S-Cube Learning PackageBusiness Transaction Modeling, Analysis, and  Customization Across Service Networks Lero- the Irish...
Learning Package Categorization                       S-Cube                 Business Transaction Language                ...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Background: Service World  Develop an understanding the operations of service networks:   –  Adapt to ever-changing busin...
Background: Service Environment  Complex business interactions  The World is Flat!  Service Science: need to investigat...
Background: Service Science - InteractionView   Unite two disciplines:     –  Service computing     –  Service management...
Background: Defining Service                Science  “Study the application of the resources of one or more systems for t...
Background: Evolution of BusinessTransaction“We	  cannot	  solve	  problems	  by	  using	  the	  same	  kind	  of	  thinki...
Background: ACID – The FourCommandmentsThe	  notion	  of	  transaction	  begun	  with	  four	  commandments..	  	    “	  ...
Background: example of classical ACID transactionA	   transaction	   is	   T	   ={T1,	   T2,	   T3,	   and	   T4	   }	   c...
Background: ACID – is suitable in businesstransaction?      Is	  ACID	  suitable	  for	  Business	  Transaction	  ?	      ...
Background: example of ACID inbusiness transaction                                 © Rafiq & Noel
Background : Definition of BusinessTransaction   A business transaction is a series of collaborative    activities distri...
Background: Example of collaborativeBusiness Transaction                                       © Rafiq & Noel
Background: Characteristics of BusinessTransaction   In a networked               business       environment,          bu...
Background: Correlation betweenbusiness elements and transaction                                    © Rafiq & Noel
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Business Transaction– Requirements  Transaction model that aligns the real-world business   elements so that they can be ...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Research Problem – Scenario 1                                © Rafiq & Noel
Problem Description – Scenario 2                                                                                          ...
Problem Description – Scenario 3                                            Do	  exis1ng	  modeling	  languages	  facilita...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Research Contribution   A Flexible Business Transaction Model that can serve as a blue    print to describe the structura...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Solúbtha – A Flexible BusinessTransaction Model  Solúbtha describes the structural and behavioural aspects of   transacti...
Solúbtha – Conceptual Model                              © Rafiq & Noel
Solúbtha – Overview of Structure   DEFINITION: From structural point of view, Solúbtha transaction    model is a transact...
Solúbtha – Overview of Structure  Connections:   –  Transactions in a G are connected each other through the      links. ...
Solúbtha – Overview of Structure   •  The transaction set T in a TPG can be partitioned into many      subsets S1, S2...Sn...
Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics •  The intersection of subsets in a TPG contains the elements that    belongs to eac...
Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics  A TPG cannot be empty. This can formally be expressed as               TPG(T, L) ≠...
Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics •  The links in a TPG are directed from one transaction    (vertex) to another trans...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations  A TPG may need to be extended and trimmed during the   lifetime of a collaboration. Note...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations  TPG Extension     -  Transaction Addition: A TPG can be extended by adding new        tr...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Pruning Transaction Process Graph  –  Pruning a transaction graph denotes            eli...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Pruning Transaction Process Graph   –  Transactions in TPG should be pruned along with t...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Transaction Replacement in TPG : Transactions in TPG can be replaced   by other transact...
Solúbtha –Structural Operations     -  In transient replacement, a transaction is added without pruning the        existin...
Solúbtha –Overview of Behaviour    Business transaction behavior can be classified into     Flexible and Atomic behavior....
Solúbtha – Eventual Failure AtomicBehaviour                                     © Rafiq & Noel
Business Transaction Language -Overview   Business Transaction Language (BTL) is a declarative    language to model trans...
BTL – Keywords, Operators, andPrimitives                          Business Transaction Language                           ...
Modelling Business Transaction –   Service Network (SN)                                  SLA 2: supplier-3PLSLA 1: supplie...
Modelling Business Transaction –Handshaking(Service Level Agreement) in SN                                        Service ...
Modelling Business Transaction –BPMN Model of End-to-End Transaction                                       © Rafiq & Noel
Modelling Business Transaction –BPMN Model of End-to-End Transaction                   Business                   policy  ...
Modelling Business Transaction –    BPMN Model of End-to-End TransactionAuto Inc.DHL Cargo                                ...
Modelling Business Transaction –BTL Representation                                   © Rafiq & Noel
Modelling Business Transaction – BTLRepresentation                                       © Rafiq & Noel
Modelling Business Transaction – BTLRepresentation                                       © Rafiq & Noel
Business Transaction Architecture                                    © Rafiq & Noel
Service Network  Supports business   transaction, where a   business transaction is   implemented through a   service net...
Service Network Analysis  One of the key concerns centres on the need to visualise   business transactions and model reso...
Value of Service Network  Reporting on the value of service network   relationships is critical   -  Value may be referre...
Social Network Analysis  Set of techniques which studies the   exchange of resources among actors.  Patterns of relation...
Social Network Analysis(Cont.)  Supporting partnership and alliances  Assessing service strategy execution  Improving s...
SNA Graphs  Graphs….  –  mathematical structures used to model relations between     objects.     -  nodes to represent o...
SNA Graphs(Cont.)                      Undirected                      –  to represent (only) symmetric                  ...
Service Network Metrics?Need to compare Graphs with other Graphs  Service networks: Need Graph   Metrics!  Properties of...
Service Network Performance Analytics   Identify issues which may present opportunities or threaten    service sustainabi...
Performance Indicators      Performance Measure                     Explanation   Key Result Indicators (KRIs)   Determine...
Service Network Performance Analytics                                        © Rafiq & Noel
Business Transaction Customisation -Overview   Customisation denotes fine-tuning a generic business    transaction proces...
Business Transaction Customisation –Reference Model                                       © Rafiq & Noel
Business Transaction Customisation –Reference Model   Business transaction customisation reference model    comprises of ...
Business Transaction Customisation –Cloud Based ArchitectureThis work is in progress and therefore we do not provide much ...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Conclusion & Future Works  Business transaction for a large scale end-to-end processes   in collaborative business enviro...
Conclusion & Future Works  Existing transaction models provide minimal flexibility and not able   to encapsulate any busi...
Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  D...
Further ReadingNoel Carroll, Rafiqul Haque, Ita Richardson, and Eoin Whelan: Modeling Business Transaction Across ServiceS...
Further ReadingCarroll, N, and Wang Y., (2011). Service Networks Performance Analytics: A Literature Review. CloudComputin...
Acknowledgements      The research leading to these results has      received funding from the European      Community’s S...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

S-CUBE LP: Business Transaction Modeling, Analysis, and Customization Across Service Networks

735 views
614 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
735
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
156
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

S-CUBE LP: Business Transaction Modeling, Analysis, and Customization Across Service Networks

  1. 1. S-Cube Learning PackageBusiness Transaction Modeling, Analysis, and Customization Across Service Networks Lero- the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre Rafiqul Haque & Noel Carroll www.s-cube-network.eu
  2. 2. Learning Package Categorization S-Cube Business Transaction Language Analysis of Service Network Modeling and Analysis Business Transaction in Service Network © Rafiq & Noel
  3. 3. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  4. 4. Background: Service World  Develop an understanding the operations of service networks: –  Adapt to ever-changing business environment –  Agile Service Networks  Dispersed complex service eco-systems –  Monitoring performance becomes a difficult task.  View a service network as a specific set of linkages –  Set of actors: properties can characterise the linkages which influence service behaviour. –  Modelling service operations and analytics to enhance service requirements –  Need to Introduce: -  Business Transaction Language (BTL) -  Service Network Performance Analytics (SNPA) -  Social Network Analysis (SNA) © Rafiq & Noel
  5. 5. Background: Service Environment  Complex business interactions  The World is Flat!  Service Science: need to investigate the contributory value of business processes and its IT-enabled influence on service performance. –  Exchange of resources –  Application of competences –  Value co-creation through interactions  Technological advances continue to act as a driving force for ‘making new patterns and a new elevated level of value creation possible’ (Normann, 2001; p. 8) –  Need to understand how process patterns influence service performance. © Rafiq & Noel
  6. 6. Background: Service Science - InteractionView   Unite two disciplines: –  Service computing –  Service management   Performance is often influence by external entities causing structural variability across a service eco-system –  Enhance service management decision- making tasks (service management), –  Feed performance information into service requirements engineering (service computing).   Significant gap in our ability to bridge and advance our understanding of technology and management in this so called ‘service-dominant’ business environment. © Rafiq & Noel
  7. 7. Background: Defining Service Science  “Study the application of the resources of one or more systems for the benefit of another system in economic exchange” (Spohrer et al., 2007; p. 2).  Define how and why services generate value.  Four key observations about these disciplines: –  Heavily resource dependent –  Tend to integrate or coordinate resources –  Measuring performance is very important. –  Disciplines incorporate the word “service”, e.g. service engineering.  Develop methods to extend the availability and accessibility of business processes.  Improving manager’s ability to: –  Predict risk –  Estimate their effects –  Reduce uncertainty through modelling value-exchange © Rafiq & Noel
  8. 8. Background: Evolution of BusinessTransaction“We  cannot  solve  problems  by  using  the  same  kind  of  thinking  we  used  when  we  created  them”  –  Einstein       © Rafiq & Noel
  9. 9. Background: ACID – The FourCommandmentsThe  notion  of  transaction  begun  with  four  commandments..      “  You  shall  commit  when  all  other   has  committed  otherwise  you  shall   sacrifice  thyself  ”  -­‐  Atomicity    “  You  shall  not  commit  wrongdoing,   you  shall  maintain  integrity”  –   Consistency    “You  shall  wait  for  other  to  be   completed  first”  –  Isolation   The Tablet of  “You  shall  not  keep  things  unsafe”-­‐   Commandments Durability   © Rafiq & Noel
  10. 10. Background: example of classical ACID transactionA   transaction   is   T   ={T1,   T2,   T3,   and   T4   }   can   be   completed  successfully   only   when   all   of   its   sub-­‐transaction   is   committed  successfully  .   © Rafiq & Noel
  11. 11. Background: ACID – is suitable in businesstransaction? Is  ACID  suitable  for  Business  Transaction  ?   ACID  Burns  Long  Running   Business  Transaction © Rafiq & Noel
  12. 12. Background: example of ACID inbusiness transaction © Rafiq & Noel
  13. 13. Background : Definition of BusinessTransaction   A business transaction is a series of collaborative activities distributed across multiple partners and performed as a single unit of work (in a flexible manner) by accomplishing the commitments agreed upon by the partners.   “Commitments” is the specification of functional and non-functional obligations that guide to achieve the (common) business goals. Formally, it is called Agreement or Contract. © Rafiq & Noel
  14. 14. Background: Example of collaborativeBusiness Transaction © Rafiq & Noel
  15. 15. Background: Characteristics of BusinessTransaction   In a networked business environment, business transactions - –  are performed collaboratively involving multiple participants. –  incorporate real-world business elements such as business and compliance policies, Quality of Services (QoS), critical business activities, and Service Level Agreement (SLA). –  commits independently because they are autonomous. –  are long-running takes days, months or sometime years to complete one transaction cycle. –  prone to failure because they traverse numbers of distributed business resources (applications) hosted at different locations; additionally, service based business is highly dynamic where demands scale up and down erratically.Note: We have extracted these characteristics through extensive analysis on businesscases(some fictitious, some real) taken from [Schimchi-Levi et al.] © Rafiq & Noel
  16. 16. Background: Correlation betweenbusiness elements and transaction © Rafiq & Noel
  17. 17. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  18. 18. Business Transaction– Requirements  Transaction model that aligns the real-world business elements so that they can be defined/designed and realised during processing transactions.  Technique/method/means to support the transactions involving distributed and autonomous applications.  Technique/method/means to support the transactions in various situations including dynamic, variable, and uncertain situations. In other words, handling these situations successfully by avoiding total failure of transactions . © Rafiq & Noel
  19. 19. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  20. 20. Research Problem – Scenario 1 © Rafiq & Noel
  21. 21. Problem Description – Scenario 2 Implementation Independent Can  I  use  any  of  these  technologies  for   BPMN,  ebBPSS,  Lets  Dance    define  proposed  business  transac1on  model  ?   Implementation Specific No,  these  technologies  do  not   BPEL4Chor,  WSCDL   adequately  to  model  business   I  want  to  define  business   transac1on.  Why?   Standard Protocol  transac1on  from     global  perspec1ve         BTP,  WS-­‐AT,  WS-­‐BA  •  Implementation independent languages cover minimal scope of business transactions.•  Implementation specific languages are too complex and do not facilitate specifying transactional properties. Note that, they may allow specifying quality attributes in particular, response time which is a business oriented transactional property.•  Protocols are merely for coordinating business transaction. Coordination is not the specification of business transaction but a runtime activity that manages transactions across multiple partners. © Rafiq & Noel
  22. 22. Problem Description – Scenario 3 Do  exis1ng  modeling  languages  facilitate     Graphical Languages modeling  business  transac1ons  ?   BPMN   Par$ally  yes  but  Completely  No.  Why?   Let’s  Dance   UMM  I  want  to  define/model  business  transac1on  using    Graphical  nota1ons  cause  I  am    expert  in  technologies         •  None of the graphical language facilitates specifying transactional properties but allows specifying some basic properties including processing time and response time. For instance, BPMN has timer event that can be used to specify processing time of an activity in the process. © Rafiq & Noel
  23. 23. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  24. 24. Research Contribution   A Flexible Business Transaction Model that can serve as a blue print to describe the structural and behavioural aspects of transactions in a services network.   Develop a Business Transaction Language (BTL) that: –  Incorporates real-world business entities –  supports granular business process interactions of transactional nature that can address the highly fragmented nature of modern service-based applications that comprise end-to-end composite services. –  supports managing and monitoring service-based applications from a business transaction perspective   A reference model for customising business transactions to adapt dynamic requirements that evolve while a transaction process is running   Modelling the socio-technical dynamics of service environments –  Social Network Analysis –  Actor Network Theory © Rafiq & Noel
  25. 25. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  26. 26. Solúbtha – A Flexible BusinessTransaction Model  Solúbtha describes the structural and behavioural aspects of transactions in a services network.  Structural aspect deals with building the structure of transactions so that the transactions can perform operations in a meaningful and coherent manner.  Behavioural aspect of a business transaction model deals with –  the operations that performed by transactions –  transactional properties that stem from the two very different domains entailing business and system and –  the logical interactions between and among transactions –  the transition of transaction states © Rafiq & Noel
  27. 27. Solúbtha – Conceptual Model © Rafiq & Noel
  28. 28. Solúbtha – Overview of Structure   DEFINITION: From structural point of view, Solúbtha transaction model is a transaction process graph such that TPG = (T,L) where T and L are nonempty sets of finite number of Transactions (vertices) T= {T1...Tn} and Links (edges) L= {L1....Ln}. The figure below is an example of Solúbtha transaction structure. Insurance Seller T3 L1 L6 L4 Customer T5 L2 T1 T2 L3 L5 Bank T4 3rd party Logistics Provider © Rafiq & Noel
  29. 29. Solúbtha – Overview of Structure  Connections: –  Transactions in a G are connected each other through the links. –  The underlying structure of a TPG is similar to wrapped butterfly [Gross & Yellen, 1999] network architecture where each transaction is connected with one to multiple transactions in the model. T3 L1 L8 L7 L4 T1 T5 L2 T2 L6 L3 L5 T4 L9 © Rafiq & Noel
  30. 30. Solúbtha – Overview of Structure •  The transaction set T in a TPG can be partitioned into many subsets S1, S2...Sn that contain elements such that TPG(T,L)= {S{tn,lm} where n≥1 and m≥1. Because of this multiple partitions, the transaction model is also called as multi-partite graph. T3 Subset 1Transaction Set L1 L9 L8 L6 L4 T1 T5 L2 L7 T2 L3 L5 Subset 2 T4 L10 © Rafiq & Noel
  31. 31. Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics •  The intersection of subsets in a TPG contains the elements that belongs to each of the intersected subsets in a graph. This means, one transaction associates or connected with multiple transactions in a TPG. The figure below demonstrates an intersection between two sets S1 and S2 such that T1⋲ S1 ∩ S2 . T3 L1 L9 L8 Subset 1 L6 L4 T1 T5 L2 L7 T2 L3 L5 Subset 2 T4 L10 © Rafiq & Noel
  32. 32. Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics  A TPG cannot be empty. This can formally be expressed as TPG(T, L) ≠⌀•  For a complete graph, a transaction set in a CTG contains transactions associated with links such that a Complete TPG(T,L) = {Tn, Lm} where n≥2 and m ≥1.•  A TPG contain neither open transaction nor open link (an open transaction is defined as a transaction without any link associating it where as Open link refers either head or tail of a link is not connected with any endpoint). This can formally be expressed as TPG(T,L) = (¬Topen ˅ ¬L open) © Rafiq & Noel
  33. 33. Solúbtha – Structural Characteristics •  The links in a TPG are directed from one transaction (vertex) to another transaction in either backward or forward sense. •  The transactions are mutually reachable when the links are in bidirectional (both backward and forward) sense. •  For a complete TPG, each link associates with at least two transactions. This means neither head-point nor tail-point of a link can be null. •  Each link associates utmost two transactions in a TPG. •  TPG may contain self-loop link which joins a transaction by itself. Self-loop indicates that a transaction operations may need to be performed recursively under certain condition. © Rafiq & Noel
  34. 34. Solúbtha –Structural Operations  A TPG may need to be extended and trimmed during the lifetime of a collaboration. Note that the lifetime of a collaboration is determined by the period of the agreement between/among the partners that is, Collaboration Lifetime = (Expiry Date – Starting Date)of the agreement .  Transactions in a TPG may also need to be replaced to optimise the performance or to avoid the failures of transactions in uncertain conditions.  Three operators including add, prune, and replace are used to perform extension and pruning of TPG and replacement of transactions in a TPG. © Rafiq & Noel
  35. 35. Solúbtha –Structural Operations  TPG Extension -  Transaction Addition: A TPG can be extended by adding new transactions such that, extended TPG(T,L) = {TTPG, LTPG} ∪ {T’TPG} -  The newly added transactions should be connected using links with the pre-existing transactions in a TPG to ensure that it is reachable to the pre-existing transactions in the graph. Thus, adding transactions requires adding links in the graph as well. This can formally expressed TPG(T,L) = {TTPG, LTPG} ∪ {L’ TPG} -  In some cases, all the pre-existing transactions in a TPG may require to be connected with the added transaction. -  Sometimes, one to many pre-existing transaction in a TPG may require to be connected with the added transaction but not all. © Rafiq & Noel
  36. 36. Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Pruning Transaction Process Graph –  Pruning a transaction graph denotes eliminating transactions and links from the graph. –  A transaction may need to be pruned from a TPG for different reasons such as transaction has failed to satisfy expected service level. –  Pruning a transaction from a TPG means pruning the whole process and/or an organisation from the collaboration as well as the network. –  A transaction can be forced by other transactions to be pruned permanently from a TPG. We call it force pruning. © Rafiq & Noel
  37. 37. Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Pruning Transaction Process Graph –  Transactions in TPG should be pruned along with their associative links because TPG does not allow any open link in the graph. The key idea is similar to dead path elimination. Pr(TTPG,LTPG) = [Pr(TTPG) ˄ Pr(LTPG)] ˄ ¬[Pr(TTPG)] –  A link can be pruned without pruning a transaction that it associates. The can be formally expressed as Pr (TTPG,LTPG) = Pr (LTPG) –  A link cannot be pruned without adding another link if it is the only link associating a transaction in a TPG. © Rafiq & Noel
  38. 38. Solúbtha –Structural Operations  Transaction Replacement in TPG : Transactions in TPG can be replaced by other transactions. There are two types of replacement: –  Permanent Replacement: A transaction in a TPG can be replaced permanently by another transaction. This requires pruning and adding transactions and links in the graph simultaneously, PR(TTPG, LTPG) = [Pr(TTPG,LTPG) ˄ ADD(TTPG,LTPG)] ˄ ¬[Pr(TTPG,LTPG) ˅ ADD(TTPG,LTPG)]˄ ˄ ¬[ADD(TTPG)˅(LTPG)] ¬[Pr(TTPG)˅(LTPG)] –  Transient Replacement: A transaction in a TPG can be replaced temporarily for a specific instance or to deal with uncertain events, PR(TTPG, LTPG) = ADD(TTPG,LTPG) ˄ ¬Pr(TTPG,LTPG) ˄ ¬ [ADD(TTPG)˅( ADD(LTPG)] © Rafiq & Noel
  39. 39. Solúbtha –Structural Operations -  In transient replacement, a transaction is added without pruning the existing transaction that implies the former one still exist in the graph. -  The former transaction delegates its operations to the transient one; this implies the former transaction becomes inactive while the transient one is active. © Rafiq & Noel
  40. 40. Solúbtha –Overview of Behaviour   Business transaction behavior can be classified into Flexible and Atomic behavior.   Atomic behavior relies on “all or nothing principle”. Flat and Closed Nested transaction models adheres this principle.   Flexible behavior relies on “all vital or nothing”.   To achieve flexibility we extend the semantics of classical atomicity and isolation properties to the followings: –  Eventual Failure Atomicity –  Relaxed Isolation © Rafiq & Noel
  41. 41. Solúbtha – Eventual Failure AtomicBehaviour © Rafiq & Noel
  42. 42. Business Transaction Language -Overview   Business Transaction Language (BTL) is a declarative language to model transactions at design-time.   BTL describes what to implement not how to implemented   It facilitates specifying transactional properties derive from business elements.   It comprises of constructs of three perspectives including business, functional and technical.   It is platform agnostic language, which means the model defined in BTL can be implemented regardless the type of platform that integrate specific technologies.   BTL facilitates interoperable transaction fragments because it is lingua-franca XML based language. © Rafiq & Noel
  43. 43. BTL – Keywords, Operators, andPrimitives Business Transaction Language Keywords Logical Operators precede,  succeed,  SplitOrder,  jointOrder,   AND, OR, EOR AnyOrder,  Boolean,  check,  require,  composite,   atomic,  trigger,  jumpTo,  transient,  permanent,   local,  global,  hard,  soR,  con1ngent,  vital,   nonVital,  compensa1ng,  loca1on,  route,  means,   delegateTo, refundTo,  returnTo,  payTo,   deliverTo,  shipTo   Primitives for coordinating BT at runtime Commit , Cancel, Wait, Retry, Suspend, Postpone, Ignore, Penalize, Delegate, Return, Terminate, Resize © Rafiq & Noel
  44. 44. Modelling Business Transaction – Service Network (SN) SLA 2: supplier-3PLSLA 1: supplier-retailer © Rafiq & Noel
  45. 45. Modelling Business Transaction –Handshaking(Service Level Agreement) in SN Service Level Agreement/ Master Service Level Agreement © Rafiq & Noel
  46. 46. Modelling Business Transaction –BPMN Model of End-to-End Transaction © Rafiq & Noel
  47. 47. Modelling Business Transaction –BPMN Model of End-to-End Transaction Business policy T8 = Payment Confirmation Retailer Auto Inc. Quality of Business Service Delivery Security policy Quality of policy Lead Time is 2 Payment must Service days be Payment must acknowledged be acknowledged within 24 hours T6 = Delivery Processing T7 = Payment Processing © Rafiq & Noel
  48. 48. Modelling Business Transaction – BPMN Model of End-to-End TransactionAuto Inc.DHL Cargo © Rafiq & Noel
  49. 49. Modelling Business Transaction –BTL Representation © Rafiq & Noel
  50. 50. Modelling Business Transaction – BTLRepresentation © Rafiq & Noel
  51. 51. Modelling Business Transaction – BTLRepresentation © Rafiq & Noel
  52. 52. Business Transaction Architecture © Rafiq & Noel
  53. 53. Service Network  Supports business transaction, where a business transaction is implemented through a service networks. -  For example: a service network that delivers a mortgage service  A service eco-system is a collection of service networks – equal to a group of business networks © Rafiq & Noel
  54. 54. Service Network Analysis  One of the key concerns centres on the need to visualise business transactions and model resource exchange.  Another Approach: Social Network Analysis (SNA)  Service Network Performance Analytics -  Service Dynamics Analysis: key focus in service science (Lero@UL)  Interaction supports performance -  Networks produce patterns which present service blueprint –  Analyse what transactional patterns tell us about service structures•  Q: How does service structure impact on performance?•  Developing Service Network Performance Analytics -  Service Network Metrics -  Evaluation Framework © Rafiq & Noel
  55. 55. Value of Service Network  Reporting on the value of service network relationships is critical -  Value may be referred to as “the adaptability and survivability of the beneficiary system” (Vargo et al. 2008; p.148). -  Determine service value through relational exchanges  Loosely coupled value proposing social, technological, and economic actors interacting across service eco-systems: 1.  Co-produce service offerings 2.  Exchange service offerings, and 3.  Co-create service value © Rafiq & Noel
  56. 56. Social Network Analysis  Set of techniques which studies the exchange of resources among actors.  Patterns of relations among nodes -  people, groups, organisations, or information systems, etc.  Demonstrates the value of ties and relationships  Mathematical representation of interaction and exchanges which influence behaviour. -  Deeper insight of how structural regularities influence behaviour © Rafiq & Noel
  57. 57. Social Network Analysis(Cont.)  Supporting partnership and alliances  Assessing service strategy execution  Improving strategic decision –  Accessing ASN  Integrating networks across core processes -  promote innovation  BTL can benefit from the application of SNA -  Support BTL to discover business process dynamic behaviour while identifying where strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and/ or threats lie across a service network using SNA concepts. -  Provide valuable insight on the operating status of a service network and determine whether change may be required -  SNA allows us to graphically capture service interaction © Rafiq & Noel
  58. 58. SNA Graphs  Graphs…. –  mathematical structures used to model relations between objects. -  nodes to represent objects (actors) -  edges to express relations (communication paths) © Rafiq & Noel
  59. 59. SNA Graphs(Cont.)   Undirected –  to represent (only) symmetric relations   Directed –  to represent asymmetric (directed) and symmetric relations   Weighted –  to represent intensities, distances or costs of relations © Rafiq & Noel
  60. 60. Service Network Metrics?Need to compare Graphs with other Graphs  Service networks: Need Graph Metrics!  Properties of graphs to compare  Static graphs –  graph properties at a given point in time (snapshot)  Dynamic graphs –  graph properties observed over a period of time (i.e., service evolution) © Rafiq & Noel
  61. 61. Service Network Performance Analytics   Identify issues which may present opportunities or threaten service sustainability. –  SWOT-like analysis (strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) of the service environment –  Adopting the balanced scorecard critical success factors; financial results, customer satisfaction, learning and growth, internal processes, staff satisfaction, and community and environment.   Freeing up resources to develop value-added information is critical to managerial activities (e.g. rapid decision making and execution). © Rafiq & Noel
  62. 62. Performance Indicators Performance Measure Explanation Key Result Indicators (KRIs) Determine how service has performed in the past, for example, sales last month. Performance indicators (PIs) Inform what you ought to do. Key Performance Indicators Prescribes what you ought to do to (KPIs) increase performance. © Rafiq & Noel
  63. 63. Service Network Performance Analytics © Rafiq & Noel
  64. 64. Business Transaction Customisation -Overview   Customisation denotes fine-tuning a generic business transaction process to be reused to satisfy special requirements.   The key purpose of customising business transaction is to optimize the transaction performance by adding required attributes that are extracted through analysis.   Customisation of business transaction model lessen development cost and effort.   It enhance reusability business transaction.   Having the ability of customising business transaction at runtime enables a system to adapt dynamic environment. © Rafiq & Noel
  65. 65. Business Transaction Customisation –Reference Model © Rafiq & Noel
  66. 66. Business Transaction Customisation –Reference Model   Business transaction customisation reference model comprises of two layers namely Transaction-view Segmentation Layer and Transaction Customization layer.   Transaction-view segmentation layer consists of task view, control view, quality view, and policy view.   A generic transaction process is segregated in views at transaction-view segmentation layer.   Tailoring of a transaction process is carried out at customisation layer in three phases that produces three solutions including meta-reference, reference , and final solution. © Rafiq & Noel
  67. 67. Business Transaction Customisation –Cloud Based ArchitectureThis work is in progress and therefore we do not provide much details about how to link this architecture with transaction architecture. © Rafiq & Noel
  68. 68. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  69. 69. Conclusion & Future Works  Business transaction for a large scale end-to-end processes in collaborative business environment is highly complex.  The classical ACID principles for business transaction is decidedly not suitable and thus, models that rely on ACID cannot be employed for business transactions.  Business transactions need greater flexibility to sustain all potential failures.  Business requirements also should be realised while executing transaction, thus transaction models should involve real-world business elements. © Rafiq & Noel
  70. 70. Conclusion & Future Works  Existing transaction models provide minimal flexibility and not able to encapsulate any business data so that the runtime engine can realise those data.  This research propose a transaction model named Solúbtha which intertwined business elements with transaction model.  Solúbtha facilitates designing a transaction not only from application perspective but also from business perspective which leads better monitoring of business level performance indicators along with process performance indicators at runtime.  To define the model, this research proposes an XML based language named business transaction language.  Employ SNA to examine BTL developments. © Rafiq & Noel
  71. 71. Learning Package Outline  Background  Business transaction – Requirements  Research Problem  Research Contribution  Discussion  Conclusion & Future Works  Further Reading © Rafiq & Noel
  72. 72. Further ReadingNoel Carroll, Rafiqul Haque, Ita Richardson, and Eoin Whelan: Modeling Business Transaction Across ServiceSupply Chain Network. 20th International Conference on Information System Development(ISD), 2011.Edinburgh, Scotland.Francois Hantry, Mike P. Papazoglou, Willem-Jan van den Heuvel, Rafique Haque, Eoin Whelan, Noel Carroll,Dimka Karastoyanova, Frank Leymann, Christos Nikolaou, Winfried Lamersdorf, Mohand-Said Hacid:Business Process Management. Service Research Challenges and Solutions for the Future Internet:Towards Mechanisms and Methods for Engineering, Managing, and Adapting Service-Based Systems.Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2010. pp: 27-54Yehia Taher, Rafiqul Haque, Michael Parkins, Ita Richardson, Eoin Whelan, and Willem-jan van den Heuvel. AMulti-Layer Approach for Customizing Business Services. 12th International Conference on ElectronicCommerce and Web Technologies(ECWEB,2011) Toulouse, France. 20th May, 2011. Status: Acceptedbut yet to be published.Carroll, N., Whelan, E., and Richardson, I., (2011). Exploring the Implications of IT-enabled RelationalStructures on Service Performance, Understanding Complex Services through Different LensesConference, Cambridge Service Alliance Group, University of Cambridge, EnglandCarroll, N., Whelan, E. and Richardson, I., (2010). Applying Social Network Analysis to Discover ServiceInnovation within Agile Service Networks, Journal of Service Science, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp. 225-244 © Rafiq & Noel
  73. 73. Further ReadingCarroll, N, and Wang Y., (2011). Service Networks Performance Analytics: A Literature Review. CloudComputing and Service Science Conference (CLOSER 2011), Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands.Carroll, N., Richardson, I., and Whelan, E., (2011). Service Science: Introducing The Need For PerformanceAnalytics for Service Networks Evolution, Cloud Computing and Service Science Conference (CLOSER2011), Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands.Carroll, N., Whelan, E. and Richardson, I., (2010). Understanding the Value of Business ProcessConfiguration. 3rd International Conference on Business Process and Service Computing (BPSC2010),Leipzig, Germany, September 27-28.Carroll, N., Whelan, E., and Richardson, I., (2010). The Discovery of Agile Service Networks through the Useof Social Network Analysis, International Conference of Service Science (ICSS2010). May 13-14, 2010,Hangzhou, China.Carroll, N., Richardson, I., Whelan, E., (2010). Applying Social Network Analysis to Monitor Web-enabledBusiness Processes. 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies(WEBIST), Valencia, Spain, April 7-10.Carroll, N., Whelan, E. and Richardson, I., (2010). Application of Social Network Analysis to Service NetworksPerformance Analytics: A Literature Review. Lero Technical Report (Lero-TR-2010-06), University ofLimerick, December 2010. © Rafiq & Noel
  74. 74. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement 215483 (S-Cube). © Rafiq & Noel

×