What Is a Project?“A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.”* Ter m Mean s t h at a Pr o j ect tem porar y Has a beginning and end endeavor Involves effort , work to creat e Has an i ntention t o produce som ethi ng (proj ect "deliverables" uni que One of a ki nd, rather than a coll ecti on of ident i cal i tem s product Tangibl e obj ect s, but could i nclude things l ike com puter software, f i lm or stage wor ks servi ce Mi ght incl ude the est abl ishm ent of a day- car e cent er, for instance, but not it s dail y operations. *2000 PMBOK Guide (p. 4).
Your Turn: What Is ProjectManagement?• There are few if any definitive definitions.• Project management knowledge is shared understanding of what it takes to deliver products and services effectively.• Your definition should evolve and continuously improve with your knowledge and experience collaborating on projects.
Module 2: PMI’s NineProject Management Knowledge Areas
PMI’s Nine ProjectManagement KnowledgeAreas1. Integration Management2. Scope Management3. Time Management4. Cost Management5. Quality Management6. Human Resource Management7. Communications Management8. Risk Management9. Procurement Management
#1—Project IntegrationManagement• Bringing it All Together: – Building the Project Plan – Project Execution – Integrated Change Control• Project Management “Nerve Center”
#2—Project ScopeManagement• Staying Vigilant in Defining and Containing Scope throughout the Project – Project Initiation – Scope Planning – Scope Definition – Scope Verification – Scope Change Control
#3—Project TimeManagement• Determining What Gets Done and When through: – Activity Definition – Activity Sequencing – Activity Duration Estimating – Schedule Development – Schedule Control
#4—Project CostManagement• Planning for Resources••• Estimating Costs Creating the Budget Managing/Controlling the Budget
#5—Project QualityManagement• Quality Planning• Quality Assurance• Quality Control
#6—Project HumanResource Management• Organizational Planning• Staff Acquisition• Team Development
#7—ProjectCommunicationsManagement• Keeping Stakeholders Informed (and Involved!) – Communications Planning – Dissemination of Information – Progress Reporting – Administrative Closure
#8—Project RiskManagement• Expect the Unexpected! – Risk Management Planning – Risk Identification – Qualitative Risk Analysis – Quantitative Risk Analysis – Risk Response Planning – Risk Management and Control
Where to Begin?Look back over your previous project experiences.Chances are, you’ve used a little of each of these nine areas already.The PMBOK merely codifies them and attempts to give us a framework for understanding and applying project management knowledge productively.
Your Turn: What We KnowAlready• Look back over your previous experience in project management• How many of the nine knowledge areas did you use? (Probably all nine!)• Take a quick inventory and point to your most successful application use of that knowledge area.• Pick up at least one new tip from others right now!
The Triple ConstraintTime Cost OR, IN Quality/Scope PLAIN ENGLISH Fast Cheap Good
Triple Constraint Trade-Offs Ti m e Cost Quality/Scope Co n st r ai n t Req u i r ed Ad j u st m en t Al t er n at i ves (On e o r Ch an g e Co m b i n at i o n o f Bo t h ) Shorter Tim e Higher Cost Reduced Quality or Narrowed Scope Reduced Cost More Tim e Reduced Quality or Narrowed Scope Higher Quality or More Tim e Higher Cost Increased Scope
Triple Constraint: Setting Priorities Pr i o r i t y Mat r i x Co n st r ai n t 1 2 3 Measu r em en t Tim e Cost Quality/ Scope •Must be set by customer and sponsor near startup. •May change over time, but a change is a significant event! Ex am p l e o f a Co m p l e t e d Pr i o r i t y Mat r i x f o r a Co n st r u ct i o n Pr o j e ct Co n st r ai n t 1 2 3 Measu r em en t Building m ust be com pleted by Tim e X October 31 of this year to accom m odate corporate m ove. Costs for the project m ust not Cost X ex ceed $22.5 m illion. Must provide workspace for 120 call Quality/ Scope X center staff. If these are the established priorities and measurements, what are some of the implications for the project if the project starts running late or shows signs of exceeding budget?
Risk Identification Worksheet Risk Identification Worksheet• Enter risk scenario (how an event Scenario: could jeopardize project outcome).• Rate probability, impact, and degree of control using rating scale of: Probability Impact Control Index 1 = Low 2 = Medium Financial Impact: 3 = High• Compute risk index using formula: Action to be Taken: Ignore Eliminate Manage Mitigations:• If possible, enter financial impact. Probability * Impact• Determine actions to take: Control Risk Index = Contingencies: – Ignore (do nothing) – Eliminate (sidestep) – Manage Manager of This Risk:• For managed risks, indicate Actions Taken mitigations and contingencies and Action: Date: assign risk manager.• Log actions taken as they occur.
Giving Risks Priorities Maintain inventory of all risks identified—updating probabilities, impacts, and controls if changes occur. Focus attention on the risks with the highest Indices!!! * How would this change if you learned that a team member has announced that she is a finalist for a new position at the home office 1,500 miles away?
Your Turn: Project RiskScenarios Risk Identification Worksheet Scenario:1. Individually identify and jot down four possible risk Probability Impact Control Index scenarios this project might face. Financial Impact:2. Share these within your Action to be Taken: Ignore Eliminate Manage group and create a Risk Mitigations: Priority Worksheet of your pooled risks.3. Score the risks. Contingencies:4. For the top two, brainstorm at least one mitigation and one contingency. Manager of This Risk:5. Use the Risk Identification Actions Taken Worksheet as a guide, but Action: Date: you do not need to complete one for this exercise.
How Projects Come to Be• Project selection can be a difficult process, especially when there are a large number of potential projects competing for scarce dollars.• Some selection methods are highly intuitive; others try to add rigor through more scientific selection processes.
Sacred Cows and PressingNeeds• “Sacred Cow” selection—Senior Management wants it! (it may often turn out well; many visionary projects start here)• Business opportunity (make more $$$)• Savings potential (save $$$)• Keeping up with competition (example, many e-commerce projects were in response to competitor’s initiatives)• Risk management (examples: disaster recovery initiatives, Y2K)• Government or regulatory requirements URGENT!!!
First Selection CriterionSanity Check: Does the project fit in with the stated goals of the organization?Which of the following meet this criterion? Why or why not? An environmental group proposes a project to raise money by selling aerosol cans of a powerful new pesticide. A video store chain proposes to develop a web site for ordering and distributing videos. A bank offers a free rifle to anyone opening a new savings account. A restaurant equipment manufacturer decides to introduce a line of high-end refrigerators for the consumer market.
Selection Tools Nu m er i c Met h o d Descr i p t i o n Payback Period Determ ines how quickly a project recoups its costs Net Present Value Estim ates the current worth of anticipated cash flows resulting from the project Unweighted Selection Scores m ultiple projects against a set of selection criteria, with all criteria being equal Weighted Selection Scores m ultiple projects against a set of selection criteria, with each criterion assigned a num eric weight Pairwise Priorities Rank ordering a num ber of candidate projects by system atically com paring one with each of the others
Weighted Criteria (example, using scale of 1-5) Item Weight Project A Project B Project C Criteria 4 5 3 Good ROI 3 12 15 9 0 0 2 3 5 CEO Likes It 5 10 15 25 0 0 5 4 2 Provide Better 4 20 16 8 0 0 Service 4 4 5 Match New Initiatives of 3 12 12 15 0 0 Competition Our Winner!! (hmmmm…) 0 0 0 0 0 Total: 54 Total: 58 Total: 57 Total: 0 Total: 0
Unweighted Criteria (example, using scale of 1-5) Item Project A Project B Project C Criteria Good ROI 4 5 3 0 0 CEO Likes It 2 3 5 0 0 Provide Better 5 4 2 0 0 Service Match New Initiatives of 4 4 5 0 0 Competition Our Winner!! 0 0 0 0 0 (Still! So the boss was right..) Total: 15 Total: 16 Total: 15 Total: 0 Total: 0
How to Use Forced Pair Comparisons• Generate list of items. For project selection, this will be the list of candidate projects.• Number the items for identification purposes.• Use the grid to compare each item with the other items on the list, circling the item that is the more preferred of the two. (You must make a choice for each pair!)• Count the number of times each item was circled and enter its score on the bottom line of the grid.• Rank order the list using the scores you have derived. The item with the highest score is #1. The item with the second-highest score is #2. (In case of a tie, you may either do a mini-grid for the tied items, or refer to your original preference when you were circling the items in the grid above.)• Use less than a full grid for fewer than 10 items; expand grid for more items.
How to Use Forced Pair ComparisonsExample: Seven Books I Have Always Wanted to Read and Haven’t1. Middlemarch2. Ulysses3. Remembrance of Things Past4. War and Peace5. Moby Dick6. Anna Karenina7. Pride and Prejudice
How to Use Forced-Pair ComparisonsExample (concluded):Ranked List of the Seven Books I Have Always Wanted to Read and Haven’t1. Pride and Prejudice2. Ulysses3. War and Peace4. Middlemarch5. Moby Dick6. Remembrance of Things Past7. Anna Karenina
Work Breakdown Structures• Work Breakdown Structures (WBSs) help organize the activities required to meet the objectives of the project.• Focus is on deliverables.• May be organized: – By phase of the project – By component
Phase-Based WBS P a r t ia l W B S f o r So f tw a r e P r o je c t B a s e d o n Ph a s e C u s t o m e r R e l a t i o n s h ip M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e mP ro je c t M a n a g e m e n t R e q u ir e m e n ts D e s ig n B u i ld P la n n i n g C li e n t In t e r v i e w s L o g ic a l D e s ig n L o g i c a l D e s ig n e tc . R e p o r t in g R e v ie w o f C u r r e n t W o r k f l o w s P r o c e s s M o d e ls P r o c e s s M o d e ls A d m in i s t r a t io n B u s in e s s O b je c tiv e s U se C ases U se C ases M e e tin g s P r e li m i n a r y T e s t P la n n in g L o g ic a l D a t a M o d e ls P h y s ic a l D a t a M o d e ls D o c u m e n t a tio n P la n n i n g D o c u m e n t a ti o n P l a n n in g T r a in i n g R e q u ir e m e n ts
Component-Based WBS Pa r tia l W B S fo r L u x u r y T o w n h o u s e C o m p le x b y C o m p o n e n t IY H T A Y C A I* V illa g e P r o je c t ( * I f y o u h a v e t o a s k , y o u c a n t a f f o r t i t)P r o je c t M a n a g e m e n t B u ild in g s L a n d P la n n in g S a le s a n d M a r k e tin g P la n n in g T o w n h o u s e U n i ts W a te r a n d S e w e rs A d v e r tis in g R e p o r tin g C lu b h o u s e R oads and Access Lanes A s s o c ia tio n D e c la r a tio n s A d m in is tr a tio n G a te h o u s e s R e te n tio n P o n d s G e n era l L e g al M e e tin g s P ro S h o p 1 8 - H o le G o l f C o u r s e D o c u m e n ta tio n P la n n in g D o c u m e n ta tio n P la n n in g P e r m it s a n d I n s p e c t i o n s M a i n t e n a n c e S t a f f i n g R e q u i r e m e n ts P e r m it s a n d I n s p e c t i o n s
Work Packages• Lowest level of WBS is called a Work Package if further deconstruction into activities is possible. – May be assigned as a subproject – May be subordinated into WBS structure for estimating purposes• Activities at this level become the basis for time and duration estimates.
More Sources of Project Activities:Templates• Don’t reinvent the wheel! – As you get more projects under your belt, work with other project teams to develop templates for WBS’s to use as a starting point. – Remember, no two projects are ever exactly alike (remember the “unique” in the definition of a project)! The template should be a starting point— to be tailored to the specific needs of the current project. – Even with the time spent in tailoring, templates can be enormous time-savers.
Assigning Responsibilities: Responsibility Matrix (Also Known as RACI Chart) • Cross-reference of tasks and resources assigned to the project.Project Item Sponsor Project Manager Project Team Project OfficeProject Definition A A R IRisk Management A R R CDetailed Design A R R CWeekly Web Bulletin I R R I etc. R = Responsible A = Accountable C = Consulted I = Informed
Network Diagrams andCritical Path AnalysisOnce you’ve determined the activities for the project and estimated their durations, network diagrams are the next step for creating the project schedule.Two Types: Activity on Arrow (AOA)—nodes on the diagram connect arrows and represent activities Activity on Node (AON)—nodes represent activities that are connected by arrows showing the precedence of activities
Network Diagram ExampleActivity on Arrow (AOA) Task Dur ation Predecessor(s) A 8 days - B 6 days 1 C 3 days 1 D 0 days 3 E 12 days 4 F 5 days 2 G 5 days 6 H 5 days 7 I 0 days 5,8 F (5d) G (5d) H (5d) B (6d) I (0d) A (8d) E (12d) C (3d) D (0d) Critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path.
Network Diagram ExampleActivity on Node (AON) Task Dur ation Predecessor(s) A 8 days - B 6 days 1 C 3 days 1 D 0 days 3 E 12 days 4 F 5 days 2 G 5 days 6 H 5 days 7 I 0 days 5,8 Once again, the critical path is A-B-F-G-H-I, with total duration of 29 days. There is one non-critical path A-C-D-E-I, with total duration of 23 days. NOTE: Task A has no slack because it is on the critical path.
Networked Tasks Scheduling Algorithm Exercise Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical Path ES EF ES EF LS LF LS LF ES EF ES EF ES EF LS LF LS LF LS LF ES EF ES EF LS LF LS LF ES EF LS LF Rule #1: In forward pass, ES = latest EF of predecessor Rule #2: In backward pass, LF = earliest LS of successors Rule #3: Task is CRITICAL if ES=LS and EF=LS (no Slack) Rule #4: Task is NON-CRITICAL if ES<>LS and Slack = LS – ES (or LF – EF)
Completed Network w/Forward & Backward PassCalculations Scheduling Algorithm Exercise Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical Path 0 30 30 60 165 195 195 225 Slack = 165 0 0 135 225 225 225 0 0 135 225 225 225 0 0 45 135 45 45 45 135 135 165 195 225 Slack = 60 Rule #1: In forward pass, ES = latest EF of predecessor Rule #2: In backward pass, LF = earliest LS of successors Rule #3: Task is CRITICAL if ES=LS and EF=LS (no Slack) Rule #4: Task is NON-CRITICAL if ES<>LS and Slack = LS – ES (or LF – EF)
Completed Network w/Forward & Backward Pass Calculations Scheduling Algorithm Solution Determine Early Start/Early Finish, Late Start/Late Finish And Critical PathOnce start date/time entered, other calculationsautomatic with project management software
Project Stakeholders• “Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interest may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion.” 2000 PMBOK Guide• Short list – Project benefactor – Project requestor – Project manager and team – Those affected by the project
Project Stakeholders: Partial List ofCandidates for Stakeholder Roles• Project benefactor and upper management – Project sponsor – Project office/project advisory boards – Executive management• Project requestor• Project manager and team – If a team member has a line manager, he or she is a key stakeholder as well. (They hold the strings for your team member.)• Internal Consultants – Legal – Audit – Telecommunications – IT infrastructure – Quality assurance – Human Resources Department• External entities affected by the project – Customers – Vendors – Governmental agencies – Other regulatory bodies
Your Turn: Identifying ProjectStakeholders Potential Stakeholders Stakeholders Inside the Team Stakeholders Within the Organization Stakeholders Outside the Organization
Defining Scope• Product Scope Versus Project Scope – Product Scope: The sum of the features that make up the product or service created by the project. – Project Scope: All of the activities and resources required to produce the target product or service.
Preliminary Context Diagrams : Deconstruction W id g e t W o r ld M anage S e ll M anage M a in ta in RunE n t e r p r is e W id g e t s S y s te m s A c c o u n ts HR (IT D e p t ) M anage S up port S e ll S up p ort D e v e lo p D e s ig n H ir e D e v e lo p M a i n t a in S a le s S a le s P rod u ct S y s te m s S y s te m s W e b s ite s S ta ff C ourses E m p lo y e e R e c o r d s (O u r C o n te x t)Here we’ve drilled down into the Widget World organization anddepicted the major functions within the company.Ideally, the top level should encompass the entire organization.We have been charged with evaluating a flawed sales supportsystem that provides automated training and support to the salesstaff. The scope of the training product is therefore the box labeled“Support Sales.”
Scope (Context) DiagramsDefining the End Product Login and Lesson Participation Usage Statistics IT Dept Sales Staff Ad Hoc Product and Procedures Inquiries Sales Staff Information Ad Hoc Product and Access and Sales Sales Staff Permissions Support Performance Sales Support Training Managers Course Lessons, Product Assessments, Sales Staff and Learner Participation Evaluations and Progress Reports Sales Staff Participation Course and Progress HR Reports Development Department Group Content Updates
Scope (Context) DiagramsDefining the End Product (continued) Soft ware The software product, usually drawn as a Product rounded-corner square, and always in the center of the graphic One rectangle for each class of individual Individuals Who (e.g., customer) or organization (e.g., HR) Int eract Wit h that might interact with the software Soft ware Product solution One rectangle (with an extra line inside Syst ems That the top) for each class of system (e.g., Int eract Wit h your HR System) that may interact with Soft ware Product the software product One arrow for each major class of information that flows to or from the software product
Scope (Context) Diagrams(applied to project team charged with delivery of the product) Request for Infrastructure IT Systems HR Dept Requirements Support Approvals/$ Internal Interim Versions Completed System Project Focus to Develop Group Sales Staff Recom mendations/ Participant Approvals Progress Reports Support System s Template Designs Internal Web Sales Design Managers Content Group Rules
Scope (Context) Diagram(applied to project team charged with delivery of the product - continued) Soft ware The name of the software development project, Developm ent usually appearing in the center of the graphic as a Project rounded-corner square Any Individuals or One rectangle for each class of individual (e.g., Organizat ions project sponsor) or organization (e.g., IT Int eracting With Department) that may interact with your software Project Team development project team in developing the software product One rectangle (with an extra line inside the top) for Syst ems That each class of system (e.g., a course module library) Int eract With Project that be used by the software development project Team team in developing the software product One arrow for each major class of information that flows to or from software development project team
The Project Life Cycle G e n e r a l F o r m o f a P r o je c t L ife C y c le P r o je c t P hase 1 P hase 2 P hase 3 P h a s e ... P h a s e "n "
Project Life Cycles Are Like Snowflakes! S i m p le T h r e e - P h a s e P r o j e c t L i f e C y c le P r o je c t In itia tio n E x e c u tio n C lo s e - O u t N in e - P h a s e P r o je c t L if e C y c le P r o je c tF o r m u la t e C o n c e p t E v a lu a te C o n c e p t V e r if y S c o p e D e s ig n C o n s tru c t D e p lo y M a i n t a in C lo s e
“Our” Project Life Cycle P r o je c t L ife C y c le U s e d in th is W o r k s h o p P r o je c tIn itia tio n D e fin it io n P la n n in g Im p le m e n ta tio n C lo s u r e Ph ase Pu r p o se Initiat ion Introduce proj ect to attain appr oval and cr eate pr oject chart er Definition Docum ent pr oject scope, deliverables, and m ethods for containi ng scope. Planning Cr eate plan docum enting t he acti viti es r equir ed t o com plet e the pr oject , along with sequence of act ivit ies, r esources assi gned t o the activities, and r esulting schedule and budget s. Im plementation Ex ecute and m anage the plan, using ar t ifacts cr eated in the planning phase. Closur e Form ally review t he pr oject, including lessons lear ned and tur nover of pr oject documentation.
Continuous Improvement Lessons Learned P r o je c t I n it ia t io n D e f in it io n P la n n in g I m p le m e n t a t io n C lo s u r e
A Word About Tools• Many people assume that project management is all about management software.• That’s like saying that residential construction is all about hammers!• Such tools will often make your work simpler and handle complex calculations with ease.• However, without a solid understanding of PM concepts, the tools often provide an illusion of project control that does not exist.• Learn the concepts, then the tool.
Communication MadeSimple The Two-Floor Rule – Every stakeholder should receive information at just the right level of detail for them. – High-level managers won’t want to see all the gory details of the project. – Your team members need to see a great deal more. – If your level of reporting is appropriate, and one of your stakeholders steps into the elevator and asks about the status of the project, you should be able to brief him or her by the time the elevator stops two floors away.
Communication Plan Communication Format Frequency DistributionTeam Briefing Restricted Intranet Daily at 9:00 Team and stakeholders with access to secure project info areaWeekly Web Bulletin Internal Intranet Weekly Team, sponsor, senior managementTechnical Incident Email Immediately after Webmaster, ITReport Incident DepartmentBudget and Schedule Spreadsheets and Bi-Weekly Sponsor, SeniorDetail Detailed Gantt Chart ManagementAccomplishments and Email and Intranet Weekly All internal stakeholdersSetbacksSchedule Milestones Email and Intranet Weekly All internal stakeholdersCost-to-Date Email and Intranet Weekly All internal stakeholdersMilestonesCurrent Top 5 Risks Email and Intranet Weekly All internal stakeholders
And Don’t Forget… Co n st r ai n t 1 2 3 Measu r em en t Buil ding m ust be com pleted by Tim e October 31 of this year to accom m odate corporate m ove. Costs for the project m ust not Cost ex ceed $22.5 m i llion. Must provi de workspace for 120 cal l Quality/ Scope center staff. + Changes to either are significant!
You’ve already seen the value of this! POST-PROJECT REVIEW Project Name: Overall Evaluation of the Project What was the overall mission of the project? Provide a short description based on your understanding of the project. All in all would you say that the project was successful? Why or why not? How close was the project to meeting its scheduled completion date? How close was the project to being completed within budget? Did the project meet its final stated objectives? Why or why not?
Post-Project Review (continued) Collaboration and Team Issues How effective was the overall leadership of the project? Did the project manager have the resources and support required to be as effective as she or he could be? In general, how well did the team members collaborate? Why was this so? Did team members work together in a single physical area or were they physically separated? What were the primary modes of team communication? Which ones worked best? Which ones worked least well? Were all team members available at the times they were needed for project work or status meetings? What impact did this have on the project? Were all stakeholders and subject matter experts available to answer questions when needed? What impact did this have on the project?
Personal Action PlanPersonal Self-Evaluation and Action Plan for Follow-Up after This WorkshopThese are the knowledge areas and skills that I already knew and hadreinforced by this workshop.These are the knowledge areas and skills that were new to me that I will beable to use in my project work in the future.These are the knowledge areas and skills introduced in the workshop onwhich I might need a refresher to use comfortably.
Personal Action Plan (continued)These are the knowledge areas and skills that were not covered (or notcovered in sufficient detail), but about which I would like to learn more.These are the steps I plan to take immediately.These are the steps I want to take within the next six monthsThese are goals related to project management that I want to achieve withinthe next two years.
Personal Action Plan• This plan is your plan and you need not share it with anyone else in the workshop.• However, find a colleague with whom you can share your plan. – Make this “Project Management In the First Person” and set out to put in place the steps you listed to meet your stated goals.• Much success in the future!!
BibliographyAdams, John R., and Campbell, Bryan, Roles and Responsibilities of the Project Manager , 4th Edition, Project Management Institute, 1990Baker, Sunny and Kim, The Complete Idiots Guide to Project Management , New York, NY: Alpha Books, 1998.Bennatan, E.M, On Time Within Budget: Software Project Management Practices and Techniques, 3rd Edition, New York, Wiley. 2000.Brooks, Fredrick. The Mythical Man-Month. Addison Wesley. 1995.DeWeaver, Mary F. and Gillespie, Lori C., Real-World Project Management: New Approaches for Adapting to Change and Uncertainty . New York: Quality Resources, 1997.Dinsmore, Paul C., Human Factors in Project Management . New York: AMACOM, 1990.Doyle, Michael and Straus, David, How to Make Meetings Work, New York: Jove Books, 1982.Greer, Michael, The Managers Pocket Guide to Project Management , Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1999.Greer, Michael, The Project Managers Partner: A Step-by-Step Guide to Project Management , Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1996.Haynes, Marion E., Project Management. Crisp Publications, 1989.Laufer, Alexander and Hoffman, Edward J., Project Management Success Stories: Lessons of Project Leadership, New York, Wiley. 2000.Lewis, James P., Fundamentals of Project Management . New York: AMACOM, 1997.Lock, Dennis, Project Management (Sixth Edition). New York: Wiley, 1996.
BibliographyMartin, Paula and Tate, Karen. Getting Started in Project Management . New York, Wiley, 2001.Meredith, Jack R. and Mantel, Jr., Samuel J., Project Management: A Managerial Approach . 5th Edition. New York. Wiley. 2003.Penner, Donald. The Project Manager’s Survival Guide. Battelle Press, 1994.Peters, Tom, Reinventing Work: The Project 50: Fifty Ways to Transform Every "Task" Into a Project That Matters. New York. Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) -- 2000 Edition , 2001.Roberts, W. Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun . Warner Books, 1987.Schrage, Michael. Shared Minds: The New Technologies of Collaboration . New York: Random House. 1990.Thomsett, R. People and Project Management . Yourdon Press, 1980.Verzuh, Eric. The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management: Quick Tips, Speedy Solutions, and Cutting-Edge Ideas. New York, Wiley. 1999.Wideman, R. Max (Editor). Project and Program Risk Management: A Guide to Managing Project Risks and Opportunities. Project Management Institute, 1992.Wysocki, Robert K. et al, Building Effective Project Teams . New York: Wiley, 2001.Wysocki, Robert K. et al, Effective Project Management . New York: Wiley, 1995.
The Project Charter• The project charter is the project’s “license to do business.”• It should come from someone outside the project itself with funding-access, resource- assignment, and decision-making authority sufficient to support the project.• This person is usually known as the project sponsor.
Why Have a ProjectCharter?• Primary purpose: to get approval to proceed with the project and obtain sufficient approval for resources to move to the next phase of the project.• Communicate to stakeholders and other interested parties the mission and objectives of the project.• Communicate to the project team what they are expected to accomplish.
Project CharterComponents*• Project Mission• Project Scope• Project Objectives• Project Assumptions• Project Constraints• Milestones• Project Risks• Stakeholders• Signature Page Granting Authority to Proceed In some organizations, the project charter is an evolving document. Many of the components listed will change as the project moves into the project definition phase.
Your Turn: Starting the Charter Li s t at l eas t Th r ee SMART Ob j ect i v es . Pr o j e ct Assu m p t i o n s Li s t at l eas t t h r ee Pr o j ec t As s u m p t i o n s . Pr o j e ct Co n st r ai n t s See Pr o j ec t Pr i o r i t y Mat r i x i n Ap p en d i x . Li s t an y o t h er c o n s t r ai n t s h er e. Pr o j e ct Ph ase s In d i c at e t h e p h ases o f t h e p r o p o s ed p r o j ec t . M i l e st o n e s Li s t m aj o r m i l es t o n es f o r p r o j ec t i d en t i f i ed s o f ar . (In c l u d e at l east f i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o j ect .) Pr o j e ct Ri sk s At t ach Ri s k Id en t i f i c at i o n Wo r k s h eet s an d Ri s k Pr i o r i t y Wo r k s h eet . St ak e h o l d e r s At t ach Po t en t i al St ak eh o l d er s Wo r k sh eet . Si g n at u r e Pag e Gr an t i n g Au t h o r i t y t o Pr o ce e d Ob t ai n s i g n at u r es o f Pr o j ec t Sp o n s o r an d Pr o j ec t Man ag er . Pr o j ec t Sp o n s o r Si g n at u r e: Pr o j ec t Man ag er Si g n at u r e:
Project ManagementMaturity Model (PMMM)• PMI defines process improvement as the “Systematic and sustained improvement of processes and thus the products they produce.”• The Five Levels of PMMM: – Level 1—Initial Process • Project management practices are ad hoc and inconsistent within organization. – Level 2—Repeatable Process • Project management practices are commonly understood and followed, but most knowledge is commonly understood rather than documented. – Level 3—Defined Process • Project methodology usually in place, with written guidelines for project deliverables and processes. – Level 4—Managed Process • Systematic collection of project performance data to set baselines for performance goals. – Level 5—Optimization • Proactive approach applying metrics and best practices to achieve highest level of project excellence.
Rewards of PMMM The promise of continuous process improvement through repeatable processes, benchmarking, and optimization: To break the triple constraint and achieve Faster!! Cheaper!! Gooder, oops, Better!!!
Writing SMART Objectives S pecific Objectives should be stated in terms that include that include some quantitative target for the end product. M easurable There should be some way of actually testing whether or not that stated target has been met. A ttainable The desired objective must be one that is actually possible to achieve within the time and cost parameters provided. R elevant The desired objective should relate directly to the organizations business needs and stated mission. T The boundaries for completion date of the desired objective should be either a specific date or time or an "offset" from the beginning of the project. (For example, must be completed within five months of project launch.) ime-Bound
Project Assumptions• Almost every lesson includes the reminder “Don’t Assume!!”• Turn that around and make it “Document Assumptions!” – Don’t expect others to read your mind. – Capture as many assumptions as possible to include in your initial project charter. – Don’t be surprised if others do not share all your assumptions. This is the time to resolve differences— before the project is underway!