Territorial expansion

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  • 1. Moving West
  • 2. The International Context for American Expansion
    • In 1815, save for the Louisiana Purchase, Spain held onto most of the trans-Mississippi west.
    • Spanish holdings eventually encompassed present-day Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, California and more. Mexican independence in 1821 gave the new country all of Spain’s holdings.
    • North of California was Oregon Territory, disputed between America and England.
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Early Interest in the West
    • Early settlers sought beaver skins as early as 1811 in the Oregon backcountry.
    • In the Southwest the collapse of the Spanish Empire flooded the region with an assortment of settlers.
    • A few New Englanders settled in California and exploited the sea-otter trade.
    • Many Indians relocated from eastern lands to present-day Oklahoma.
  • 6. Manifest Destiny
    • Phrase coined in 1845 by John L. O’Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review.
    • Expressed conviction that the development of a superior system of government and lifestyle dictated a God-given right of Americans to spread their civilization to the four corners of the continent.
    • Territorial expansion was a mandate of Manifest Destiny.
  • 7.
    • Winning the Trans- Mississippi West
  • 8. Annexing Texas, 1845
    • Mexico feared a hostile takeover of Texas after repeated attempt by the United States to buy the territory.
    • To strengthen border areas, Mexico offered land for reduced costs requiring only that the settlers become Mexican citizens and Catholics.
    • Stephen Austin and many other contractors organized parties of settlers into Texas.
    • Few settlers honored their agreement with Mexico.
    • Texans won their independence from Mexico in 1836 and were annexed by America nine years later.
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. War with Mexico, 1846 - 1848
    • Mexico severed diplomatic ties with America after its annexation of Texas.
    • President Polk failed to appreciate the humiliation of the Mexicans and sent American troops to forestall a potential invasion. Hostilities quickly followed.
    • Debate in Washington simmered as U.S. forces swept into Mexico and took the capital city.
  • 12.  
  • 13. California and New Mexico
    • President Polk communicated that any resolution of the Mexican war would have to include California and New Mexico.
    • The U.S. government, magnanimously attempted to buy the territories from Mexico to no avail.
    • Superior American military strength secured the future states in 1847.
  • 14. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
    • The final treaty between America and Mexico in the era
    • Set the Rio Grande as America’s south border
    • Increased U.S. territory by 529,000 square miles
    • Awarded Mexico $15 million and set terms for Gadsden Purchase of southern Arizona and parts of New Mexico for an additional $10 million
  • 15. The Oregon Question, 1844 - 1846
    • Although disputed by both America and England, President Polk claimed settlement of Americans in the territory as a “presumption of possession.”
    • The British government did not agree but were powerless to stop thousands of settlers migrating to Oregon.
    • Despite slogans and diatribe, Polk was unwilling to fight and sought a diplomatic resolution to the issue.
    • England eagerly accepted Vancouver Island in return for dropping her claims to Oregon.
  • 16.  
  • 17. III. Going West and East
  • 18. The Emigrants
    • Most emigrants to the far West were white and American by birth.
    • Some free blacks also make the six-month overland trip.
    • Most traveled with family and relatives.
    • Only during the Gold Rush years did large numbers of unmarried men travel West independently.
  • 19. Migrants’ Motives
    • Most emigrants sought wealth in the form of gold and silver.
    • Other sought to set up businesses as merchants or land speculators.
    • Some traveled to the warmer climate to restore their health.
    • Others followed the direction of church leaders for religious or cultural missions.
  • 20.  
  • 21. IV. Living in the West
  • 22. Farming in the West
    • New arrivals in the West had to stake a claim and clear the land of obstructions.
    • As they began their farming, the emigrants unconsciously harmed the land by introducing foreign weeds and poor farming techniques.
  • 23. Cities in the West
    • Some emigrants went west for the express purpose of living in a fast-growing city such as San Francisco or Denver.
    • Young, single men made up an overwhelming majority of these urban centers’ populations.
    • Opportunities were always greatest for those who brought significant assets with them from the East.
  • 24. V. Cultures in Conflict
  • 25. Confronting the Plains Tribes
    • Americans moving west were continually shocked by the cultural differences between them and the native tribes along the trails.
    • Problems arose as grazing cattle and indiscriminate buffalo hunting quickly depleted the traditional hunting grounds of the Plains tribes.
    • A chain of American forts was constructed along the major trails to foil Indian interference.
  • 26.  
  • 27.