Civil war 1850's issues.ppt


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Civil war 1850's issues.ppt

  1. 1. The Union in Peril 1850’s USA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Slavery in the Territories </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Wilmot Proviso <ul><li>Amendment added to a congressional appropriations bill prohibiting slavery for ever existing in any territories acquired from Mexico </li></ul>
  4. 4. Popular Sovereignty <ul><li>The idea that individual territories applying for statehood should decide the issue of slavery for themselves. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>California entered the Union as a free state </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial governments were organized in New Mexico and Utah to apply the principle of popular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>A new Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 </li></ul>
  6. 7. Consequences of Compromise <ul><li>Political alignment along party lines grew stronger </li></ul><ul><li>Previously unheard, Americans were now discussing ideals of higher law than the Constitution: succession and disunion </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists stepped up work on the Underground Railroad and several states prohibited elected officials and organizations from participation in slave hunting </li></ul>
  7. 9. II. Political Disintegration
  8. 10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>Stephen Douglas of the Whig party, introduced a bill organizing the Nebraska Territory (which included Kansas) </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners opposed the organization of the territory unless slavery was permitted </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas suggested the application of popular sovereignty to the issue as the entire territory fell north of the Missouri Compromise line </li></ul><ul><li>Issue inflamed all sides of the slavery issue, dragging the country closer to war. </li></ul>
  9. 11. “ Young America” <ul><li>Americans dedicated to the ideals of a nationalistic vision that included slavery and was modeled upon the revolutions of the era in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically interested in the expansion of America into the Latin American continent and the Caribbean </li></ul>
  10. 13. The Know-Nothings <ul><li>Nativist political action party comprised mostly of former Whigs who were dedicated to staunching the tide of foreign immigrants to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>If asked about their affiliation with the group, members were told to respond, “I Know Nothing.” </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Kansas and the Two Cultures </li></ul>
  12. 16. “ Bleeding Kansas” <ul><li>On the eve of the Civil War, militant abolitionist John Brown and a few followers crept into a pro slavery settlement outside of Lawrence, Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>They dragged five men out of their homes and hacked them to death with swords </li></ul><ul><li>This act led to a series of violence in the divided territory </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Polarization and the Road to War </li></ul>
  14. 19. Sectional Splits in the Democratic Party <ul><li>Dred Scott v. Sanford : Supreme Court decision regarding the claims of freedom of a slave that had been transported into a free state. </li></ul><ul><li>The constitutional crisis in Kansas: the pro-slavery Lecompton constitution was created without a mandate from majority of settlers of Kansas; it led to an uncertain status for Kansas and divided the Democrats further </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>The Lincoln-Douglas debates in Illinois: Lincoln’s persuasive debates regarding slavery drew away a substantial chunk of the Democratic party. </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown’s Raids: Still on the lose after the Kansas massacre, John Brown hope to provoke a general uprising of eastern slaves by attacking the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Brown was captured, tried, executed, and eventually became a martyr for the abolitionist/ Unionist cause </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>The Divided House Falls </li></ul>
  17. 23. Secession <ul><li>On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded form the Union; by February, six other Deep South states had followed her lead. </li></ul><ul><li>A week later a delegation met in Montgomery, Alabama to create the Confederacy. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 12, shelling of Fort Sumter signaled the start of the American Civil War. </li></ul>