP Finance Revenue owned land Taxes Districts Sharing1. Ground/Air 1. Development 1. Benefits 1. Ad valorem 1. Business taxes leases partnerships assessment realty tax & fees2. Land 2. Ownership districts 2. Land-only 2. Parking development dedication 2. Infrastructure tax assessment3. Vertical 3. Route location assessment 3. Split rate tax districts Development auction districts 4. Vacant/ 3. Capitalized4. Station 4. Station 3. Tax increment Underutilized zoning changes connection location financing land tax 4. Redevelopment fees auction 4. Parking 5. Windfall agency RE 5. Rail districts value tax partner concessions to 5. Transit 6. Highest and private redevelopment best use tax developer districts 6. Developer infrastructure provision 7. Quasi-public developer © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 40. Downtown Portland’s Improvement District Funded a Streetcar and Spurred Redevelopment With supplemental funds from an Portland Streetcar improvement district, the Infrastructure Financing redevelopment district has been able Sources ($103M) to fund the streetcar, new Agency developments, parks, streetscapes, land sale and 1,500 units affordable housing Improvement District Government Other TIF Parking district bondsSource: City of Portland; “Portland Streetcar: Development-Oriented Transit”; ”2008 © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 41. Seattle Streetcar Infrastructure Primarily Funded by Property Value Capture Seattle Streetcar Infrastructure Financing Sources ($52M) Government Property No FTA New/Small( Assessment )Starts District City Property SalesSource: http://www.seattlestreetcar.org/ Accessed 2/08/09 © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 42. Dallas TOD TIF Zone Slated to Fund $182M in Corridor-wide Livability Benefits Budgeted Tax Increment North $120 Value capture North generated $100 Tax Increment ($M „09) Livability $80 Benefits Central allocated $60 South Dedicated allocations $40 Central $20 $0 n e e e g on tio on n si n Zo South tr a Z rZ ou ird rs nis ste H da gb le mi a Ce nc ab kin Ad La d c for MoSource: Office of Economic Development; “Dallas TOD TIF Plan;” City of Dallas; 2008 Af © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 43. No One Is Responsible for TOD Strategies Amongst Today’s TOD Players Metro government Local government • Planning & Zoning • Planning & ZoningState • Permitting • Permitting HUD• DOT • Community outreach • Community outreach• Transport funds • Land owner • Land owner • Affordable housing • Affordable housingFTA US Treasury• Formula funds Transit agency Private developer • LIHTC• New Starts • Development • Proposals • NMTC• Small Starts • Land owner • Land assembly • Planning • Entitlements • Construction • Construction • Joint development © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 44. Not-For Profit In Bay Area Working on Station “District Priorities” MTC / ABAG San Leandro + • Planning & Zoning Alameda County State of CA • Permitting East Bay • CalTrans • Planning & Zoning • Community outreach • Permitting Greenway • HCD • Land owner • Transport funds • Community outreach • Affordable housing • Land owner • Affordable housing TransitCommunities.org Representative Local BART / Property Owners Foundations Barbara Lee AC Transit 5 Major Properties • Development • Land assembly • Land owner • Entitlements • Planning • Construction • Construction • Joint development © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011
  • 45. Reframe TOD AssumptionsRe-formulate: the BIG IDEA – TOD Districts that connect community assetsRe-examine: small + incremental infrastructure to improve station access (shuttles, bike lanes, pedestrian crossings, medians)Re-measure: extend beyond the half mileRe-draw: connect destinations, allocate parking to multiple users, and spread out lower, mid and higher densityRe-finance: expand the funding base beyond station areasRe-energize: seek alignment with key employers and coordinate property owners site + building upgradesRe-generate: foster interim activities near transit (food trucks; produce markets; short-term “pop-up” retail) © All Rights Reserved - Fleissig and Carlton - 2011