Arts group 1


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Arts group 1

  1. 1. The Renaissance Presented by : Group 1
  2. 2. The Italian Renaissance ► Renaissance  rebirth ► Italian Renaissance  rebirth of ancient Greek & Roman worlds ► Characteristics  Secular Urban society (City-states)  Age of Recovery  New view of human ability & worth
  3. 3. Origins of the Renaissance ► European trade with Asia increased during the 1300s. ► 2. Italian merchants organized much of this trade. ► 3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy. ► 4. They competed to create works that would increase the prestige of their cities. Genoa Venice Milan
  4. 4. Origins of the Renaissance ► 5. (cont) Florence became a center for banking, art, culture, and literature. ► 6. Cosimo de’ Medici wanted to make Florence the most beautiful city. ► 7. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
  5. 5. Important City-States of the Renaissance ► Florence ► Rome Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Venice ► Venice Genoa Towers, Façade and bell tower, Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence ► Genoa ► Milan Comune gi Milano, Milan
  6. 6. Italian City States – Not yet the nation of ITALY Each Italian city-state had its own wealthy ruler. Italian Trade Routes – Notice the impact on Italy
  7. 7. Florence ► Center of art, literature, and culture. ► Florence became wealthy from the manufacturing of wool. ► Later Florence became the banking center of Italy. ► The Medici family were the greatest bankers in Florence.
  8. 8. Florence ► The Renaissance started in Florence and spread throughout Europe. ► Competition between the Italian city-states led to advances in literature, architecture, art, music, science, and education.
  9. 9. Medici Family ► Ruled Florence, 13th  17th Centuries ► Aimed to make Florence the most beautiful city in the world – Became Patrons of the Arts. Commissioned artist (incl. da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo) ► Lorenzo (The Magnificent) – created peace among Italian states, ended w/his death, 2 years later FR invades
  10. 10. Rome ► Home of the Catholic Church ► Popes commissioned famous artists and architects to beautify Rome. Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli all produced major works in Rome.
  11. 11. Rome popes employed the best artists and architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the most opulent churches in in the world. ► Michelangelo designed the finest example of Renaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza del ► The Campidoglio (bottom left). He also designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (bottom right).
  12. 12. Venice ► Venice was the wealthiest citystate of the Renaissance. ► It was a port city on the Mediterranean. ► Venice maintained hundreds of merchant ships and warships, and thousands of sailors.
  13. 13. Genoa ► Genoa is located on the Mediterranean. ► Genoa was one of two main port cities in Italy during the Renaissance. ► Genoa was one of the wealthiest city-states of the Renaissance. ► Dominated trade in the Mediterranean Genoa Harbor
  14. 14. ► Milan dominated the inland trade routes because it was the gateway to Italy from the north. ► Milan is the site of Santa Maria delle Grazie, the cathedral where Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper in the dining hall. Milan
  15. 15. Niccolo Machiavelli ► IT philosopher, diplomat, poet, musician, playwright.. ► Best known for The Prince – realist politics  Rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical)  “The Ends Justify the Means”  “It was better to be feared than to be loved”  All this done to keep peace and stabilize power ► 1st to publicly suggest immoral behavior for govt stability
  16. 16. Renaissance Society ► Strict Class society  Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group ►Strict rules and expectations ►Born not made or earned  Townspeople ►Wide range of wealth, from rich to poor ►Provide goods & services  Peasants – weakest, but largest group ►More freedoms as serfdom decreased ►Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least impacted by Renaissance
  17. 17. The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance
  18. 18. Italian Renaissance Humanism ► Stressed that man was the center of the universe and had dignity and value ► Humanism – intellectual movement based on the classics  Study – grammar, rhetoric (debate), poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities) ► Ren Educations – based on humanism  Goal – create complete citizens ► Vernacular Literature – written in common lang  Dante, Chaucer, Pizan
  19. 19. Petrarch: “Father of Humanism” ► Petrarch was a scholar and poet who was responsible for the recovery of manuscripts and works of Greek and Roman writers. ► He traveled throughout Europe recovering manuscripts of Cicero and other Roman authors that had been lost in monastery libraries. ► Petrarch, like other writers of the time, wrote in Latin. Francesco Petrarch
  20. 20. Dante Alighieri ► “Father of the Italian Language” ► Wrote The Divine Comedy. ► The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest works of Italian and world literature. ► Dante was first to write in the vernacular, the language used in everyday life. Until his time, all European literature was written in Latin. Dante Alighieri
  21. 21. Insert scanned table
  22. 22. The Artistic Renaissance in Italy ► Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s.  Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage. ► 3 Masters of the High Renaissance  Leonardo da Vinci  Michelangelo  Raphael ► Sculpture & Architecture are include in Renaissance Art, both drew from Greek & Roman influenences
  23. 23. New Artistic Techniques ► Fresco – watercolor on fresh plaster ► Law of Perspective ► Study of human anatomy ► GOAL – imitate nature From Michelangelo’s Sketch Book
  24. 24. Remember these guys? Leonardo Raphael Michelangelo Donatelo
  25. 25. Leonardo da Vinci ► Master of realism & perspective ► Studied human anatomy (cadavers) to be as accurate as possible ► Sculptor, painter, as tronomer, inventor – a true “Renaissance Man”
  26. 26. Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper A page from one of da Vinci’s notebooks, he “coded” his work by writing backwards. He could read it, but most other people would need a mirror to read it.
  27. 27. Raphael Santi ►1 of the top Renaissance painters ► Especially known for his “Madonna's” – paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus ► A major artist in the Vatican Madonna of the Meadows Madonna del Granduca
  28. 28. Raphael Santi School of Athens fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. Thought to be Raphael’s masterpiece .
  29. 29. Raphael Santi The bracketed names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses. 6: Pythagoras? 7: Alexander the Great? 12: Socrates? 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato holding the Timaeus (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle holding the Ethics? 16: Diogenes of Sinope? 17: 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael)
  30. 30. Michelangelo Buonarroti ► Painter, sculptor and architect ► Most famous for work in Vatican City Vatican City St. Peter’s Bascillica (large domed building) – designed by Michelangelo (St. Peter’s Square – designed by Bernini)
  31. 31. Michelangelo Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of Genesis The Creation of Adam The Last Judgement On the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel.
  32. 32. Michelangelo, the sculptor The Pieta – marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary. In St. Peter’s Basilica.
  33. 33. Michelangelo, the sculptor David – carved from one piece of marble from 1501 to 1504. Said to be proportionally perfect, though David is 17 feet tall
  34. 34. Architecture Architectural design returns to the classical styles of Rome and Greece. ► Public buildings, homes and villas are designed using Greek and Roman architectural styles. ► Renaissance buildings feature columns, domes, and vaulted ceilings. ► Brunelleschi designs the first domed building. ► Perspective becomes important in architecture. ►
  35. 35. Brunelleschi The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, also called the Duomo.
  36. 36. Donato Bramante St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. Started in 1506; Completed in 1626.
  37. 37. The Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and printer. ► Gutenberg was the first to develop movable type. This allowed for mass production of books. ► Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book-making in Europe. ► Gutenberg was the key figure in spreading the Renaissance. ► His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history. ►
  38. 38. IMPACT ► Much easier to publish books ► Increased literacy ► 1450-1500, 20 million books printed covering 35,000 topics ► Vernacular Literature – written in common language  Dante, Chaucer, Shak espeare
  39. 39. Writers of the Renaissance ► With the printing press. books become more affordable and more people (mostly wealthy) learn to read ► Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were all important writers of the time ► But there were more…
  40. 40. New Words Abound… Alligator Critical Equivocal Eyeball Eyesore Gloomy Laughingstock Lonely Luggage Manager Puke Torture Worthless Zany But where did they come from?
  41. 41. William Shakespeare ► Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer and dramatist of all time. ► Shakespeare wrote Romeo and “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players there, they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts….” William Shakespeare Juliet, Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer’s Night Dream, Henry IV, Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, Hamlet and more. ► Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two narrative poems, and other poems.
  42. 42. Shakespeare ► William      Shakespeare (1564-1616)– Elizabethan era Greatest of English Renaissance authors His work reflected the Renaissance ideas of classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism Wrote comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets Known for the “timelessness” of his work Close to 300 movies and TV adaptations have been made of Shakespeare’s work (e.g. Ten Things I Hate About You, a rendition of The Taming of the Shrew)
  43. 43. Contributions of the Renaissance ► Invention of the Gutenberg Press ► The banking industry ► Exploration, colonization of world ► Expansion of trade ► Humanism, individual is the center of the universe ► Reintroduction of Greek and Roman knowledge and philosophy ► Gateway to modern art forms ► Expansion of Greek and Roman architecture and sculpture ► Increased scientific knowledge, and desire to know more
  44. 44. Quiz! 1 - 4. Give the 4 important cities that helped widen the idea of the Renaissance ► 5. What is the meaning of renaissance ► 6. It is the home of the Catholic Church ► 7. The wealthiest city-state of the renaissance ► 8. They are the weakest but largest group ► 9. He is the Father of Humanism ► 10. He is the father of the Italian language ► 11 – 12. Give 2 famous artworks by Leonardo da Vinci ► 13 – 14. 2 famous artworks by Michelangelo ► 15. Give one more famous renaissance painter ►