SHERWOOD COLLEGE OF PROFESSIONAL
A SUMMER TRANING REPORT
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR’S OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:Dr. Rajneesh Srivastava
SUBMITTED BY:ABHISHEK KUSHWAHA
ROLL NO:- 11072101002
I consider myself very fortunate to get the opportunity to conduct the training
approval and project assignment by BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
(BSNL). I got opportunity to get a practical exposure into actual environment and it
provides me the golden opportunity to make my theoretical concept of Recruitment
and selection process in a more clear way.
I am very much thankful to MR. J.P Tiwari for providing me the opportunity
to do the training in the BSNL. Also, thankful to all the officials at BSNL for their
cooperation during my training for providing me necessary information without
which this project report would not have been completed.
I have gone through various sites, Research Books, Magazines and
Newspapers to get the accurate information for analysis and tried to find the best
(BBA Vth SEM)
Summer training is the most vital part of an BBA course, both as a link between
theory and actual industrial practices as well as an opportunity for hands on
experience in corporate environment. I therefore, consider myself fortunate to
receive the training in an esteemed organization viz. Bharat Sanchar Nigam
Limited. Yet the opportunity could not have been utilized without the guidance
and support of many individuals who although held varied positions, but were
equally instrument for although completion of my summer training.
Dr. Rajneesh Srivastava and also thanks to all my faculty members and
my Parents and friends. However, I accept the sole responsibility errors of omission
and would be extremely grateful to readers of this project report if they bring such
mistake to my notice.
(BBA Vth SEM)
Most organizations have a performance appraisal (PA) program that has
evolved over time and is likely not meeting the needs of employees and
Many competing PA theories and practices exist making development of an
effective program difficult. However, done well, a strong PA program
reinforces organizational culture and helps employees achieve high levels of
An effective PA program can improve key business measures such as Return
on Assets, Return on Equity, profit margins and earnings.
Every strong PA program has three elements: performance tracking, informal
feedback, and formal appraisal.
Build on these three elements to customize your program to your
organization‟s goals and values:
o Informal coaching is the single most significant factor in easing
retention and developing talent.
o Forced ranking and forced distribution are techniques that work well in
competitive environments. Avoid them in team-based departments.
o 360-degree evaluations help to improve people management abilities.
Stay away from using them for manager compensation or disciplinary
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
CHAIRMAN & DIRECTOR-RAJESH KUMAR UPADHYAY
19TH CENTURY, INCORPRATED IN 2000
COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDER
OVERVIEW OF THE BSNL:
BSNL is India's oldest and largest Communication Service Provider (CSP).
Currently BSNL has a customer base of 64.8 million (Basic & Mobile
telephony). It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of
Mumbai and New Delhi which are managed by MTNL. As on March 31, 2007
BSNL commanded a customer base of 33.7 million Wire line, 3.6 million
CDMA-WLL and 27.5 million GSM Mobile subscribers. BSNL's earnings for
the Financial Year ending March 31, 2006 stood at INR 401.8b (US$ 9.09 b)
with net profit of INR 89.4b (US$ 2.02 billion). Today, BSNL is India's largest
Telco and one of the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the country
with authorized share capital of US$ 3.95 billion (INR 17,500 Crore)
and net worth of US$ 14.32 billion.
1.3 PROFILE OF ORGANISATION:
OVER VIEWS OF ORGANISATION
HISTORY:The foundation of Telecom Network in India was laid by the British sometime in
19th century. The history of BSNL is linked with the beginning of Telecom in India.
In 19th century and for almost entire 20th century, the Telecom in India was
operated as a Government of India wing. Earlier it was part of erstwhile Post &
Telegraph Department (P&T). In 1975 the Department of Telecom (DoT) was
separated from P&T. DoT was responsible for running of Telecom services in entire
country until 1985 when Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was
carved out of DoT to run the telecom services of Delhi and Mumbai. It is a well
known fact that BSNL was carved out of Department of Telecom to provide level
playing field to private telecoms. Subsequently in 1990s the telecom sector was
opened up by the Government for Private investment, therefore it became necessary
to separate the Government's policy wing from Operations wing. The Government
of India corporatized the operations wing of DoT on October 01, 2000 and named it
as Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).BSNL operates as a public sector.
“MAIN SERVICES BEING PROVIDED BY BSNL”
BSNL provides almost every telecom service, however following are the main
Telecom Services being provided by BSNL in India:1. UNIVERSAL TELECOM SERVICES: Fixed wire line services &
Wireless in Local loop (WLL) using CDMA Technology called bfone and
Tarang respectively. BSNL is dominant operator in fixed line. As on March
31, 2007 (end of financial year) BSNL had 76% share of fixed and WLL
2. CELLULAR MOBILE TELEPHONE SERVICES: BSNL is major
provider of Cellular Mobile Telephone services using GSM platform under
brandname Cellone. Pre-paid Cellular services of BSNL are know as Excel.
As on March 31, 2007 BSNL had 17% share of mobile telephony in the
3. INTERNET: BSNL is providing internet as dial-up connection (Sancharnet)
and ADSL-Broadband Data one. BSNL has around 50% market share in
broadband in India. BSNL has planned aggressive rollout in broadband for
current financial year.
4. Intelligent Network (IN): BSNL is providing IN services like televoting, toll
free calling, premium calling etc.
BSNL PRESENT & FUTURE
Since its corporatisation in October 2000, BSNL has been actively providing
Connections in both Urban and Rural areas and the efficiency of the company has
drastically improved from the days when one had to wait for years to get a phone
connection to now when one can get a connection in even hours. Pre-activated
Mobile connections are available at many places across India. BSNL has
alsounveiled very cost-effective Broadband internet access plans (DataOne)
targetedat homes and small businesses. At present BSNL enjoy's 47% of market
share of ISP services.
Year of Broadband 2007
Former Indian Communications Minister Thiru Dayanidhi Maran had declared year
2007 as "Year of Broadband" in India and BSNL is gearing up to provide 5 million
Broadband connectivity by the end of 2007. BSNL has upgraded existing Dataone
(Broadband) connections for a speed of up to 2 Mbit/s without any extra cost. This
2 Mbit/s broadband service is being provided by BSNL at a cost of just US$ 5.5 per
month. Further, BSNL is planning to upgrade its broadband services to Triple play
(telecommunications) in 2007.
BSNL has been asked to add 108 million customers by 2010 by Former Indian
Communications Minister Thiru Dayanidhi Maran. With the frantic activity in the
communication sector in India, the target appears achievable, however due to
intense competition in Indian Telecom sector in recent past BSNL's growth has
BSNL is pioneer of Rural Telephony in India. BSNL has recently bagged 80% of
US$ 580 m (INR 2,500 crores) Rural Telephony project of Government of India.
CHALLENGES:During Financial Year 2007-2008 (From April 01, 2006 to March 31, 2007)
BSNL has added 9.6 million new customers in various telephone services taking its
customer base to 64.8 million. BSNL's nearest competitor Bharti Airtel is standing
at a customer base of 39 million. However, despite impressive growth shown by
BSNL in recent times, the fixed line customer base of BSNL is declining. In order
to woo back its fixed-line customers BSNL has brought down long distance calling
rate under One India plan, however, the success of the scheme is not known.
However, BSNL faces bleak fiscal 2006-2007 as users flee, which has been
accepted by the CMD BSNL.
Presently there is an intense competition in Indian Telecom sector and various
Telco‟s are rolling out attractive schemes and are providing good customer services.
However, BSNL being legacy operator and its conversion from a Government
Department earns lot of criticism for its poor customer service. Although in recent
past there have been tremendous improvement in working of BSNL but still it is
much below the Industry's Expectations. A large aging (average age 49 years
(appx)) workforce (300,000 strong), which is mostly semiliterate or illiterate is the
main reason for the poor customer service. Further, the Top management of BSNL
is still working in BSNL on deputation basis holding Government employee status
thus having little commitment to the organisation. Although in coming years the
retirement profile of the workforce is very fast and around 25% of existing
workforce will retire by 2010, however, still the workforce will be quite large by
the industry standards. Quality of the workforce will also remain an issue.
Access Deficit Charges (ADC, a levy being paid by the private operators to BSNL
for provide service in non-lucrative areas especially rural areas) has been slashed by
37% by TRAI, w.e.f. April 01, 2007. The reduction in ADC may hit the bottom-line
• To become the largest telecom Service Provider.
To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its
Customers on demand at competitive prices.
To Provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to
Contribute to the growth.
OBJECTIVE: MP Telecom looks over the management, control and operation of the
network with the following aims and objective
To build a high degree of customer confidence by sustaining quality and
reliability in service.
To upgrade the quality of telecom service to international level.
Provision of telephone connections on demand in all the villages of M.P.
Expansion of new services like Internet, Intelligent Network, ISDN, Internet
Telephony, Video Conferencing, Broadband etc.
Popularize Broadband Services and to be on-demand in the whole State.
Expansion of Cellular Mobile Telephone to all towns.
To open Internet Kiosks (Cafe's) at all Block Head Quarters.
To improve the quality of present services being given to the subscribers.
To open more Customer Service Centers and upgrade the existing Customer
Service Centers for better and friendly Customer care.
Modernize PSTN network by making RSUs & AN-RAX.
Plantation of Trees to make environment Clean & Green.
To raise necessary financial resources for its developmental needs.
To increase accessibility of services, by providing a large number of Local
NSD/ISD Public Call Offices (PCOs) so as to reach out to the masses.
• BSNL LANDLINE
• BSNL MOBILE
_ UNIFIED MESSAGING
• BSNL WLL
• INTERNET SERVICES
_ CO-LOCATION SERVICE
_ BSNL WEB HOSTING
_ DIAL UP INTERNET
_ SMS& BULK SMS
• BSNL BROADBAND
• BSNL MANAGED NETWORK SERVICES
• BSNL MPLS-VPN
• LEASED LINE
• INTELLIGENT NETWORK
_ FREE PHONE SERVICE
_ PREMIUM RATE SERVICE
_ INDIA TELEPHONE CARD
_ VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)
_ VOICE VPN
_ UNIVERSAL NUMBER
_ UNIVERSAL PERSONAL NUMBER
_ TELE VOTING
• VIDEO CONFERENCING
• AUDIO CONFERENCING
• TELEX/ TELEGRAPH
_ FREE EPABX
(Strength / Weakness/ Opportunities / Threats)
The telecom sector is poised for continued high growth and our company is well
placed to benefit from this phenomenon. BSNL is the largest telecom operator
providing all kind of telecom services throughout the country. The widest network
reach of the company is its USP.
BSNL being Government Company has no any major weakness in the business.
Having biggest infrastructure
provider it is easy for company to enter into any
area. BSNL has vast range of product as well as better infrastructure it makes the to
deal with any kind of customer.
Dealing in urban area
now it has also
opportunities in rural area.
The company operates in an industry, which is highly competitive and faces intense
Competition from other service provider, who enjoy certain advantages in their
Procurement as well as in selection of technology.
BSNL have several regional offices to localize
its operations in India
GROWTH PLAN OF BSNL
BSNL's future plan include a fast expansion programme of increasing the present
93 million lines to twice that number by 2009 and some 120 million lines by 2010.
The shift in demand from voice to data domination, and from wire line to wireless,
has revolutionized the very nature of the network. BSNL has already set in place
several measures that should enable it to evolve into a fully integrated multioperator by 2009 and its incumbent status, size, infrastructure and human resource
should certainly, give it a distinct advantage.
Consolidation of the network and maintaining high quality of service comparable to
International standards is the key aim of the Growth Plan. Objective of the plan are:
The telephone connection shall be provided on demand and it shall be sustained.
The Network shall be made fully digital. All the technologically obsolete analog
exchanges will be replaced with digital exchanges.
To provide digital transmission links up to all SDCAs.
Digital connectivity shall be made available to all the exchanges by 2007-09
Extensive use of Optical fiber System in the local, Junction and long distance
network so as to make available sufficient bandwidth for the spread of Internet
and Information technology.
ISDN services shall be extended to all the district headquarters, subject to
To provide Intelligent Network Services, progressively all over the country
(major cities have already been covered).
To set up Internet Nodes progressively up to District headquarters level.
Upgrading existing STD/ISD PCOs to full fledged Public Tele-Info Centers (PTIC)
for supporting Multi media capability and Internet Access
Management Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the evaluating
the behavior of employees Performance appraisal or merit rating is one of the
oldest and most universal practices of in the work spot, Normally including both
the quantitative and qualitative
aspects of job performance. Performance
appraisal can be an effective instrument for helping people grow and develop in
organizational setting. Through a Well organized appraisal system. An employee
can create learning spaces for himself in an organization.
Effectively practiced and development oriented performance appraisal &
Review system, substantially contribute to the organization health. Organization
cannot do away with PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. Some form of assessment
of performance on a continuing basis is essential for survival as well as growth of
an organization. If and develop yardsticks to measure it, if you want to improve
performance. The performer has to be able to understand it.
Performance appraisal is a systematic appraisal of the employee‟s personality
traits and performance on the job and is designed to determine his contribution and
relative worth to the firm.
A formal definition of performance appraisal is that, it is the systematic evolution of
the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her
potential for development
“Performance appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and
evaluating an employee’s job, related behaviors and out comes to discover how
and why the employee is presently performing on the job an how the employee
can perform effectively in the future so that the employee, organization and
society all benefit.”
Under performance appraisal, we evaluate not only the performance of a worker
but also his potential for development.
COMPONENTS OF APPRAISAL EVALUATION
As we have seen performance evolutions can be made a verity of reasonscounseling, promotion, research, salary, administration or a combinations of these
therefore it is necessary to begin by stating very clearly the objectives of the
evolution program. Having done this, the personal evolution system should address
the questions, who, what, when, where, how? Of performance appraisal
The appraisal can be accomplished by one or more individuals involving a
combination of the immediate supervisor, a higher level manager, a personal
manager, the assessee‟s peers, the assessee himself and the assessee‟s subordinates.
Usually the immediate supervisor must be interested with the task of rating the
assessee because he his most familiar with his work, and because he is also
responsible for recommending or approving personal action based on the
performance appraisal. The staff specialists, i.e. the personal officer also do
They may advise the supervisor while evaluating their subordinates stressing the
need for evidence for making specific appraisal judgments and comparing a
particular subordinate‟s evolution with those of others.
The appraisal of an individual may also be done by his peers such appraisal proves
effective in predicting future management success.
This approach has its disadvantage that the individual may rate himself excessively
high then it would be if his superior rated him. Many companies use rating
committees to evaluate employees. These committees consist of supervisors, peers,
The “what” of the performance appraisal consists in appraising non supervisory
employees for their current performance and managers for potential? It also
includes evaluation of human trades.
The “why” of an appraisal is concerned with –
a) Creating and maintaining a satisfactory level of performance of employees in
there present jobs.
b) Highlighting employee needs and opportunities for personal growth and
c) Promoting understanding between the supervisor and his subordinates.
d) Providing a useful criterion for determining the validity of selection and
training methods and techniques and forming concrete measures for
attracting individual of higher caliber to the enterprise.
The „when‟ answers the query about the frequency of appraisal? It has been
suggested in formal counseling should occur continuously. The manager should
discuss an employee‟s work as soon as possible after he has judged it.
The where indicates the lo0cation where an employee may be evaluated. It is
usually done at the place of work or office of the supervisor.
Under how the company must decide what different methods are available and
which of these may be used for performance appraisal. Based on the comparative
advantages and disadvantages it is decided which method suit the propose best.
PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance.
To provide information making decision for rewardingly of retrenchment etc.
To guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking.
To contribute to the employee growth and development through training, self
and management development program.
To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests, interview techniques
through compeering there scores with performance appraisal ranks.
To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance.
To help the superiors to have proper understanding about there subordinates.
WHAT SHOULD BE RATED
The seven criteria for assessing performance are:
1. Quality: the degree to which the process or result of carrying out an activity
2. Quantity: the amount produce expressed in monetary terms number of units,
or number of completed activity cycles
3. Timeliness: the degree to which an activity or an result produced
4. Cost effectiveness: the degree to which the use of the organizations
resources (e.g. human, monetary, technological, material) is maximized in the
séance of waiting the highest gain
5. Need for supervision: the degree to which a job performer can carry out job
function without supervisory assistance
6. Interpersonal impact: the degree to which performer promotes feeling of
self – esteem, goodwill and cooperation among co- workers and subordinates.
7. Training: need for training of improving his skills knowledge.
OBJECTIVE OFPERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
A good performance appraisal has following objectives: Help employee to Krishak Bharti Coperative Ltd. His weaknesses, and
improve his strengths, and thus enable him to improve his performance and that
of the department.
Generate adequate feedback and guidelines from the reporting officers to the
Contribution to the growth and development of the employee thru helping in
realistic goal setting
Help identifying employees for the porpoise of motivating, training and
Generate significant relevant, free and valid information about employees
thus good performance appraisal and review system should primarily focus on
METHODS OF APPRAISAL
Broadly all the approaches to appraisal can be classified into: Past-oriented:
Forced choice method
Critical incident method
Behaviorally anchored‟ scales
Field review method
Annual confidential report
Cost accounting approaches
Comparative evolution approach
Paired – comparison method
Future – oriented:
Management by objectives
METODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS
Past Oriented Methods
This is the simplest and the most popular technique for employee
performance. The typical rating – scales system consists of several numerical
scales, each representing job related performance criterion such as
dependability, initiative output, attendance, attitude, co-operation and the
like. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The rater checks the
appropriate performance level on each criterion, and then computes the
employees total numerical scores.
In this method, the raters don‟t evolutes employee performance, he supplies
reports about it and the personal department does the final rating a series of
question are presented concerning and employee to his behavior. The rater,
then, to indicate if the answer to a question about an employee in positive or
negative. Generally , the questions are on yes/no pattern.
Forced choice method:
In this the rater is given a series of statements about employee. These
statements are arranged in block of two or more, and the rater indicates which
statements is most or least disruptive of the employee
Critical incident method
The, approaches focus on certain critical behaviors of an employee that
makes all the difference between effective and non effective performance of a
job. Such incidents are recorded by the superiors as and when they occur.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
Sometimes this is called behavioral expectation scales, are rating scales
whose scale point are determined by statements of effective and ineffective
behaviors. A rater must indicates which behavior on each scale best describes
an employee‟s performance.
Field review method
This is an appraisal by someone outside the assesses on department usually
someone from the corporate office or H.R department. The outsider review
employee records and holds interviews with the rate and his or her superior .
the method is primarily used for make promotional decision at the managerial
Annual confidential report method
In this method each employee is rated confidentially by one or more senior
officers for his performance. The report deals with the years work and
general opinion of the rater towards the employee. The main problem with
his method is that it is not data based and the appraisal is done the bases of
In the essay method, the rater must describe the employee with in a number
of broad categories such asa) The rater‟s overall impression of the employee‟s performance
b) The promotability of the employee
c) The jobs that the employee is now able or qualified to perform
d) The strength and weaknesses of the employee and the traning and the
development assistant required the employee.
Comparative Evolution Approaches
These are a collection of a different methods that compare one worker‟s
performance with that his / her co-workers. Supervisors usually conduct
comparative appraisals. As these appraisals can results in a ranking from best
to worst they are useful on deciding merits-pay increases promotions and
organizational rewards. We can classify it intoa) Ranking method
In this, the superior his or her subordinates in the order of there merits
starting from the best to the worst,. This method is subject to the hallo and
Recency effects, although ranking by two or more raters can be averaged to
help reduce biases. It advantages include ease of administration and
b) Paired – Comparison method :Under this method the appraiser compares each employee with every other
employee, one at a time. The number of comparisons may be calculated with
the help of formula, which reads thus-:
360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
themselves users of service and consultants. Performance appraisal by all
these parties is called” 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL”
Supervisors include superiors of the employee other superiors having
knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager.
General practices is that immediate superiors appraise the performance, hitch
in turn reviewed by the departmental head /manager.
2. Peers:Peer appraisal may be reliable if the work group is stable over a reasonably
long period of time and perform tasks that require integration.
3. Subordinates:The concept of having superiors rated by
subordinates is being used in most organizations today especially in
developed countries. Such a novel method can be useful in other
organizational settings too provided the relationship between superiors and
subordinates are coordinal.
4. Self-Appraisal:In individuals understand the objective they are expected to achieve and
the standard by which they are to be evaluated, they are to a great extend in
the best position to appraise their own performance.
5. Users of Service Customers:Employee performance in service organization relating to behaviors,
promptness, speed in doing the job and accuracy, can be better judged by the
customers or users of services.
6. Consultants:Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or
employers not trust supervisor and management does not trust the selfappraisal a peer appraisal or subordinate appraisal.
THE POST APPRAISAL INTERVIEW
This interview provides the employee the feedback information, and an
opportunity to the appraiser to employee his rating, the trail and behavior he
has taken into consideration etc.
Further it helps both the parties to review standards, set new standards based
on the reality factors and helps the appraisal to offer his suggestion, help,
guide and coach the employee for his advancement .
Thus, the post appraisal interview is designed to achieve the following the
To let employee know where stand
To help employee do better job by clarifying what is expected of them
To plan opportunities for development and growth
To provide an opportunity for employees to express themselves on
performance related issue.
Thus, post appraisal interview is most helpful to the
employee as well as his superior.
KEY ELEMENTS OF PA SYSTEMS
1) Performance Improvement:Performance feedback allows the employee, manager, and
personnel specialists to interview with appropriate action to improve
2) Compensation Adjustments:Performance evaluations help decision – makers determine who
should receive pay raises.
Many firms grants part or all of their pay increase and bonuses based
upon merit, which is determine mostly through performance appraisal.
3) Placement Decisions:Promotions, transfers, and demotions are usually based on past on
4) Training and Development Needs:Poor performance may indicate the need for retraining. Likewise,
good performance indicate untapped potential that should be developed.
5) Career Planning And Development:Performance feedback guides career decisions about specific career
6) Information Inaccuracies:Poor performance indicate errors in job
human resource plan, or other parts, or the personal management
information‟s systems. Reliance on inaccurate information may have led
to inappropriate hiring, training, or counseling decisions.
7) Job Decision Errors:Poor performance may be a system of ill-conceived job designs.
Appraisals help diagnose these others.
8) Equal Employment opportunity:Accurate performance appraisals that actually measure job- related
9) Feedback to human resource:Good/bad performance throughout the organization indicate how
well the human resource function is performing.
STAGES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
• PERFOMANCE STANDEARDS ARE ESTABLISHED
• INFORM THESE STANDARDS
• INSTRUCTION GIVEN FOR APPRAISAL
• FINDIND OUT THE INFLUENCE
• COMPARING THE PERFORMANCE
• FINDING OUT DEVIATION
• COMMUNICATING, THE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE
• SUGGESTING NECESSARY CHANGES
• FOLLOW-UP OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL REPORT
Performance Appraisal is a Nine-Step Process: At the First stage, performance standards are established based on job
description and job specification. The standard should be clear, objective and
incorporate all the factors.
The Second stage, is to inform these standards to all the employees
The Third stage is following the instruction given for appraisal
measurement of employee performance by the appraisers through
observations interview, records and reports
The Fourth stage is finding out the influence of various internal and external
factors on actual performance.
The Fifth stage is comparing performance with that of other employee and
previous performance .
The Sixth stage is comparing the actual performance with the standards and
finding out deviations.
The Seventh stage is communicating, the actual performance of the
employee and other employees doing the same job and discuss with him the
reasons for positive or negative deviations from the preset standards as the
case may be.
The Eighth stage is suggesting necessary changes in standards, job analysis
internal and external environment.
The Ninth stage is fallow up performance appraisal report. This stage
includes guiding, counseling coaching and directing the employee or making
arrangements for the training and development of the employee.
PROBLEMS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
The major problem in performance appraisal :1) Rating Biases:The problem subjective measure (is that rating which is not
verifiable by others) has the opportunity for biases include:-
a) Halo effect
b) The error of central tendency
c) The leniency and strictness biases
d) Personal prejudice
e) The Recency effect
Halo Effect:It is the tendency of the raters to defend excessively on the rating of
one trait or behavioral consideration in rating all other traits or behavioral
consideration. One way of minimizing the halo effect is appraising all the
employee by one trait before going to rate basis of another trait.
The Error Central Tendency:Some raters fallow play safe policy in-rating-by-rating all the
employee on the middle point of the rating scale and they avoid rating the
p[people at both the extremes of the scale. They fallow play safe policy
because of a answerability to management or lack of knowledge about the
job and person he is rating or least interest in his job.
The leniency and Strictness:The leniency bias crops when some raters have an tendency to be
liberal in their rating by assigning higher rates consistently such rating do
not several any purpose equally damaging one is assigning consistently
d) Personal Prejudice : If the rater dislike any employee or any group, he may rate them at
the lower them which may distort the rating purpose affect the career of
The Recency Effect:The raters generally remember the recent actions of the employee at
the time of rating and rate on the basis of this recent action.
1) Favorable or unfavorable rather than on the whole activities.
2) Failure of the superior in conducting performance appraisal and
performance appraisal interview.
3) Most part of the appraisal is based on subjectivity.
4) Less reliability and validity of the performance appraisal technique.
5) Negative ratings affect interpersonal relations system.
WHY APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES PROVE FAILURE
Performance appraisal techniques techniques have often failed to give a correct
assessment of the employee. The causes of such failure are:1) The supervisor plays dual and conflicting role of the both the judge and the
2) Too many objectives often cause confusion.
3) The supervisor feels that subordinate appraisal is not rewarding.
4) A considerable time gap exist between two appraisal programs.
5) The skills required for daily administration and employee development are
6) Poor communication keeps employees in the dark about what is expected of
7) There is the difference of opinion between a supervisor and a subordinate
concerning the liter‟s performance.
8) Feedback on appraisal is generally unpleasant for both supervisor and
9) Unwillingness on the part of supervisor to tell employee plainly how to
improve their performance.
About Employee: Safe and Friendly Work Environment-:
What sort of environment are you providing your employees.
Use of Employees-:
Is the business maximizing it‟s use of employee to best suit the business
How familiar (what knowledge) are your employee with the running of
machine/equipments, products of the companies? Does employee require
Are the employees happy with their wages, rewards and hours of work
principle the individual performance matrix (IPM) can be notionally
divided into two parts-:
KRA 1 to 5
For achievement of the set targets, the prescribed credit points would
accrue to all team members for the team performance and to an individual
for the individual performance.
Any drop / deviation from the targets will lead to „ Debit ‟ to while the
overall debit points for the negative variance vis-à-vis has been prescribed
for the team the individual will be liable to the lose additional points bin
case of direct responsibility for deviation.
These „debit‟ points will be determine depending on gravity of error,
quantum of loss, extraneous/ inhibiting factors, etc. as a part of
It is intended to cover every individual distinguishing contribution/ efforts
made in respect of either assigned projects or innovations, cost saving
measures value additions etc. this has been specifically design to
acknowledgement and reward individual excellence.
(Health. Safety/fire, Environment) “Debit” will apply to an individual and his
superiors but his not peers / others who may not be connected with the safety
incident. Similarly there is scope to earn separate credit points for an individual
through safety suggestion and reporting of “near misses ” and unsafe acts/
(Training and HR) this is intended to cover self training, training of
subordinates, for the training programs organized by learning centre are HR
based on individual need assessment of self & subordinates.
These also include quarterly review, counseling and maintaining of
(Quality System & Documentation) this include proper maintenance of each
and every documents of ISO 9000 and 14001 for surveillance audits, also
revision of SOPs / SOCs decided by the plant.
(Industrial Relations ) there is a scope for a team to earn separate credit points
based on the number of implement suggestions. In this case the team means the
concern immediate supervisor, production / department manager and plant
It will be deemed to be complete when the matter is brought to logical
Conclusion resulting in either appropriate punishment or withdrawal of
Charge sheet. However no debit will be accrued in the event of
Prolonged enquiry beyond the control of the employee. Further for the
Discipline violations not reported and discovered.
Tier - II
The appraisal for managerial key dimension determined carder wise
With 20% weightage.
The performance diary is a meant to track / capture the significant
performance events whether positive or negative (Credit or Debit). This is
also the tool for recording the personal contribution in terms of innovative
ideas, suggestions, cost saving efforts etc.
The filling up the performance diary is most critical and important aspect on
which the entire system rests. Each and every individual has responsibility to
highlight „event‟ in the performance diary, timely and properly.
While for an individual on the other hand, it may mean establishing clear
responsibility for a fault/formal operation / misjudgment etc. on the other
hand it will mean recording of credits worthy efforts / contribution which
may otherwise go unnoticed.
It is also essential to mention the impact of the incident in the terms of
beneficial and detrimental consequences as the case may be. Where ever
possible, the consequence needs to be quantified. Two important factors
which is likely to be recorded in the performance diary are as follows-:
Are those factors that are beyond the control of the appraise that have led to
better performance. Example: Availability of resources in time .
Are those factors that are beyond the control of the appraise they have led to
poor performance. EXAMPLE: power failure that has led to loss of output.
Whom it will be Available:
The performance diary will remain in custody of the immediate superior and
it will be the joint responsibility of the appraise to maintain the sanctity of
this instrument through timely and meticulous recording. Infect, maintenance
of “performance diary” has been kept as the important parameter for
Who will be The Appraiser:
The appraiser will be the sectional head / departmental head.
The research design of this project is exploratory. Though each research
study has its own specific purpose but the research design of this project on BSNL
is exploratory in nature as the objective is the development of the hypothesis rather
than their testing. The research designs methods of financial analysis. Through of
comparative balance sheet in comparative statement, I am studying on balance sheet
of BSNL of five year. So taking comparative statement, I am going to analyzed of
five years balance sheet of BSNL
Every project work is based on certain methodology, which is a way to
systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important
guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data
collection and data analysis.
“Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems,
collecting, organizing & evaluating data, making deductions & researching to
- Clifford Woody
Research Design refers to "framework or plan for a study that guides the collection
and analysis of data". A typical research design of a company basically tries to
resolve the following issues:
a) Determining Data Collection Design
b) Determining Data Methods
c) Determining Data Sources
d) Determining Primary Data Collection Methods
e) Developing Questionnaires
f) Determining Sampling Plan
(1) EXPLORATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN:
Explorative studies are undertaken with a view to know more about the problem.
These studies help in a proper definition of the problem, and development of
specific hypothesis is to be tested later by more conclusive research designs. Its
basic purpose is to identify factors underlying a problem and to determine which
one of them need to be further researched by using rigorous conclusive research
(2) CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH DESIGN:
Conclusive Research Studies are more formal in nature and are conducted with a
view to eliciting more precise information for purpose of making marketing
These studies can be either:
a) Descriptive or
Thus, it was mix of both the tools of Research Design that is, Explorative as well
Sample Size = 50 Employees
Sample Area = BSNL lucknow
Duration = 6 weeks
I have selected that PERFORMANCE APPRAISER as research problem for my
summer training project.
As a research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel
apprehensive, confused and ill at ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area
within a certain involving the WHO or WHAT the WHERE the WHEN and the
WHY of the problem situation.
How productivity relates with performance appraisal. In addition, the major factors
of performance appraisal, which have taken a part in increasing productivity of the
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT USED
The term questionnaire usually refers to a self administered
processes whereby he respondent himself read the question and records without
the assistance of an interviewer.
The interview method of collection data involves presentation
of oral- verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal response.
Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulating studies. The main
purpose of such studies that of formulating of the problem for more precise
investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational
point of view. An exploratory research focuses on the discovery of ideas and
is generally based on secondary data. It consists:
Search of secondary data and literature
SEARCH OF SECONDARY DATA AND LITERATURE :
The quickest and most economical way is to find possible hypotheses from the
available literature. The past research may be suitable may suitable sources of
information to develop new hypotheses. The researcher can search them for his
Survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the
problem to be study. These individual can be top executives, sales manager,
wholesaler and retailer processing valuable knowledge and information about
the problem environment.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS USED:
I have used the following research instrument in my project :-
The term questionnaire usually refers to a self – administered process whereby
the respondent himself read the question and records without the assistance of an
The interview method of collection data involves presentation of oral-verbal
stimuli and reply in terms of oral- verbal response.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED
When field studies are under are under taken in practical life, consideration of
time cost and some other factors almost invariably lead to selection of
respondents. The selected respondents constitutes a sample and the selection
process is called sampling technique.
A sample design is define plan determined before any data are actually collected
for obtaining a sample from a given population. Sample can be either probability
sample or non probability sample.
I have selected simple random sampling in my project.
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING:
This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling or probability sampling
where each item in the population has an equal chance of being selected in the
When a survey is undertaken and when it is not possible to cover the entire
population the researcher has to answer the basic question – how large should be
sample be ? the sample size decision is related directly to research cost.
The intended sample size is the number of participants planned
to be included in the trial, usually determined by using a statistical power
calculation. The achieved sample size is the number of participants enrolled,
treated , or analyzed in the study.
I have taken 50 people in my sample size as the sample size should be neither so
small nor so large.
METHOD USED FOR DATA COLLECTION
The task of data collection begins after a research after a research problem has
been defined and research design chalked out. While deciding about the method
of data collection to be used for the study the researcher should keep in mind
two types of data-:
1) Primary Data
2) Secondary Data
1. PRIMARY DATA
Those data that have been observed and recorded by the researcher for the
first time in their knowledge.
Those data that have been compile by some agency other than user.
ANALYTICAL TOOLS USED
The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with
searching for pattern of relationship that exists among data group. Analysis is
essential for a scientific study and for ensuring that we have all relevant data for
making contemplated comparison. Therefore , I have used Tabulation, Graphs
&charts in my project.
1. Are you aware of the objective of the performance appraisal system?
INTERPRITATION- 84% Employees are aware of the object of the
performance appraisal system.
2. Performance appraisal helps the organization in achieving goal.
INTERPRITATION - 76% Employees say yes that performance
appraisal helps the organization in achieving goal.
3. Hold meeting in the beginning of the year to explain & clarify activity task
& goals to be achieved.
78% Employees say that yes organized
meetings helps goal and task. While the other 22% employees that is
not very much helpful.
4. Organization has to make a fixed duration for performance appraisal.
80% Employees agree with that is
organization should have to make a fixed duration for performance appraisal.
While the other 20% employees do not agree with this statement.
5. Satisfied for point allocation on the basis of KRA‟s & managerial
40% Employees are fully satisfied for point
allocation on the basis of KRA‟s and managerial dimension.
6. Performance appraisal affects the working efficiency of employees.
INTERPRITATION-: 84% Employees say that yes performance
appraisal system affect the working efficiency of employee. While the
other 16% employees do not agree with this statement.
7. Appraisal system is able to develop high result orientation approach.
INTERPRITATION-: 94% Employees say that yes the appraisal
system is able to develop high result orientation approach. While the
other 6% employees do not agree with us.
8. The systems will also contribution in potential appraisal.
INTERPRITATION-: 72% employees think that the systems will
also Contribution in potential appraisal.
9. Promotion process in the organization is based on –
INTERPRITATION-: 4% employees say that promotion says that
process in the organization is based on performance, 12%
employees say that based on experience and 84% say both.
10 .The present performance appraisal system is transparent &
Free from bias.
INTERPRITATION-: 84% Employees agree with this statement that the
present performance appraisal system is transparent and free from bias.
11 .Satisfied with the current performance appraisal system.
54% Employees are highly satisfied with the current
Performance appraisal system. While 36% employees are satisfied with the current
performance appraisal system.
A few limitations and constraints came in way of conducting the present study,
under which the researcher had to work are as follows:
Although all attempts were made to make this an objective study, biases
on the part of respondents might have resulted in some subjectivity.
Though, no effort was spared to make the study most accurate and
useful, the “sample Size” selected for the same may not be the true
representative of the Company, resulting in biased results.
This being the maiden experience of the researcher of conducting study
such as this, the possibility of better results, using deeper statistical
techniques in analyzing and interpreting data may not be ruled out.
After having analyzed the data, it was observed that practically there was no
appraisal in the organization. To be an effective tool, it has to be on the
continuous basis. This is the thing that has been mentioned time and again
in the report, as, in the absence of continuity, it becomes a redundant
exercise. Before actually deciding drafting what should be the kind of
appraisal the following things should be taken care of:
The very concept of performance appraisal should be marketed
throughout the organization. Unless this is done, people would not
accept it, be it how important to the organization.
To market such a concept, it should not start at bottom, instead it
should be started by the initiative of the top management. This would
help in percolating down the concept to the advantage of all, which
includes the top management as well as those below them. This means
that the top management has to take a welcoming and positive approach
towards the change that is intended to be brought.
Further, at the time of confirmation also, the appraisal form should not
lead to duplication of any information. Instead, detailed appraisal of the
employee‟s work must be done – which must incorporates both the work
related as well as the other personal attributes that are important for
It should be noted that the appraisal form for each job position should
be different as each job has different knowledge and skill requirements.
There should not be a common appraisal form for every job position in
The job and role expected from the employees should be decided well
in advance and that too with the consensus with them.
A neutral panel of people should do the appraisal and to avoid
subjectivity to a marked extent, objective methods should be employed
having quantifiable data.
The time period for conducting the appraisal should be revised, so that
the exercise becomes a continuous phenomenon.
Transparency into the system should be ensured through the discussion
about the employee‟s performance with the employee concerned and
trying to find out the grey areas so that training can be implemented to
improve on that.
Ideally in the present day scenario, appraisal should be done, taking the
views of all the concerned parties who have some bearing on the
employee. But, since a change in the system is required, it cannot be a
drastic one. It ought to be gradual and a change in the mindset of both
the employees and the head is required.
- V.S.P Rao
- C. R. Kothari
- Company Magazines
Annual Report of Organization
Internal Records of Organization
(PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM AT B.S.N.L.)
1) Are you aware of the objective of the performance appraisal system?
a) Very much
b) Some what
c) Don’t know
2) Performance appraisal helps the organization in achieving goal?
c) Can’t say
3) Do you hold meeting in the beginning of the explain & clarify activity task &
goals to be achieved?
4) Should organization have to make a fixed duration for performance
5) To what extent are you satisfied for point allocation on the basis of KRA’s &
6) Do performance appraisal affect the working efficiency of employee?
7) Whether the appraisal system is able to able to develop high result
8) Do you think that the system wills also contribution in potential appraisal?
c) Can’t say
9) Promotion process in the organization is based ona) Performance
Do you think that the present that the present performance appraisal
system is transparent & free bias?
Are you satisfied with the current performance appraisal system?
Give your suggestion for the performance appraisal system in