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B. Inggris - Explanation, Discussion & Narrative Text
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B. Inggris - Explanation, Discussion & Narrative Text

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  • 1. When do I use it? To tell or explain how things work or why something happens.
  • 2. What features might I find inside?
  • 3. What should I write?
  • 4. What should I write?
  • 5. What should I write?
  • 6. Explanation text Procedure text
  • 7. Frogs are amphibians. Amphibians spend part of their lives under water. Young frogs start their life in water as tadpoles. First, the female frog lays lots of eggs so some will survive from being eaten by fish and other animals. The eggs are smakk and often laid inside white foam. Next, the eggs hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles have gills so they can breath under water and a strong tail to help them swim. As the tadpoles grow bigger, they start to change because they need to become a frog. Their tail becomes smaller and they begin growing legs. The back legs grow firs followed by the front legs. Tadpoles also start to develop lungs because they have to be ready to breathe on land when they become a frog. Tadpoles may be found in billabongs, lakes, swamps or even in puddles after heavy rain. Scientific words Action verbs Sequencing words and cause and effect
  • 8. *
  • 9. Discussion Organisation 1 for against * point + elaboration * “ * “ * point + elaboration * “ * “
  • 10. Discussion Organisation 2 Introduction Arguments for: * * * etc Arguments against: * * * etc Conclusion
  • 11. Discussion Organisation 3 Introduction Point 1: for against Point 2: for against Point 3: for against Conclusion
  • 12. Discussion Language Features * present tense * abstract nouns Things that you cannot see or touch e.g justice * third person answer trust * logical connectives belief * discussion conventions (see page 9) * complex sentences hope despair
  • 13. Zoos were originally set up so that people could see and learn about wild animals from distant lands. As more and more people became city-dwellers, never seeing animals in the wild, zoos began to house local creatures too. However, in today’s world, are zoos really necessary? Since people can now see any sort of wild animal in its natural habitat, simply by tuning into a TV programme or buying a video, some animal rights activists claim that zoos are out of date. They argue that it is cruel to capture animals, transport them long distances, and then keep them caged up simply for the entertainment of human beings. Captive animals often develop ‘zoochosis’ – abnormal behaviour like rocking or swaying – which indicates they are bored and unhappy in their prison-like conditions.
  • 14. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between watching an animal on screen and seeing it in real life. It could be argued that visiting a zoo is educational, often increasing people’s concern for wildlife and conservation, which is of great importance in today's developing – and often overdeveloped – world. Indeed, sometimes the only way to save an endangered species may be to arrange for it to be breed in captivity. Behind the scenes, zoos also provide scientists with opportunities to research into animal behaviour: modern zoos can therefore be much better planned than old-fashioned ones, providing animals with carefully designed enclosures appropriate to their needs. It seems then, that there are still arguments for retaining zoos. These should, however, be carefully planned with the animals’ welfare in mind: in the modern world, there is no excuse for keeping animals in cramped or cruel conditions.
  • 15. Don’t need anymore originally for people to see animals now have TV, video catch, transport, cage Cruel TV not as good as real life increase people’s interest in animals Conservation zoochosis just for entertainment zoos educational endangered species breed in zoos scientists can research in zoos Not cruel well planned enclosures
  • 16. OBJECTIVES Identify elements of narrative text. Define elements of narrative text. Demonstrate mastery of narrative text elements.
  • 17. OVERVIEW
  • 18. Theme Plot - exposition statement Setting - rising action Characters - conflict Point of view - climax - falling action Characterization - resolution
  • 19. THEME The main idea of a literary work, usually expressed as a generalization. SETTING The time and place in which a work of literature happens.
  • 20. CHARACTERS The people (actors) in the story. POINT OF VIEW The story teller from whose point of view the story is being told, the narrator.
  • 21. CHARACTERIZATION The description of the personalities of the characters in the story and the way in which an author reveals their personalities.
  • 22. PLOT The sequence or order of events in a story. The plot includes : Exposition statement - the part of the plot that tells how the story begins. Rising action - the action in the story leading up to the climax. Conflict - struggles or problems between opposing forces. Climax - the point of crisis in the plot. It may be the reader’s point of highest interest. Falling action - the action in the story after the climax is revealed. Resolution - the part of the plot that reveals the final outcome.
  • 23. PLOT DIAGRAM
  • 24. Narrative is kind of text that’s used to entertain and amuse the readers. It is a fiction text. Kinds : 1. Folktales 2. Fable 3. Fairytales 4. Legend 5. Myth Generic structure (steps) : a. Orientation b. Complication c. Climax d. Resolution (conclusion) e. Reorientation – optional (moral value) Language Features: -The use of action verbs -The use of adverbs, adjective, and noun phrase -The use of past forms -The use of conjunctions -The use of reported speech -The use of passive voice
  • 25. Babu and the Lion One day, there was a slave whose name was Babu. His master was very, very bad. You know, he often punched Babu and did not offer him food for days. Poor Babu! So he escaped into a forest and slept in a cave. (ORIENTATION) Next morning, he heard a loud roar. In front of him...., at the mouth of the cave..., was a very big lion. You see, Babu was scared to death! Kind of scary, isn’t it? But he could not escape. But the lion didn’t attack him. It was tame. (COMPLICATION) There was a large thorn in its right front foot. The lion lookedat Babu. It seemed to say something like:”Please help me. It’s very painful.” Babu walked bravely to the lion and pulled out the thorn. (CLIMAX) Babu and the lion turned out to be friends. (RESOLUTION)
  • 26. Babu and the Lion One day, there was a slave whose name was Babu. His master was very, very bad. You know, he often punched Babu (adj) (past tense) and did not offer him food for days. Poor Babu! So he escaped into a forest and slept in a cave. (CONJUNCTION) Next morning, he heard a loud roar. In front of him...., at the (adverb) mouth of the cave..., was a very big lion. You see, Babu (noun phrase) was scared to death! Kind of scary, isn’t it? But he could not escape. But the lion didn’t attack him. It was tame. There was a large thorn in its right front foot. The lion looked at Babu. It seemed to say something like:”Please help me. It’s very painful.” (reported speech)