The Future of Freedom, Fareed Zakaria
Chapter 1, “A Brief History of Human Liberty”
Introduction
Zakaria’s Question: Histo...
b. What was the “gaping hole” in Roman law regarding individual
freedom?
-------------------------------------------------...
5. Lords and Kings
a. How did Europe’s geography contribute to a “distinctive feature of
European feudalism” – that its gr...
6. Rome Versus Reform
a. Explain why the Reformation in Europe (1517 – 1648) happened.
b. What did all Protestant sects ha...
b. The English exception (actually the Dutch and the English exception)
(1) By 1688, which group won control power in Engl...
(5) Enterprising nobles (especially in the Netherlands and England)
(6) Enterprising men below the “great nobles’.
c. Who ...
Part II: Is Culture Destiny?
1. “Is culture destiny”? What is this question asking?
2. How does Zakaria answer the questio...
c. Today, all of the economically thriving nations of East Asia still have
problems with corruption (except amazing Singap...
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Future of freedom farid zakaria

  1. 1. The Future of Freedom, Fareed Zakaria Chapter 1, “A Brief History of Human Liberty” Introduction Zakaria’s Question: Historically, what was the relationship between liberty and democracy in the West? What unique historical circumstances produced the emphasis on personal liberty in the West? (p.29-30) Zakaria’s Thee Part Answer: 1. “… liberty came to the West centuries before democracy. Liberty led to democracy and not the other way around.” 2. “Liberty in the West was born of a series of power struggles,” and these struggles “produced greater and greater pressures for individual liberty.” 3. Liberty increasingly meant restraining the powers of the state by securing the rights and liberties of individuals. (p.31) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Study Guide Questions Part I: A series of power struggles 1. Why does Zarakia argue that Constantine’s shift of his capital from Rome to Constantinople in 342 CE opened the door to liberty in Western Europe (and, consequently, limited liberty in Eastern Europe)? 2. Liberty, Old and New a. According to Zakaria, what role in creating personal liberty in the west was played by? Greek Democracy The Roman Republic and later, the Roman Empire
  2. 2. b. What was the “gaping hole” in Roman law regarding individual freedom? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. The Paradox of Catholicism a. Why is the Medieval Catholic Church “an odd place to begin the story of liberty”? b. Odd or not, how did the Medieval Catholic Church begin the western evolution toward modern liberty? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4. The Geography of Freedom a. Explain two ways in which Europe’s geography contributed to the rise of liberty in the west. (1) (2) (b) How has Africa’s geography contributed to its relative slowness in developing modern economic and political systems?
  3. 3. 5. Lords and Kings a. How did Europe’s geography contribute to a “distinctive feature of European feudalism” – that its great landowning classes were independent” [from feudal monarchs]? b. Describe powers that European feudal Lords had that feudal Lords in other parts of the world between 500 CE and 1500 CE lacked (Japanese feudal Lords were an exception.) (1) War obligations (2) Rights (3) Representative bodies c. Describe the special case of England between 1150 and 1250: (1) Attempts to centralize by Henry II (2) the Magna Carta -- resistance to centralization by the English aristocracy.
  4. 4. 6. Rome Versus Reform a. Explain why the Reformation in Europe (1517 – 1648) happened. b. What did all Protestant sects have in common (despite theological disagreements with one another)? What did they all fight for? c. How did the Reformation lead directly to the European Scientific Revolution? d. What “revolutionary” ideas were contained within the Peace of Westphalia (1648)? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7. The Enlightened State a. How did so-called Absolute Monarchs triumph in most of Europe after the Peace of Westphalia (1648)? Why did they triumph? [Not in the reading]
  5. 5. b. The English exception (actually the Dutch and the English exception) (1) By 1688, which group won control power in England (explain). (2) In his book, The Spirit of the Laws, why did Montesquieu admire 17th century British government? Was Montesquieu’s description of 17th century British government accurate? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8. The Consequences of Capitalism: Liberty and the Propertied Classes a. According to Zakaria, which force for individual liberty “blew the walls down” against the forces of inherited privilege? b. Briefly explain the role of each of the following in the gradual development of capitalism in early modern Europe. (1) Science applied to agriculture (2) Sophisticated bookkeeping and Arabic numbers. (3) Professional banking (4) An effective government which protected property rights.
  6. 6. (5) Enterprising nobles (especially in the Netherlands and England) (6) Enterprising men below the “great nobles’. c. Who were the English gentry who dominated the House of Commons after the Glorious Revolution (1688)? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10. Anglo-American a. According to observers of the time, which members of society did the 18th century British government cultivate? Which did the 18th century French government cultivate? b. Why was it even easier for the American English colonies then for England itself to cultivate a “middle class” world? What did the French visitor, Tocqueville, comment about the US days after arriving in 1831? c. Which came first in the west and especially in England and the US, individual liberty or democracy? Explain.
  7. 7. Part II: Is Culture Destiny? 1. “Is culture destiny”? What is this question asking? 2. How does Zakaria answer the question – “Is culture destiny”? 3. The East Asian Model a. What did James Madison list as the two essential attributes of good government? (1) (2) b. What sequence of policies did all the current economically thriving nations of East Asia follow after WWII? (1) First (2) Second (and most importantly) (3) Last
  8. 8. c. Today, all of the economically thriving nations of East Asia still have problems with corruption (except amazing Singapore). How different is the existence of this corruption in East Asia with the history of the US? 4. The title of Zakaria’s book is The Future of Democracy – Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad a. What might Zakaria mean by “illiberal democracy”? b. The Future of Freedom was first published in 2003. What international events in 2003 might explain why Zakaria was motivated to write this book?
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