Frogs are amphibians. Amphibians spend part of their lives
under water. Young frogs start their life in water as tadpoles.
First, the female frog lays lots of eggs so some will survive from
being eaten by fish and other animals. The eggs are smakk and often
laid inside white foam.
Next, the eggs hatch into tadpoles. Tadpoles have gills so
they can breath under water and a strong tail to help them swim.
As the tadpoles grow bigger, they start to change because
they need to become a frog. Their tail becomes smaller and they
begin growing legs. The back legs grow firs followed by the front legs.
Tadpoles also start to develop lungs because they have to be
ready to breathe on land when they become a frog.
Tadpoles may be found in billabongs, lakes, swamps or even
in puddles after heavy rain.
Sequencing words and cause and effect
Discussion Organisation 3
Point 1: for
Point 2: for
Point 3: for
Discussion Language Features
* present tense
* abstract nouns
Things that you cannot see or
* third person
* logical connectives
conventions (see page 9)
* complex sentences
Zoos were originally set up so that people could see and learn
about wild animals from distant lands. As more and more people
became city-dwellers, never seeing animals in the wild, zoos
began to house local creatures too. However, in today’s world, are
zoos really necessary?
Since people can now see any sort of wild animal in its natural
habitat, simply by tuning into a TV programme or buying a video,
some animal rights activists claim that zoos are out of date.
They argue that it is cruel to capture animals, transport them long
distances, and then keep them caged up simply for the
entertainment of human beings. Captive animals often develop
‘zoochosis’ – abnormal behaviour like rocking or swaying – which
indicates they are bored and unhappy in their prison-like
On the other hand, there is a huge difference between
watching an animal on screen and seeing it in real life. It could
be argued that visiting a zoo is educational, often increasing
people’s concern for wildlife and conservation, which is of great
importance in today's developing – and often overdeveloped –
world. Indeed, sometimes the only way to save an endangered
species may be to arrange for it to be breed in captivity.
Behind the scenes, zoos also provide scientists with
opportunities to research into animal behaviour: modern zoos
can therefore be much better planned than old-fashioned ones,
providing animals with carefully designed enclosures
appropriate to their needs.
It seems then, that there are still arguments for retaining
zoos. These should, however, be carefully planned with the
animals’ welfare in mind: in the modern world, there is no
excuse for keeping animals in cramped or cruel conditions.
now have TV,
TV not as
interest in animals
breed in zoos
research in zoos
Identify elements of narrative text.
Define elements of narrative text.
Demonstrate mastery of narrative
The main idea of a literary work, usually
expressed as a generalization.
The time and place in which a
work of literature happens.
The people (actors) in the story.
POINT OF VIEW
The story teller from whose point
of view the story is being told, the
The description of the personalities of
the characters in the story and the
way in which an author reveals their
The sequence or order of events in a story. The plot includes :
Exposition statement - the part of the plot that tells how the story begins.
Rising action - the action in the story leading up to the climax.
Conflict - struggles or problems between opposing forces.
Climax - the point of crisis in the plot. It may be the reader’s point of
Falling action - the action in the story after the climax is revealed.
Resolution - the part of the plot that reveals the final outcome.
Narrative is kind of text that’s used
to entertain and amuse the
readers. It is a fiction text.
e. Reorientation –
-The use of action verbs
-The use of adverbs,
adjective, and noun
-The use of past forms
-The use of conjunctions
-The use of reported
-The use of passive voice
Babu and the Lion
One day, there was a slave whose name was Babu. His master was
very, very bad. You know, he often punched Babu and did not offer him
food for days. Poor Babu! So he escaped into a forest and slept in a cave.
Next morning, he heard a loud roar. In front of him...., at the mouth
of the cave..., was a very big lion. You see, Babu was scared to death!
Kind of scary, isn’t it? But he could not escape. But the lion didn’t attack
him. It was tame. (COMPLICATION)
There was a large thorn in its right front foot. The lion lookedat
Babu. It seemed to say something like:”Please help me. It’s very
painful.” Babu walked bravely to the lion and pulled out the thorn.
Babu and the lion turned out to be friends. (RESOLUTION)
Babu and the Lion
One day, there was a slave whose name was Babu. His
master was very, very bad. You know, he often punched Babu
and did not offer him food for days. Poor Babu! So he escaped
into a forest and slept in a cave.
Next morning, he heard a loud roar. In front of him...., at the
mouth of the cave..., was a very big lion. You see, Babu
was scared to death! Kind of scary, isn’t it? But he could not
escape. But the lion didn’t attack him. It was tame. There was
a large thorn in its right front foot. The lion looked at Babu. It
seemed to say something like:”Please help me. It’s very