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  • 1. леция по курсу типографикиБританской ВысшейШколы Дизайна.Преподаватель:Владимир Добровинский
  • 2. Ïîíÿòèå pixel art áûëî âïåðâûå ñôîðìóëèðîâàíîïðîãðàììèñòìè Àäåëü Ãîëäáåðò è Ðîáåðòîì Ôëåãàëîìèç öåíòðà íàó÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèé êîðïîðàöèèXerox (ðàñïîëîæåí â Palo Alto) â 1982 ãîäóÑ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ äèçàéíà pixel art - ýòî ýñòåòè÷åñêàÿïàðàäèãìà, îñíîâàííàÿ íà òåõíîëîãè÷åñêèõ îñîáåííîñòÿõïèêñåëüíîãî ýêðàííîãî èçîáðàæåíèÿ
  • 3. Ïîíÿòèå pixel font ìîæåò áûòü ðàñøèôðîâàíîêàê ðàñòðîâûé øðèôò, ñîñòîÿùèé èç ïèêñåëîâ(ìåëü÷àéøàÿ åäèíèöà öèôðîâîãî èçîáðàæåíèÿâ ðàñòðîâîé ãðàôèêå).  îòëè÷èå îò âåêòîðíîãîøðèôòà, ïèêñåëüíûé øðèôò èçíà÷àëüíî âñåãäàïðîåêòèðîâàëñÿ òîëüêî äëÿ ýêðàííîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ.
  • 4. Ïèêñåëüíûå (ýêðàííûå) øðèôòû âíà÷àëå íèêàêíå áûëè çàäåéñòâîâàíû â ìèðîâîé òèïîãðàôè÷åñêîéêóëüòóðå. È óæ íèêàê íåëüçÿ áûëî ïðåäñòàâèòü,÷òî ñî âðåìåíåì ñîçäàíèå ïèêñåëüíûõ øðèôòîâïðåâðàòèòñÿ â îòäåëüíóþ îáëàñòü íà ñòûêå äèçàéíà,media arts è ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà.
  • 5. Ïîñêîëüêó ïèêñåëüíûå øðèôòû ÿâëÿþòñÿ ÷àñòüþpixel art, îíè äåëÿòñÿ ðîâíî íà òå æå êàòåãîðèè, ÷òîè ëþáûå äðóãèå ñîñòàâëÿþùèå ýêðàííîãî èçîáðàæåíèÿ,ôîðìèðóþùåãî âèçóàëüíûé èíòåðôåéñ ïèêñåëüàðòà.Äâå îñíîâíûå êàòåãîðèè îïèñàíèÿ ïèêñåëüíûõ øðèôòîâ:A. isometric pixel fontsB. simple (non-isometric) pixel fonts
  • 6. Åñòåñòâåííî, ÷òî ôîðìîîáðàçîâàíèå â ïèêñåëüíûõøðèôòàõ íà çàðå ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ ñòèëÿ áûëî îãðàíè÷åíîîñîáåííîñòÿìè òåõíîëîãèè ýêðàííîãî ðàñòðèðîâàíèÿ.Îãðàíè÷åííîñòü â êåãåëüíîì äèàïàçîíå, âîçìîæíîñòüèñïîëüçîâàíèÿ òîëüêî â ýêðàííîì ôîðìàòå, à òàæåîïèñàíèå ëþáîé ôîðìû (ïî âîçìîæíîñòè)ïðÿìîóãîëüíûìè ñîñòàâëÿþùèìè:Òàê êîãäà æå ýòè, âðîäå áû, íåäîñòàòêè ñòàëèýñòåòè÷åñêèìè äîñòîèíñòâàìè øðèôòà?
  • 7. âîçâðàòèìñÿëåò íà 20 íàçàä...Ïèîíåðàìè â îáëàñòèðàçðàáîòêè è ïðèìåíåíèÿâ ìàññîâîé òèðàæíîéïîëèãðàôèè øðèôòîâ,èìåþùèõ ðàñòðîâóþïðèðîäó, è ôîðìèðîâàíèÿñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé ìîäûâ ñîâðåìåííîé òèïîãðàôèêåñòàëè äèçàéíåðû ãðóïïûEmigre (www.emigre.com),îñíîâàííîé â 1984 ãîäóÇóçàííîé Ëè÷êî (ðîäèëàñüâ 1961 ãîäó â ×åõîñëîâàêèè)è Ðóäè ÂàíäåðëàíñîìÎáëîæêà îäíîèìåííîãîæóðíàëà Emigre (1990)
  • 8. ñòàâøàÿ â íà÷àëå 90-õ ìîäíûì òðåíäîìïîñòìîäåðíèñòêàÿ òèïîãðàôèêà ñòåðëà ãðàíè ìåæäó(óñëîâíî) âûñîêèìè è óëè÷íûìè ýñòåòè÷åñêèìè ïðèåìàìèÐàçâîðîò æóðíàëà Emigre (1989)
  • 9. ñòàâøàÿ â íà÷àëå 90-õ ìîäíûì òðåíäîìïîñòìîäåðíèñòêàÿ òèïîãðàôèêà ñòåðëà ãðàíè ìåæäó(óñëîâíî) âûñîêèìè è óëè÷íûìè ýñòåòè÷åñêèìè ïðèåìàìèÐàçâîðîò æóðíàëà Emigre (1989)
  • 10. Ñîâïàâøèå â ñîâðåìåííîì äèçàéíåòðè êóëüòóðíûõ è òåõíîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåññà:A/òîðæåñòâî ïîñòìîäåðíèñòñêîãî äèçàéíà, êîãäà îñíîâîéðåøåíèÿ ìîæåò ñòàòü ñî÷åòàíèå ëþáûõ ýëåìåíòîâB/Áóðíîå ðàçâèòèå èíòåðíåòà è öèôðîâûõ òåõíîëîãèé,çàèìñòâîâàíèå â ïîëèãðàôèè ïðèåìîâ web-äèçàéíàÑ/îáùàÿ äåìîêðàòèçàöèÿ äèçàéíà, êàê îáëàñòè äåÿòåëüíîñòè,âîâëå÷åíèå â íåãî ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ñìåæíûõ ïðîôåññèéâñå ýòî äàëî âîçìîæîñòü ðàçâèòèÿ pixelart,è êàê ñëåäñòâèå - îòëè÷íûå ïåðñïåêòèâû äëÿ âíåäðåíèÿïèêñåëüíîé òèïîãðàôèêè è ñîåäèíåíèÿ åå ïðèåìîâñ ýñòåòèêîé ïîñò-êîíñòðóêòèâèçìà è ïîñò-ìèíèìàëèçìà
  • 11.  êîíöå 90-õ ãîäîâ êîëè÷åñòâî ñëîâîëèòåí (typefoundry)ñïåöèàëèçèðóþùèõñÿ íà ïðîèçâîäñòâå ïèêñåëüíûõøðèôòîâ (pixel fonts, bitmap fonts) â Åâðîïå è Àìåðèêåóâåëè÷èëîñü, çà ñ÷åò ïåðñïåêòèâíîñòè ýòîãîñåêòîðà äèçàéí-ïðîèçâîäñòâà. Âíåäðåíèå ìîáèëüíîãîêîíòåíòà äëÿ ñîòîâûõ òåëåôîíîâ, êîììóíèêàòîðîâ,êàðìàííûõ êîìïüþòåðîâ (íàëàäîííèêîâ), áóðíîåðàçâèòèå Flash-àíèìàöèè, ïîòðåáîâàëî óâåëè÷åíèÿàññîðòèìåíòà øðèôòîâ.Ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, èíòåðåñ ñðåäè åâðîïåéñêèõ äèçàéíåðîâê íàñëåäèþ êîíñòðóêòèâèçìà è ê ìèíèìàëèçìó,à òàêæå âçàèìîïðîíèêíîâåíèå äèçàéíåðñêèõ ïðèåìîâèç “ñåòè” â ïîëèãðàôèþ, ïîðîäèëî “ïîñòöèôðîâóþ”ìèíèìàëèñòè÷åñêóþ ýñòåòèêó (îáùóþ è äëÿ web- è offline)
  • 12. http://atomicmedia.net/
  • 13. Íàèáîëåå èíòåðåñíûå øðèôòûGenetrix Äèçàéíåð: Ìýòüþ Áåðäðàì