Bavaresco Seminario Colchagua 2009

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Bavaresco Seminario Colchagua 2009

  1. 1. PREMIER SEMINARIO INTERNACIONAL COLCHAGUA CARMENERE PMC Vitivinicola Valle de Colchagua, Chile 25 noviembre 2009 Climate change: effects on viticulture and wine quality Luigi BAVARESCO, Mario FREGONI, Matteo GATTI Istituto di Frutti-Viticoltura Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Piacenza, Italia Main fruit world production in 2006 ( www.FAO.org) World NORTH / SOUTH ASIA EUROPA OCEANIA production AFRICA CENT AMERICA % % % (x 1000 t) % AMERICA % % BANANAS 70,756 11 12 23 52 0.6 1.5 GRAPES 68,952 5 11 9 24 49 3 ORANGES 64,795 8 27 32 23 9 1 APPLES 63,805 3 9 6 52 29 1 PLANTAINS 33,985 71 6 20 3 - - MANGOES 26,574 10 9 5 76 - 0.1 TANG.MAND.CLE. 25,659 6 5 11 64 13 0.4 PEARS 19,539 3 5.5 5 64.6 21 1 OLIVES 16,962 10 1 1 9 78 - PEACHES/NECTAR 17,188 4.5 12 6 44 33 0.7 PINEAPPLES 18,260 18 16 17 48 - 0.4 LEMONS/LIMES 12,989 6 24 20 34 16 0.3 PLUMS 9,431 2 7 4 57 30 0.2 1
  2. 2. Raisins: 3% raisins: 3% Table grapes: table grapes: 27% 27% wine grapes: Wine grapes: 70% 70% UTILIZATION OF GRAPES IN THE WORLD Grape surface and production in the main viticultural countries in 2005 (OIV, Paris) Surface Production Country ha % t % Spain 1,180,000 14,8 6,072,100 9.0 France 894,000 11.2 6,790,200 10.0 Italy 842,000 10.6 8,553,600 12.6 Turkey 555,000 6.9 3,303,000 4.9 China 485,000 6.1 6,520.900 9.6 USA 399,000 5.0 7,088,500 10.5 Iran 338,000 4.2 2,963,800 4.3 Portugal 240,000 3.1 1,022,200 1.5 Argentina 219,000 2.7 2,829,700 4.1 Chile 193,000 2.4 2,319,200 3.4 World 7,929,000 / 67,396,900 / 2
  3. 3. Cool climate 45° Temperate climate 30° Sub tropical climate 10° 0° 10° Sub tropical climate 30° Temperate climate 45° Cool climate Distribution of world viticultural area according to climatic zones 0,3% 6,0% 23,2% 70,5% Tropical V. Sub-Tropical V. Temperate V. Cool V. 3
  4. 4. Viticultural Agri-system Variety/Rootstock Cultural practices Climate genius loci Soil 4
  5. 5. CLIMATE • Definition: number of factors describing the average status of the athmosphere in a give area. It is defined by the meteorological conditions of many years (30- 50) • It is characterizad by: Light, Temperature, Rainfall • It is affectd by: Latitude, Elevation, Exposure, Closeness to large water bodied and/or forests Climatic requirements for the vine • Winter temperatures must not be so cold that plants are killed • Winters must not be so warm that buds get inadequate chilling to break winter rest. • The growing season (number of frost-free days) must be long enough to mature the fruit. • Temperature and light during the growing season must be adequate for the species to develop good quality grapes 5
  6. 6. TEMPERATURES AND VARIETY CHOICE Varieties are grown in different climatic areas, depending on their ripening time High latitudes/elevations: early ripening varieties (Jones, Italus Hortus, 2008) 6
  7. 7. CLIMATE CHANGE • Increasing temperatures • Declining precipitations (in some areas) • Cause: increasing emission of geenhouse gases (ex. CO2, methane, halocarbons, tropospheric ozone) and black carbon • Profound and direct impact, over the next few decades, on agricultural and food systems and on health • In semiarid regions → yield reduction for corn, wheat, rice and other prymary crops (Kerner and Rochard, Rev. Oenologues, 2007) 7
  8. 8. (Kerner and Rochard, Rev. Oenologues, 2007) (Liu and Diamond, Science, 2008) 8
  9. 9. (Kerr, Science, 2006, data related to the Northern Hemisphere) (Kerr, Science, 2009) 9
  10. 10. (Kerr, Science, 2007) (Jones, Italus Hortus, 2008) 10
  11. 11. (Jones, Italus Hortus, 2008) Winkler Index (sDD, from April till October) at Piacenza (45 ° Lat N, 61 m a.s.l.) from 1950 till 2007 (Osservatorio Alberoni, Piacenza). sDD °C 2400 2003 2200 2007 2000 1800 1600 1400 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 years 11
  12. 12. Malvasia di Candia aromatica Colli Piacentini DOC Surface: 6,400 Ha Production: 263,425 HL Malvasia rosa + Gutturnium Tortelli Barbera Croatina Gutturnio >12°, deeply coloured, fruity, soft tannins, easy drinking Pisarei e fasö (Kerr, Science, 2007) 12
  13. 13. CO2 Emission in the atmosphere Activity % Agriculture/Forestry 24 % Road Trasportations 21 % Industry 21 % Services/Residential 18 % Energy Processes 12 % Other (air, train transport, etc.) 4% Source: CIVC Champagne Carbon balance in Champagne t C/ha/year % Photosynthesis 3.8 100 Respiration 1.9 50 Grapes 1.0 26 Pruning wood and storage 0.8 21 in the perennial wood Wood at vineyard 0.1 3 explantation, end life cycle Source: CIVC Champagne 13
  14. 14. Migliaia di tonnellate equivalenti di carbonio 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Energia viticoltura Energia enologia Emissioni non Source: CIVC Champagne energetiche (combustioni diverse, fughe) Trasporti Valori residuali Spostamenti persone Materiali entranti Obiettivi di riduzione Fabbricazione e fine di vita imballaggi Residui/effluenti reduction possibilities by 10 years Ammortamenti Carbon production of wine sector and 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Effects of climatic factors on physiological processes • Photosynthesis: (stops at 35°C) • Respiration: (increases with T°) • Transpiration: 1.500 m3/H2O/ha to 5.000 m3/H2O/ha (different factors) 16
  17. 17. Effects of temperature on grape sugars and acids •A1) Sugar synthesis •A2) Acid degradation Warm areas: more tartrate Winkler index (heath (oxidized 37°C) than malate summation) (burnt 30 °C) Cool areas: more malate than tartrate (Perard et al., Rev. Oenologues, 2007) 17
  18. 18. 45 40 Pinot noir Oltrepò pavese, Italy (45°Lat N) 35 30 °Brix - Acidità tit. 25 Harvest dates 1977-1978 7-12 Sept. 20 1989-1991 2-6 Sept. 15 1999-2000 25-28 Aug. 10 2003 17 Aug. 5 2007 15 Aug. 0 18/7 28/7 7/8 17/8 27/8 6/9 16/9 26/9 1977-78 I V 1989-91 (Vercesi, 2002) 1999-00 Polyphenols in the berry Tannins Anthocyanins Cinnamic acids (est) Flavan–3-oli Flavonols Stilbenes N.B. The arrow means a decreasing content 18
  19. 19. Effects of climatic factors on grape anthocyanins and tannins • Anthocyanin synthesis • Tannin synthesis Temperature daily range Synthesis also with T° >35° but herbaceous and PAL stops at 35 °C aggressive tannins Sunlight is positive, but The same with high sunlight > 100 μmol/m2/sec reduces the synthesis Day Temperature (°C) 25 25 25 25 15 20 25 30 Night Temperature (°C) from Kliewer and Torres, 1972 19
  20. 20. Cabernet Sauvignon 25 °C 35 °C Night T (20:00 – 6:00) 20 °C in the two situations From Mori et al., 2007 1,2 1 cis -Resveratrol (mg/L) 0,8 Effect of some bioclimatic indices on 0,6 y = e(10.175-0.5187x) r = -0.49** Gutturnio wines (Barbera+ 0,4 Croatina) cis-resveratrol content (Vintages 1998 – 2004) 0,2 0 19 21 23 25 27 29 Tav. August (°C) 1,2 1 cis -Resveratrol (mg/L) 0,8 0,6 y = e(6.3522-0.005x) r = -0.50** 0,4 0,2 0 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 (Bavaresco et al. OIV World Congress, Verona, 2008) DD (°C) 20
  21. 21. Effect of climatic factors on grape aroma synthesis • C13-nor-isoprenoids (from β- • Terpenes: carotene): • Lower T° than anthocyanins • β-damascenone, α-ionone, β- • Sunlight necessary in the ionone, TDN herbaceous phase of berry • β-carotene synthesis takes growth (green berries) place in green berries • Highest concentration in • High temperature (35 °C) and shaded clusters sunlight→ high C13-nor- • High Winkler Index → low isoprenoid synthesis terpene synthesis • Pyrazines (IBMP): • High sunlight → low pyrazines • High T° → low skin pyrazines, High T° (> 35°C) →high seed pyrazines Effects of climatic factors on grape enzymes synthesis High T° →Enhancement of oxidizing enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase) White grape varieties more susceptible than red grape varieties Under high T°, the mechanical harvest can increase the oxidizing enzymes 21
  22. 22. Adaptation of viticulture to climate change • Vineyards shifting to higher latitudes and elevations • Grape variety replacement: red instead of white • Drought tolerant rootstocks • Low expansion training systems • Long cane – and two times- winter pruning • Sprinkle irrigation • Foliar sprays anti-stress (mineral elements, aminoacids, oligosaccharines, hormons, anti-oxidants) • Canopy management • Soil management 22
  23. 23. Greek gobelet “a settonce” (Az. Avignonesi, Toscana) 23
  24. 24. Anti-stress (thermic, water) products : stress produces protein dismantling, cell early oxidation and death Cell wall (pectate Hormons (cell Ca and Mg), replication) oligosaccarids Aminoacids Cell membrane Proteins Involved factors • Hormons (citochinine, auxine,etc.) • Macro- and trace-elements (help • Vitamins (group B) protein stability) • Enzymes • Aminoacids • Anti-oxidants (resveratrol, etc .) • Oligosaccarids 24
  25. 25. Canopy structure From veraison on, the young leaves (including lateral shoots) have to be 20-30% of total plant leaf surface, while adult and old leaves 70-80%. Young leaves have to be more where sugar synthesis is important (cool climate), while adult and old leaves have to be more where polyphenols synthesis is important. Canopy structure and berry physiology (Jackson and Lombard, 1993, modified) ( Enhancement Decrease Compounds (# leaf layers) (# leaf layers) Sugars 1 – 1,5 3 Titratable acidity 3 1 – 1,5 pH 1 – 1,5 >3 Polyphenols (anthocyanins,tannins) 1 – 1,5 3 Aromas (C13 –nor-isoprenoids) 1- 1.5 >2 Herbaceous taste (pyrazines) >3 1 – 1,5 Terpenes <1.5 (pre-veraison) >1.5 (ripening) 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. • Thank you very much for your attention! 27

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