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  • PrefaceThe National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 proposes that the teaching of social sciences should adoptnot just interdisciplinary approach but also facilitate inquiry beyond the textbook. The Teacher’s Manualaccompanying the critically-acclaimed series, Time, Space & People, for classes 6, 7 and 8 aims to assist the teacherto achieve this,and there by also converge with the broad objectives of the series itself.The Teacher’s Manual has been especially written to meet the requirements of the new NCERT syllabus andthe guidelines of the NCF. Innovatively designed, each manual comprises sections on history ,geography, andsocial and political life.Using the ManualThis manual provides a suggested lesson plan and a gist of the teaching points of each lesson. In addition , themanual also contains the following features: (a) Pre-teaching and motivational activities (b) Recapitulation of teaching points of each lesson (c) Key to the textbook exercises (d) Pointers for the Things to do section (e) Sections on vocabulary and definitions of key words (f) Links to websites for supplementary reference material,pictures and information (g) Hints to in-text questions and discussion topics (h) Stories for role-play and dramatization (i) Intergration of art and craft in lesson plans through making of charts, posters and audio-visual aids (j) Group activities to promote cooperative learning (k) Fun with History! and Fun with Geography! provide additional activities to the lessonSome Tips on Planning and Teaching• The teacher must read the chapter in the textbook in conjunction with the manual while planning the lesson.• A brief overview of the previous class will facilitate recall of the main points and establish continuity with current lesson. The teacher must emphasize that social sciences is a process with elements of continuity and change.• Extracts,first-hand accounts and descriptions should be read aloud in class using the techniques of dramatization and role-play.• Display maps and atlases should be used extensively while teaching history and geography. This gives students a better perspective of the region and location of the event.• The activities suggested in the Things to do section must be undertaken when the relevant topic is being discussed. This will provide students with an immediate reinforcement of what is being taught, enable them to explore additional dimensions of the theme,and also bring in various modes of stimulus variation.• Students should be encouraged to display their charts, posters and other tactile material prepared during the course of the lesson.• Teachers can also conduct mini-exhibitions periodically. This can be planned at the beginning of the year to coincide with important dates of the calender and on the completion of significant periods or key concepts. For example, in history,an exhibition can be conducted on the Mughal Period with charts,displays,models etc. Students should be encouraged to explore aspects of Mughal life such as
  • textiles,jewellery, music,art,dressing styles,etc,and form a link with contemporary trends. • Group activities and discussions should be conducted through presentations and overviews done by the students themselves. • Students can maintain an activity book/scrapbook with a collection of their cuttings ,activity pages, etc. It can also contain comments under the following headings: ÂWhat I didÊ; ÂWhat I LearntÊ; and ÂHow this helped meÊ.The Central Board of Secondary Eduction has recently introduced the scheme of Continuous and ComprehensiveEvaluation (CCE)as a part of its Examination Reforms Programme. Under this new scheme the learner is to beevaluated in both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, on a continuous basis throughout the year, covering allaspects of students’ development.In order to improve the teaching -learning process and to have a balanced assessment system, the CCE stresseson Formative and Summative assessment.Formative assessment is a tool used by the teacher to monitor a student’s progress continuously in a supportiveenvironment. It involves regular feedback and a chance for the student to reflect on the performance,take adviceand improve upon it. The assessment is based on a seven-point grading system followed by the descriptiveremarks of the teacher about the positive and significant achievements of the student.It thus provides theplatform for the active involvement of the students in their own learning and enables teachers to adjust teachingto take account of the results of the assessment.Summative assessment is given periodically at the end of the course of learning. It measures how much astudent has learnt from the course. It is usually a graded test,and marked according to a set of grades.The series Time,Space &People and the Teacher’s Manual adhere to the CCE scheme as they aim atassessing a learner’s development in areas of learning such as knowledge,understanding/comprehension,applying,analyzing,evaluating and creating through ample exercises,extract questions,case studies,in-text andhigher order thinking skill questions,activities,things to do and project work,thus covering both Formativeand Summative assessment.Tools and Techniques of Assessment under CCE FORMAT DESCRIPTION STAGE Oral Testing Short answer questions,extract questions,case study,in text and higher FORMATIVE3 order thinking skill questions that tend to evaluate the student’s communication and understanding of the concept Assignements/ Exercises,additional exercises,vocabulary,definitions and case studies Worksheets help to assess the learning of the syllabus Activities Individual or group activities which require students to create or take FORMATIVE an action related to a particular concept or issue Written Test Periodical tests which assess the students acquisition of knowledge SUMMATIVE Project Work Students can either individually,in pairs or groups can work on a FORMATIVE project which may also require the application of cocept or skill Portfolio A collection of student’s work over a period of time reflecting the FORMATIVE learner’s growth and progress Checklist Supervising and recording a student’s progress based on certain criteria FORMATIVE such as self-awareness,creative and critical thinking, decisionmaking, interpersonal relationships,effective communication, dealing with stress,etc. Can be a list as well as narrative based on observation
  • The teachers can use the sections on vocabulary,definitions,additional exercises, extract questions, case studies,in-text and higher order thinking skill questions,activities, things to do, projects and fun with history andgeography as a part of the Formative assessment. These are quite useful in evaluating the students’ thinkingand communication skills, and understanding of the concept and also reflect the learner’s growth and progress.For the Summative assessment, the teachers will find the exercise at the end of every chapter,quite useful asthese will help the teachers in assessing the students’ acquisition of knowledge.Reporting Students’ AchievementThe assessment under CCE is based on a nine point grading system and the nine points and their equivalentperformance scale in raw scores (in percentage) as follows:A1 - 91 – 100A2 - 81 – 90B1 - 71 – 80B2 - 61 – 70C1 - 51 – 60C2 - 41 – 50D- 33 – 40E1 - 21 – 32E2 - 00 – 20Overall, the manual’s approach is guided by a ‘learning-by-doing’ philosophy. Needless to say, the role ofthe teacher as an initiator and facilitator of this process cannot be overstated. It is thus hoped that throughthis endeavour, the teaching of social sciences will be revitalized and generate greater enthusiasm amongstudents.
  • ContentsPreface 3 15. Rotation and Revolution 107Coontent 6 16. Reading Maps 111 HISTORY 17. The Realms of the Earth 116 1. History—When, Where and How? 7 18. Continents and Oceans 1212. The Age of Stone Tools and 19. Major Relief Features of the World 125 Cave Homes 17 20. India—Physical Features 1293. The Age of the First Farmers 24 21. India’s Climate 1344. The First Cities 30 22. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife 1385. Devotional Lore and Sacred Fires 366. Early Kingdoms and Ganasanghas 43 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE7. Emergence of New Ideas and 23. Understanding Diversity 142 Religions 50 24. Diversity and Discrimination 1498. The First Empire and Ashoka 58 25. What is Government? 1549. From Villages to Towns 67 26. Basic Features of a Democratic10. Flowering of Religion and Commerce 75 Government 16011. India from the 4th Century to the 27. Panchayati Raj 167 7th Century 82 28. Rural Administration 17312. Stories in Stone, Stories on Paper 88 29. Urban Administration 177 GEOGRAPHY 30. Livelihoods 18113. Planet Earth and the Solar System 93 31. Urban Livelihoods –14. The Globe - Latitudes and A Study In Contrast 186 Longitudes 101
  • History—When,1 Where and How? LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Familiarize the learner with the major developments to be studied • Develop an understanding of the significance of the geographical terms used during the time frame • Illustrate the sources used to reconstruct historyTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned Monument An important building orTime required: 4 periods sculpture Intermingle to mix togetherVOCABULARY Bounded Confined Conqueror VictoriousBanks land next to a river, lake, or channel Denoted SignifiedRiver Large natural stream of water Reconstruction Create againDecided Made up their mind Preferred favoriteFurther comparative of far Passes (Mountain passes), low places inProbably Most likely mountainsGenerations All the offspringSuited FitNative Produced in a certain place DEFINITIONSOral Spoken Subcontinent – A large landmass, such as India,Orally By word of mouth that is part of a continent but is considered eitherNevertheless in-spite geographically or politically as an independentTradition Custom entityExcavate to dig out Burial sites – burial area ,a place where many gravesExcavations Dug are foundVault Compartment Archaeological finds – material evidence, such asVaulted Covered with an arch graves, buildings, tools, and pottery found byChamber A room in a house archaeologistsCemetery Graveyard. Mesopotamia – (meso: in the middle of) (potamia:Lapis lazuli A blue, violet-blue, or greenish-blue rivers) an ancient region of southwest Asia between semiprecious gemstone the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq.Choker A tight-fitting necklace. Probably settled before 5000 B.C., the area was theCrescent The figure of the moon as it appears home of numerous early civilizations, including in its first or last quarter Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, and Assyria. It declined
  • 8 TEACHER’S MANUAL in importance after Mongol invaders destroyed its • People who study history are known as historians. extensive irrigation system in A.D. 1258. Historians make use of items from the past, suchBharatnatyam – is a classical dance form originating as books, coins, monuments or inscriptions as from Tamil Nadu given in our activities.Archaeology – the scientific study of material remains • Every family has a history made up of events (as fossil relics, artifacts, and monuments) of past from the past, such as the day our parents got human life and activities married; the day we moved into a new house, aPrehistoric – History of humankind in the period family vacation that we remember etc. before recorded history. • Just like families, countries too have a historyBiography – An account of a person’s life written, made up of events from the past. composed, or produced by another: (b) Make students read the introductory section of theManuscript – A book, document, or other composition chapter. (Page 11) written by hand. Assessment – 1Secular literature – literature not specifically relating Purpose – Formative, Group Test; Type – Individual to religion or to a religious body: Assessment; Tool – Group DiscussionTablets – A slab or plaque, such as one of stone or ivory, with a surface that is intended for or bears In-text Questions (Page 11) an inscription. Close your eyes and think of an event that happened a week or ten days ago.TEACHING POINTS (Possible responses: ‘I had a test at school’; ‘We went out for an ice-cream’; ‘I had a fight with my brother/ sister’; ‘I got a new dress’ etc.)Learning about the past What is the earliest thing that you can remember?(a) Ask students to bring photographs of their (Possible responses: ‘My first day at school’; ‘The grandparents. Divide students into pairs and let day I got my favourite toy’, ‘The day my younger them exchange the photographs. Ask students brother/sister was born’ etc.) to record information on different aspects (such When you say Ê50 years agoÊ, what does it mean to you? as dress, culture, location etc) based on their (Possible responses: ‘It is very long time ago, ‘We observations from the photographs. were not born as yet’; ‘A time when our grandparents(b) Ask students what they can conclude from this were at school’ etc.) activity. Can you imagine what your city might have looked like 1,000 years ago? Draw a picture and share it with theHints class.We made some guesses about how our grandparents Teachers can refer to the following websites to guidelived and dressed many years ago. students in this activity:We got our information from a source (the www.kamat.com – an excellent source for timelinesphotograph) and tried to deduce as much as we and material on Ancient, Medieval and Britishcould. We looked at it from various points of view Indiaand our guesses were based on our own experiences www.webindia123.com – contains material on theof life so far. history of Indian states as well as sources of Indian historyUnderstanding what is history Discussion Points at the conclusion of the above activities(a) Ask students the question: ‘What is History?’ • Events of the past become a part of our Summarize the main ideas on the blackboard. memory. • History is a journey into the past and looks atMain Ideas events and people that have had an impact on our• History is a study of the past. lives. This could be as recent as yesterday, a week• History tells us about how people lived, dressed ago, a month ago, a year ago, fifty or hundred and behaved many years ago. years ago or even thousands of years ago!
  • 9 TEACHER’S MANUALWhy do we study history? some important people and how our lives have(a) Have a mind mapping activity with the class on become better as a result – for example, the the reasons for studying history. (A mind map is invention of the electric bulb by Thomas Edison a diagram used to represent various ideas around or how Gandhiji fought for our freedom. a central theme.) Assessment – 4Assessment – 2 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Test;Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Test; Tool – Tool – ProjectDiagram Fun with History!On the conclusion of this exercise, students can draw Students create their own historical recordthis diagram on a chart for the class display board. (Distribute the printable worksheet to each student.) History makes us Worksheet 1A. think, question and express our views History tells us How do we study history? We are all a part about how people of history; who we lived and behaved (a) Revisit the ‘why History is Important’ Activity are is because of our history Why do we in the past with students. Explain to students that the source study history? used in this activity was a photograph. History makes a We learn about (b) Discuss the different types of sources available connection between our customs and the past and traditions (heritage) for the historians to reconstruct the history of a the present period.(b) Make students read the section ‘Why study history’ SOURCES OF HISTORY (Page 12). Have a fifteen minute debate on the topic: ‘Is History Useful? ARCHAEOLOGICAL LITERARYAssessment – 3 (objects dug fromPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (written records) the earth)Assessment; Tool – DebateHints Examples: Examples:No, history is not useful because: tombs, monuments, manuscripts,• We live in the present and we plan for the future, inscriptions, coins, religious books, so we need not learn about the past. pillars, vessels, stories, accounts of• We need to learn a lot of unnecessary facts and pots etc. foreign travelers etc. remember many dates. Archaeological Sources• It is not interesting – why do we need to learn (a) Explain how historians use archaeological evidence about dead people? to understand the life of people.Yes, history is useful because: • Artefacts or materials found in the earth reveal• Who we are and how we live is directly linked to our past (for example, we learn and study English how people lived in the past. because we were ruled by the British for nearly • For example, if a lot of expensive items were 200 years) – hence, we learn more about ourselves found such as silver vessels, gold coins, precious by studying history. stones etc., it tells us that the people of that area• It is a journey into the past. We understand were prosperous. changes and developments that have taken place (b) Make students read the section on archaeological in society over time. For this, it is necessary to evidence in the textbook. (Page 13) remember some important dates of the past. (c) Discuss the different types of archaeological• We can learn about the contributions made by sources.
  • 10 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 5 • They provide information on the names of kings,Purpose – Formative, Group Test; Type – Individual/ the period of their reign, their activities etc.Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • The Ashokan pillars in Delhi, Vaishali andi. Burial Sites Sarnath are good examples of how inscriptions throw light on a king’s activities. (Refer to www.• Burial sites help archaeologists to learn a lot about wikipedia.org for additional information on the a civilization because they contain a lot of daily pillars.) life objects.• For example, the ancient Egyptians used to bury (e) Make students read the section on inscriptions. the the dead with the objects used in daily life, (Page 14) such as clothes, vessels, jewellery etc. iv. Other objectsIn text Questions; Queen PuabiÊs Tomb (Page 13) • Include toys, vessels, beads, pots, textiles etc.Describe the pictures. • These objects reveal the lifestyle of the people and(Hints: Shows the head of a woman decorated with throws light on the level of economic and sociala beautiful headdress with ribbons and leaves; she development.also has large earrings.) • (Teachers can use the example of the Indus ValleyWhat does the headdress tell you about this queen and the Civilization to illustrate how historians have usedcrafts persons who made them? the archaeological evidence to reconstruct history(Hints: Tells us that the queen was an important as the script has not been deciphered.)individual; she was rich and powerful. The elaborate (f) Make students read the section on other objects.nature of the headdress indicates that the craftsmen (Page 14-15)were well equipped and highly skilled.) Assessment – 6How would you know that the body belonged to a rich Purpose – Formative; Type – Group/Individualperson? Assessment; Tool – Discussion(Hint: The use of precious metals and discovery oflarge amount of jewellery indicates a rich person.) Activity 1: Play the Archaeologist • When archaeologists undertake excavations, they(d) Make students read the section on Queen Puabi’s have very little background information with tomb. (Page 13) them. Using the objects found, they make variousii. Monuments conclusions.• Monuments refer to buildings, forts, palaces, • The objects found are like clues that help an tombs, places of religious worship etc. archaeologist to piece together the past.• They tell us about the cultural and religious life • In the activity, the layer that was laid down the of people. first was the last to come out - this is an important• They also reveal the level of scientific development rule of archaeology, wherein, the age of materials and artistic skill of the time. found are determined by the layer in which it wasIn text Question (Page 14) found. Hence, older materials are often buried deep into the earth.Can you tell at least one thing about the Taj Mahal justby looking at it? Assessment – 7(Hints: ‘It is made of marble’; ‘It is surrounded by Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment;beautiful gardens’; ‘The main building is surrounded Tool – Source Based Questionby four pillars’; ‘It is a huge structure’. Activity 2 – Students read an inscription of an(d) Make students read the section on monuments. Ashokan pillar and write down what it reveals of (Page 14) his interestsiii. Inscriptions • Ashoka loved nature and cared for animals. • He took good care of his subjects. He was a• Written records engraved on rocks, pillars, walls good ruler who worked for the welfare of his or coins are called inscriptions. kingdom.
  • 11 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 8 Religious LiteraturePurpose – Formative; Type – Group/Individual • Examples: Vedas, Puranas, Jataka Tales etc.Assessment; Tool – Role • They give us a glimpse of the religious beliefsPlayActivity 3 – Reconstruct ancient times from of the people and how they worshipped theirarchaeological finds gods. • Epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata• The city was well planned – evidence of high walls, are also valued for their information on social probably to protect the city from outsiders. practices and traditions.• Remains of beads and jewellery suggest that the • Religious books are often written in the ancient people were prosperous. scripts of Pali, Prakrit and Sanskrit.• High level of artistic skill as painted pots, statues In Text Questions and engraved tablets have been excavated. The Brahmi Script: Can you recognize any letter?• They probably followed some kind of religion (Hints: certain letters resemble ‘t, l, E, h, C, O, I, – remains of what resembles a temple has been inverted Y, D, and inverted T of the English found. alphabet) Pushpaka Viman painted by Pandit Pant Pratinidhi inAssessment – 9 1916. Describe the scene. What is happening?Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; (Hints: people are watching a chariot descendingTool – Project from the sky; they all seem to be in great wonderActivity 4 – Look for some inscriptions in your at this event)school premises. What do they tell you? What kind of dresses are the men wearing?• They have the school emblem and motto – tells (Hints: the soldiers are attired in a dhoti, shirt and us what the school believes in. a headdress; the others who seem to be important• They carry the dates when the buildings were people are in a dhoti and upper garment.) erected – reveals how old the school is. Describe their expressions.• Sometimes, they may have the names of certain (Hints: amazement, wonder, surprise) important people who founded the school or Assessment – 11 made significant contributions. Purpose – Formative; Type – IndividualB Literary or Written Records Assessment; Tool – Story Telling(a) Recall the ‘Fun with History’ activity. Explain how Fun with History! history can be studied with the help of written Teachers can refer to the website www.jatakkatha. records. com for a collection of stories on the Jataka Tales. Each student can read a different story and narrateAssessment – 10 it to the rest of the class.Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; (d) Make students read the section on religiousTool – Oral Assessment literature.Discussion Points Secular Literature • Written records are relatively younger than • Examples: Arthashastra, Shakuntala, archaeological sources as humans learned to write Silappadikaram, Manimekalai only about 5000 years ago. • These texts are not religious in nature. They are • Existence of different types of written records plays, stories, essays and treatises. – religious literature, secular (non-religious) • They tell us how common people lived, the food literature, accounts of travellers etc. they ate, their clothes and the rules of society.(b) Make students read the section on literary records. i. Biographies (Page 15) • Examples: Harshacharita (written by Banabhatta(c) Explain the key features of each type. about King Harshavardhana), Vikramankeva-
  • 12 TEACHER’S MANUAL Charita (written by Billana about King Understanding how we give dates Vikramaditya) and Prithviraja-Charita (written (a) Explain the former dating system used by by Chand-Bardai about King Prithiviraj) historians.• Biographies throw light on the rule of a king, the • Earlier, historians used the birth of Jesus Christ extent of his kingdom, the laws of the land etc. as the starting point of a new era.In Text Question • BC denoted ‘Before Christ’ – all events thatCourt historians generally wrote all praise for the king. occurred before the birth of ChristWhy do you think they did so? • AD denoted ‘Anno Domini’ or ‘In the Year of our(Hints: They were employed and paid by the king Lord’ meaning all events that have occurred afterand so they had to write in favour of him. Kings the birth of Jesus Christ.could often be cruel and punish a writer if he did • The modern system uses the term BCE or ‘Beforenot write good things about him.) Common Era’ (in place of BC) and CE or ‘Common Era (in place of AD).ii. Accounts of foreign travellers• Examples: Indika by Megasthenes, writings of Assessment – 12 Fahien and Hieun Tsang Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment;• These books give us an outsiders’ view of India. Tool – Games• Useful for historians to compare with biographies Fun with History! and can determine to what extent biographies Play the “Timeline Game”. Select 7 students and are true. hand over the flash cards with the dates and detailsIn Text Question of the following events:Do you think we can rely completely on the accounts left 2500 BCE Birth of the Harappan Civilizationby foreigners? Why? 1288 CE Marco Polo comes to India(Hints: Though unbiased and an outsider’s view,they cannot be relied upon completely because 563 BCE Gautama Buddha is bornof the cultural differences and the inaccuracy of 1857 CE India’s First War of Independenceinterpretation and reporting.) 326 BCE Alexander the Great invades India(e) Make students read the section on religious 1942 CE Gandhiji launches the Quit India literature. Movement 1950 CE India becomes a RepublicGeographical location In a given amount of time (say 2-3 minutes),(a) Explain how history and geography are closely students must arrange themselves in a line (linking connected with the help of the following example. themselves by placing their hand on the shoulder Tell students that most people who live in the of the person in front) in the correct chronological desert are often nomads as they go in search of order of events. food and water. Teachers can source additional dates and eventsIn Text Question from the following link:Why did people live near rivers and forests? http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/timeline• Regular water supply for daily needs and /timeline.pdf cooking.• People who lived near forests could hunt wild Recapitulation and Summary animals for food and pick fruits from trees. • The definition of history and its importance• Eventually, all civilizations and settlements came • Why history is an important subject up near rivers. • Sources of history – archaeological and literary(b) Make students read the section on geographical • The inter-connection between history and location (Page 17). Use a physical map of India to geography explain the location of various relief features. • The dating system used in history
  • 13 TEACHER’S MANUAL c. What are the two main sources of history?ANSWER KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES The two main sources of history are archaeologicalSummative Assessment evidences and literary (or written) records.1. Fill in the blanks: d. What are inscriptions? a. jigsaw b. 5,000 Written records that are engraved on pillars, walls c. Kalidasa d. monuments of temples, caves, forts, palaces and on clay or e. Fahien and Hiuen Tsang copper tablets are known as inscriptions.2. Answer in a few words: e. Why are accounts written by foreign travelersa. In which lanugage are Budhist texts written? important? Most Buddhist texts are written in Pali. The accounts of foreign travellers are importantb. What are the two great epics of North India and because they give us an outsider’s view of our South India? country. Sometimes, we cannot rely entirely on Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two great biographies or works written by scribes because epics of North and South India they may not be completely true or accurate.c. What kind of books are Arthachastras and Scribes were writers were employed and paid by Dharmashastras? the king himself, so their writings would praise the king and his work. Their writings also would The Arthashastra and the Dharmashastras are not include the negative aspects of a king’s rule. examples of secular literature. Accounts of foreign travellers would help tod. Who wrote Harshacharita? confirm what biographies said were true. The Harshacharitha was written by Banabhatta.e. Which book did Megasthenes write? ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Megasthenes wrote the Indika. Summative Assessment3. Answer the questions on one or two sentences: 1. Why should we study history?a. What is history? What do we learn in history? We should study history for the joy and excitement History is the study of the people who lived in the of discovery. past. History teaches us a variety of things such as how people lived, the food they ate, the clothes 2. How do historians reconstruct the past? they wore etc. We also learn about how people Historians reconstruct the past with the help of behaved with one another. many things, which they put together.b. Give any two reasons why we should study 3. Why is history like a mystery? history. History is like a mystery because we still do not Any two of the following reasons: know the details of many things. We are all an important part of history, as 4. Why is history like time travel? history is not only made by great people or those History is like time travel because; we travel way who lived thousands of years ago but also by each back and discover things. one of us. 5. Where is the Qutab Minar? We learn about our rich heritage and appreciate The Qutab Minar is in Delhi. the hard work that has gone into making it. (www.sights-and-culture.com) History helps us see the connection between the 6. Where is the Basilica of Bom Jesus? past and the present. By studying history, we learn to think, ask The Basilica of Bom Jesus is in Goa. questions and express our views. (the-never-ending- road.blogspot.com )
  • 14 TEACHER’S MANUAL7. Is history only about remembering people? Tools and weapons No, history is much more than that. It helps us Made to see the connections between the past and the Sculptures out of clay or wood or stone present. It also helps us to think, ask questions 14. When did the people of the prehistoric period and express our views. take shelter in caves? How did they spend their8. State the two periods into which history has been time there? divided. Define the two periods. The people of the prehistoric period took shelter in Historians have divided history into two periods: caves when the days became shorter. They spent a. prehistory b. history their time painting the walls inside. Prehistory is that period of human development 15. What is archaeology? when human beings did not know how to read Archaeology is the science of exploring and and write and so there are no written records excavating old ruins and studying them. available. 16. Who are archaeologists? History is that period of human development for Archaeologists are people who try to reconstruct which written records are available. It is the period the past life of the people by studying the evidence after writing was invented. from excavations.9. Define sources. 17. Why are archaeological finds-a very important The places from where we get the material source even for the historic period? required to study history are called sources. Archaeological finds are a very important source10. Name the two sources on which we depend to even for the historic period because archaeologists find out about the past. are able to study material remains from them. The two sources on which we depend to find out (www.hmns.org) about the past are: 18. Describe Queen Puabi’s headdress.a. Written material / literary material The Queen Puabi’s headdress is made of:-b. Archaeological finds (material dug out from gold leaves the past ) gold ribbons11. Name some people who help us to discover the strands of lapiz lazuli mysteries of the past. carnelian beads Historians Archaeologists a tall comb of gold Geologists Physicists chokers12. Why do we have to depend totally on objects pair of crescent shaped earrings and materials to know about the prehistoric 19. Where is Ur? period? Ur was in Mesopotamia. It is modern Tell We have to depend totally on objects and el-Mukayyar, Iraq materials to know about the prehistoric period, 20. What does the word Mesopotamia mean? because, humans did not know how to write in the prehistoric period and thus no written records meso = middle and potamia = river, literally are available. means ‘between two rivers’13. Name some of the objects that people of the 21. Which are the two rivers? prehistoric period used and made. Tigris and Euphrates Used 22. Name the archaeologist who discovered the royal Pots and pans tombs at the Ur site. Jewellery and clothes Leonord Woolley
  • 15 TEACHER’S MANUAL23. How many burials were found at Ur? 32. What do monuments tell us? 1800 Monuments tell us about the religious, social24. How were they classified? and cultural life of the times in which they were built. Common and Royal. 33. What are inscriptions?25. How many royal burials are there? Written records engraved on pillars,walls of 16 temples,caves,forts,palaces and on clay or copper26. Why were the burials classified as royal? tablets, are called inscriptions. They were classified as royal based on their 34. What do inscriptions tell us? distinctive form,their wealth and the fact that they Inscriptions tell us many things contained the burials of servants and other high ranking persons alongwith the main person. i. names of kings ii. the size of their empire27. Who was Tutankhamun? iii. the wars they fought The most famous Egyptian pharaoh was iv. the peace messages they gave Tutankhamun. He died in his late teens and v. they tell us about names of people who built remained at rest in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings. temples28. Why was the tomb of Queen Puabi an vi. the men who died fighting in the first World extraordinary find? Describe it. War (as in India Gate,in New Delhi) vii. storiesa. The tomb of Queen Puabi was an extraordinary viii. musical notes find because 35. Write a note on the Karthikeya temple found at i. it was intact ii. it had escaped looting through centuries Mamallapuram.b. i. it featured a vaulted chamber, set at the i. the remains of an ancient brick temple, possibly bottom of a ‘deep death pit’ 2000 years old have been discovered on the ii. the queen was found lying in a wooden box beach near the Tiger Cave in Mamallapuram, iii. she was identified by a cylindrical seal bearing 50 km from Chennai. her name that was found on her body ii. the temple dedicated to Muruga also known iv. the seal carved in cuneiform and written in as Karthikeya, is almost 2000 years old. Sumerian,the world’s first written language. 36. What objects can be found during excavations?29. How was the upper body of Queen Puabi Coins, cooking vessels, pottery, jewellery, toys, covered? grains can be found during excavations. Queen Puabi’s upper body was covered with 37. Why are coins particularly useful? strings of beads made of precious metals and semi Coins are particularly useful, because precious stones stretching from her shoulders to her belt, while rings decorated all her fingers. i. by looking at them we can tell the year in which they were made30. What are monuments? ii. the religion of the ruler Any building that is of historical significance is iii. the interests of the ruler, for example called a monument. Samudragupta’s coins tell us that he was fond31. Name some monuments. of hunting (www.answers.com) i. Red Fort in Delhi (www.planetware.com) 38. What did people write on, in the beginning? ii. Shore Temple in Chennai In the beginning people wrote on (www.indiapicks.com) iii. Taj Mahal in Agra (www.nomadicmatt. i. stone walls ii. palm leaves com) iii. barks of certain trees
  • 16 TEACHER’S MANUAL39. What are manuscripts? 50. Name some foreigners who wrote about ancient Manuscripts are very useful sources of India. information about the past. They are written Megasthenes Fa hein Hiuen Tsang on pieces of paper. They are found in many 51. Write a note on Megasthenes. different languages and in different scripts. Some Megasthenes lived in India for some time as the are preserved in libraries and museums. Greek Ambassador at the court of Chandargupta40. Write a note on the Vedas. Maurya.He wrote Indika. The Vedas are very old religious texts in Sanskrit. 52. Write a note on Fa hein and Hiuen Tsang. They contain prayers, stories and rituals. They both came to India to study Buddhism and41. In which languages are the religious books of wrote about their experiences here. the Jains and the Buddhists written? 54. What do you know about Periplus of the Jains: Prakrit Buddhists: Pali Erythrean Sea?42. Name the two Indian epics. The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea is an account by Ramayana, Mahabharata a Greek traveller, who describes the various parts43. What do we learn from the Ramayana and the of India as he journeyed from the Mediterranean Mahabharata? sea to the Western coast of India. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata tell us 55. Why are accounts written by foreign travellers important? i. about the position of women in society at the time when they were written The uccounts written by foreign travellers are ii. about right and wrong actions important because they give us another view ...an iii. about one’s duties and responsibilities. outside view of our country.44. What are the Jataka tales? 56. Why is it exciting to study about the lives of the people from the pre historic times to the 8th The Jataka tales are interesting, folk stories about century CE? the Buddha. It is exciting to study about the lives of the people45. Name some secular works of ancient Indian from the pre historic times to the 8th century CE literature. because we see the continuous intermingling i. Dharmashastras contain rules which govern society of people and the exchange of ideas. Thisii. Arthashastra contains guidelines on how to run exchange contributed to the foundation of the government national cultures.46. What do you know about Kalidasa? 57. Why is India called a subcontinent? Kalidasa lived in the Gupta period. He wrote India is called a subcontinent because it is almost many plays in Sanskrit. His most famous play is as large as a continent. “Abhigyan Shakuntalam”...the story of Dushyant 58. ‘India is bounded by sea on three sides.’ Name and Shakuntala. the seas.47. Which language was used in South India in the i. Arabian Sea to the West ancient times? ii. Indian Ocean to the South Tamil iii. Bay of Bengal to the East48. Name some Tamil epics. 59. do the Himalayas protect us? Silappadikaram and Manimekalai The Himalayas prevent the cold wind of Siberia49. Write a note on the Harshacharita. from entering India. Harshacharita is the biography of the famous ruler 60. Name the two kinds of rivers found in India. Harshavardhan and is written by Banabhatta. i.snow fed ii. monsoon fed
  • The Age of Stone Tools2 and Cave Homes LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate the skills and knowledge of hunter gatherers • Identify stone artefacts as archaeological evidence, making deductions from themTextbook : Refer to pages Bonfire Large open-air fire as celebrationTime required: 5 periods Engraving An art of carving a design on a hard surfaceVOCABULARYNomadic Having a life of a nomad, Wandering DEFINITIONPalaeolithic Relating to early phase of stone age Sentinelese – Tribal people who live in the island of Sentinel, south of the Andaman islandsManuscript Handwritten document History – Record of the pastEvolved Progressed and advanced Historian – A person who studies and tells aboutMigrate Move about the past from old manuscripts, books and other recordsPerennial Continuing Ice Age – The period of lower Palaeolithic age duringBeast A large and dangerous animal which many parts of the earth were covered withScrape Scratch ice and the climate was severely coldTechnique Method Geologist – Scientist who studies the earth including the origin and the history of the rocks and soil ofFlake Chip which the earth is madeCore Central part Microliths – Small, sharp, pointed stone tools of theShaft Narrow long part forming the handle of Mesolithic Age a tool Stone Age Factory – A site where prehistoric humans manufactured toolsBark The rough outer covering of tree trunk or branches TEACHING POINTSExpedition Journey taken by a group of people for a particular purpose Introduction (a) To create a feel of how life may have been inAltar A table on which religious offerings are prehistoric times, you can build a cave in the made
  • 18 TEACHER’S MANUAL corner of the classroom. Upturn some desks and conveniences like getting food and vegetables from cover it with crumpled brown paper. You can use the supermarket; or eating junk food; having gadgets a torch to generate some dim, but flickering light. like the telephone, computer etc.) You can have this for the entire period of time that You can extend this discussion by asking students this chapter is being taught for. At the end of the lesson, you can also exhibit all the materials that to name three things in their modern life that they students have made. cannot do without and why they think so.(b) Ask a few students to sit inside the ‘cave’ and Life in Prehistoric Times pretend that it is their home. Can they imagine living in such a home today? (Most students should (a) Introduce the concept of prehistory by explaining answer in the negative!) the difference between the prehistoric and historic period.(c) Explain to students that in fact, there are small pockets of people, who live nomadic tribal • Prehistory refers to the period when human lifestyles in India. The link http://andamandt. beings did not know how to read or write. nic in/people.htm has more information and • The historic period refers to the period where photographs that you can use, if time permits. there are written records of man’s activities(d) Read the introduction of the lesson to the rest of the (b) The website www.becominghuman.org has class (Page 19) and discuss the questions posed. an excellent interactive documentary on theAssessment – 1 hominids,their origins and culture. This can bePurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment/ shown to students before a discussion on theIndividual Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing hominids and their life.In Text Questions (Page 19) Who were the Hominids? How would you react if you came across such • Hominids were similar to human beings. Scientists people? think that humans evolved from hominids.(Possible Responses: It would be strange; we would • Hominids learned to adapt to their environmentfind them very different from us in their clothes, way and early human beings used the discoveries ofof living, food habits etc.) the hominids.• Why do you think these people do not welcome Life of the Early Humans strangers? • Early humans had to roam from place to place in(Possible Responses: Just like we do not understand search of food.their lifestyle, probably, they do not relate to ours • They hunted animals for food and gathered fruits,and would like to protect themselves; they do not nuts etc. from the forests. Hence, they were knownwant others to interfere in their life) as hunter-gatherers.• Do you think they are missing out on life? • Early humans led a nomadic life as they had toThe most obvious answer to this will be ‘yes’, as search far and wide for their food and water.students will point out that there are no cinemas, In Text Activity (Page 20)malls, restaurants etc. But you can guide students to Can you make out what the people in this picturedevelop an alternative line of thinking, by pointing are doing?out that tribal groups are very close-knit, almost like Hintsa family, and have their own forms of recreation,games, and way of living. Just because others are • They are trying to light a fire.‘different’ does not make them inferior. • The picture also depicts the nomadic lifestyle of the early humans Would you be able to live like them? Why?Most students would reply in the negative. (Possible Discuss (Page 20)reasons can include: it would be difficult to adjust Besides books and records, are there other sources fromto their kind of life; we are too used to certain which we can learn about the lifestyle of our ancestors ?
  • 19 TEACHER’S MANUALDiscussion Points Spear Point Group• Fossils and bones • A spear point could be made using cardboard,• Pottery wood or even soft flat chalk. Stick the spear point• Stone artefacts and tools like spears, axes, flakes, to the shaft to make the spear. flints etc Display the spears in the exhibition.• Cave Paintings In Text Question (Page 22)(c) Explain the extensive use of stones by humans in What is the difference between the tool and a weapon? the Prehistoric era. Use pictures from the website Hints www.wikipedia.org as a teaching aid. A tool is an instrument or a device that is used as an implement in our tasks. Example, an axe is a toolUse of Stones that is used to cut trees.Main Ideas A weapon is used to harm another creature or to• Use of stone tools to make spears, knives and defend oneself from harm. arrows to hunt animals Is there any tool that can be used as a weapon?• Stones used to scrape off the skins of animals and Yes, knives, axes etc. can be used as a tool and a cut meat weapon.• Stones used to cut trees for firewood The Various Phases of Stone Age(d) Explain the two distinct techniques of making (a) Before commencing this section, make a timeline stone tools. to show the phases of the Stone Age.Stone on Stone Technique• The use of one stone as the hammer on another piece of stone (core piece) that was shaped into the required size.Pressure Flaking Technique (b) Prepare a slide show on the life of hunter-gatherers• The core stone was placed on the ground and the during the stone ages. The link hammer stone placed on a bone which was on the core www.ulstermuseum.org.uk/.../stone-age/ is a stone. The hammer stone then shaped the core stone very good source of pictures and information. into the desired size. If you do not have access to computer facilities(e) Demonstrate how spears were made with the help at school to show this slide show, use overhead of the following activity. transparencies. (c) Explain the meaning of the word Palaeolithic –Making of a spear Palaeo meaning ‘old’ and lithic meaning ‘stone’.Assessment – 2 (d) The main features of the Lower, Middle and UpperPurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; Palaeolithic Age can be highlighted with the helpTool – Project of a table. Use the pictures of the textbook to show the different tools and the map of India to locateFun with History! the placesDivide the class into two groups – one group tomake the shaft of the spear and the other to make Features Lower Palaeolithic Middle Palaeolithic Upper Palaeolithicthe spear point. (If your class size is big, you could Tools Choppers, Hand axes Scrapers, Borers Blades, Burinsdivide the class into more groups; however, ensure Location Valley of River Soan (Punjab) Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) Chota Banks of Narmada (Madhya Nagpur Plateau (Jharkhand)that the groups are paired to make the shaft and Pradesh)spear points.)Shaft Group The discovery of fire• Use a long stick, a thin long pipe to make the shaft (e) The discovery of fire can be demonstrated with of the spear. the help of a role-play activity. Read the relevant
  • 20 TEACHER’S MANUAL section on the discovery of fire and dramatize (b) Discuss the main features of Bhimbetka art using the story of the Iranian legend found in the the images from the links above. Shahnama. Main FeaturesThe Legend of Prometheus • The paintings feature various animals such asAccording to Greek mythology, Prometheus stole deer, tigers, panthers, leopards, rhinos etc. • In some pictures, the animals are chasing menfire from Zeus, the king of the Gods and gave it to and vice versamortals (humans). As a punishment, Zeus ordered • Men are depicted as matchstick figures carryingthat Prometheus be chained to a rock, where his liver spears, arrows and slings(which would be renewed daily) would be eaten dailyby an eagle. (c) Visit the following links for examples of prehistoric cave art in Europe.The Mesolithic Age • http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/(f) Explain the main features of the Middle Stone lascaux/en/ Age or the Mesolithic Age. Use the pictures from • http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/ the textbook to show the difference between chauvet/en/index.html Palaeolithic and Mesolithic tools. Case Studies – Ratnagiri and Hungsi Valley Mesolithic Age - Climate become warm and dry. (a) Locate Ratnagiri and Hungsi on a map of India. Heavy and crude tools of the Palaeolithic period (Refer to the map on Page 24 of the textbook) were replaced by small pointed tools called microliths. (b) Explain the reasons why the two sites are extremely significant to historians.In Text Question (Page 23) RatnagiriCarefully observe the differences in the size and shape ofthese (microlith) tools. What do you think the tools were Discovery of a cave shelter with 54 Stone Age toolsused for ? Another cave in the area has cattle bones withHints chopping marks on them. • The tools seem to be much sharper and smaller Hungsi • They were probably fitted into small spears or Discovery of a factory site in Isampur with 150,000 used as knives for hunting Stone Age tools dated 500,000 to 200,000 years ago. Summary and RecapitulationAssessment – 3 • Life in the prehistoric timesPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; • Use of stone toolsTool – Project • Phases of the Stone Age – Old, Middle and NewFun with History! Stone AgeVisit this link: • Art during the Stone Agehttp://rockart.ncl.ac.uk/interactive/ Summative Assessment 1learningjourneys/interactive_learningjourneys_game.htm KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 23)Students can create their own rock panel by chiseling 1. Answer the following quiz:away on the rock surface! a. I discovered a palaeolithic tool at Pallavaram inArt of the Prehistoric Humans Tamil Nadu in 1863. Who am I?(a) V i s i t t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n k s f o r i m a g e s o f Robert Bruce Foote Bhimbetka art. b. I am a Stone Age human using small, sharp,• http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_rockart_ pointed stone tools called microliths. To which bhimbetka_images.asp phase of the Stone Age do I belong?• www.bradshawfoundation.com Mesolithic Age
  • 21 TEACHER’S MANUALc. I am one of the most spectacular Stone Age a. Why did the prehistoric humans move from paintings sites in India. Where am I? place to place? Bhimbetka Prehistoric humans wandered from place to place2. Answer the following questions in two to three for the following reasons: sentences each: 1. They had not learnt how to grow fruits anda. What is prehistory? vegetables. Hence, they had to roam from place to place to hunt animals. Prehistory refers to that period of history when no written records of man’s life existed. Prehistory 2. Since plants and animals were available in limited dates back to about 500,000 years ago beginning supply, they had to move to places where they with the hominids from whom human beings are could gather fruits, nuts etc. thought to have evolved. We rely on stone tools, 3. Prehistoric humans also had to move from place to fossils and cave paintings for information on the place in search of water. Sometimes, the lakes and prehistoric period. rivers were seasonal and would dry up. Hence,b. Why is the life of a palaeolithic human they had to go to other places. considered difficult and unsafe? 4. They also had to move to different places in The life of the Palaeolithic human was regarded search of good quality stones as they were entirely difficult and unsafe for the following reasons: dependent on stone tools in their day to day life. 1. They had to wander from place to place in search b. How was fire useful to the early humans? of food and water – hence they needed to protect Fire was very useful to prehistoric humans. themselves from the danger of wild animals. It helped to keep them warm during the cold winter nights and frighten away wild animals. It 2. They had to adapt to the changing seasons and provided them with light in the harsh darkness environment – this meant that they needed to of outdoor life. Moreover, they also learnt to use make changes in their diet and lifestyle. fire to cook the flesh of animals. Fire became so 3. They had to rely on their own intelligence to cope important that many legends and stories grew with the life of being hunter- gatherers. around the use of fire.c. Why did the prehistoric humans move to places c. Why were caves good shelters? where good quality stone was available? Caves provided natural shelters from wind, heat, Stones were used extensively by prehistoric rain and wild animals. Caves were also useful humans to make knives, spears, axes etc. These because they were located in thick forests where weapons were essential for them to hunt animals wild animals and plants were available. This and protect them from harm. Since they were gave prehistoric humans an opportunity to find entirely dependent on stones for their living, they food easily. In many areas, there were streams moved to places where good quality stone was flowing from cliff tops. Finally, the rocks of the available. cave shelters could be used to make stone tools.d. What is the difference between a factory site and d. Describe the food that early humans ate. a habitation site? Early humans did not know how to grow fruits, A factory site is a site where stone tools in various grains and vegetables. Therefore, they depended stages of production were manufactured. On on the wild animals that they hunted. These the other hand, a habitation site was one where included deer, bison, rhinos, fish, panthers etc. prehistoric humans may have lived for a particular In addition, they also gathered wild roots, fruits, period of time. However, a site could have berries, honey etc. from forests. Though historians believe that they used to eat raw flesh, it is likely functioned as a factory site and a habitation site. that with the discovery of fire, the early humans3. Answer the following questions in five to six gradually learnt to cook the flesh of the animals sentences each. they hunted.
  • 22 TEACHER’S MANUALe. Why do you think early humans painted? What Front Page did their paintings show and why? If we look at the early cave paintings, they depict a variety of scenes, such as men chasing animals, animals chasing men, children playing, people dancing etc. There are also paintings of people • On the inner pages (3), write about the famous gathering fruits, honey, preparing food etc. Hence, pre historic sites like Bhimketka, Ratnagiri, it is likely that early humans wanted to depict their Hungsi etc. lifestyle and express their emotions through them. It is also possible that this was a form of leisure Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 from their tiring work of hunting. Some historians also feel that early humans were afraid of animals, and by depicting them being hunted, it showed their success over animals. • Don’t forget to include prices for the various tourPOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION packages along with the name and contact details(PAGE 27) of the tour guide. Do this on the outer pages of the brochure.Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment;Tool – Diary Page 4 Page 61. Diary Entry• Had to travel far and wide to hunt for food• Climbed sharp rocks and crossed streams• Made yourself warm on the way by lighting a fire Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;• Spotted the boar and used your spear and blade Tool – Debate• Was thrilled as you could go home with this 4. Organize a Debate: surprise Prehistoric humans led a carefree and fun-filledPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; life. Yes, becauseTool – Map Work • They had no responsibilities like we have2. Map Work in the present day like getting a job, saving• Refer to the map on Page 24 of the text book to for the future etc. complete this activity • They were not limited to one place and couldPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group roam around at will.Assessment; Tool – Tourist Brochure • They could do as they pleased as there was no law to limit their actions. 3. Tourist Brochure on Prehistoric sites• Take an A4 size paper and fold it into three parts No, because like this: • They lived a very uncertain and dangerous life and in harsh conditions. • They always had to defend themselves from wild Fold 1 Fold 2 animals and the fury of nature. • They did not have the facilities and conveniences that we have today that helps make our life easier.• Draw a picture similar to cave art on the front 5. Role of Women page along with a slogan to attract the attention • Women probably looked after children and of the reader. hunted small animals.
  • 23 TEACHER’S MANUAL• They may have also looked for fruits, nuts and anymore but scientists think that human beings berries to eat. evolved or developed from them.6. Prepare a Skit Q4. Which Age was called the Stone Age? Why?• The short story given on Page 23 of the Ans. We know that early humans used the stones textbook can be used as the basis for the enactment available for defending themselves against of the skit. wild beasts and also to kill them, they attached handles of wood to stones and made spears andADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS arrows and used them to hunt animals for food.Name the following: The stones were also used to scrape the skins of1. The characteristic tools of the Lower Palaeolithic animals, cut meat and bones, for chopping trees Age were – blades and burins. and to clear forests. Since the early humans were2. The Humans learned to light a fire in the - entirely dependent on stones for their living, the Palaeolithic Age. Prehistoric Age was called the Stone Age.3. The Mesolithic Age was followed by Neolithic Q5. Name and explain the techniques used to Age. produce stone tools.4. India’s oldest stone tools were found in – Hunsgi Ans. The stone tools were produced by two and Baichbal valleys. techniques -5. The first evidence of a cave shelter of human 1. Stone on stone technique – In this technique one ancestors in India was found at– Ratnagiri in hand of the tool-maker firmly held the pebble or Maharashtra. core from the tool which was to be crafted, and6. The three sub-periods of Stone Age are - the other hand held a stone which was used as Palaeolithic Period, Mesolithic Period and hammer. This hammer stone was used to strike Neolithic Period. off flakes from the core stone till the requiredQ1. Where is sentinel? Write in brief about the shape and size was obtained. people living there. 2. Pressure flaking technique – In this techniqueAns. Sentinel is an island, south of the Andaman the core stone was placed on a firm surface or Island. The people living here are tribes who live ground. The hammer stone was placed on a bone the most ancient, nomadic lifestyles known to resting on the core stone, to remove flakes from man. Many still produce fire by rubbing stones, the core stone. These flakes were shaped into they fish and hunt with bow and arrow and live tools. in leaf and straw community huts and don’t like people to come near them. Match the columns:Q2. Why are there no books or any recorded history Middle Stone Age Mesolithic Period of the prehistoric people? Ice Age Lower Paleolithic AgeAns. As we know that prehistory refers to the Firdausi Shahnama earliest period in the history of humans, when Ochre pigment Red hematite they did not know how to read or write. Hence, White pigment Lime there are no books or manuscripts, recorded Hunsgi Valley Isampur quarry about that time.Q3. Were hominids humans? What do scientists think about them?Ans. Hominids were not human beings, but they were very similar to human beings. They do not exist
  • The Age of the First3 Farmers LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate the diversity of early domestication • Identify the material culture generated by people in relatively stable settlements • Understand strategies for analyzing theseTextbook: Refer to pages Trenches – Long deep holes dug in the ground areTime required: 5 periods trenches. Agate – A hard stone with coloured bands on it is Agate.VOCABULARY Hearth – Floor at the bottom of a fireplace is hearth.Obscure difficult to understandPit hole in the ground TEACHING POINTSSapling SeedlingCertified qualified IntroductionInscription writing (a) Read the introductory section of the chapter andFlourished increased, prospered discuss the questions that follow.Abandoned deserted Assessment – 1Trench channel dug in the ground Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;Grind crush Tool – Group DiscussionMortar heavy tool with rounded end used In Text Questions (Page 28) for grinding If you were to find such stones, how would you react?Pestle grinderIntervening overruling, dominating (Possible Responses)Plastered applied coat of plaster • I would also be surprised and puzzled as toAntlers pair of branched horns of an adult its use. male dear • I would show it to various people to find out more about it.Hearth fire place • I would try to find out more about the script inscribed on the stone.DEFINITIONS What is Neolithic Age? Who made these celts?Celts – Prehistoric stone or bronze tools were called Recall that prehistory is divided into various phases Celts. – known as the Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic), Middle
  • 25 TEACHER’S MANUALStone Age (Mesolithic) and the New Stone Age • The potter’s wheel also helped early humans(Neolithic). The Neolithic Age began in about 10,000 make their own potsBCE and ended around 3000 BCE. In some places • Later, the spinner’s wheel was used to makeit continued until 1000 BCE. The Neolithic Age is threadknown for the beginning of farming, where humanslearnt to cultivate their own food. Domestication of AnimalsCelts are prehistoric bronze and stone tools. Celts • The first animal to be tamed was the ancestor ofwere probably made by humans of the Neolithic era. the dogYou can find pictures of celts using the link http:// • Sheep and goats were also domesticateden.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celt_(tool) • Domestication helped Neolithic humans to have a steady supply of meat and milkWhat did they use them for?Celts were designed in such a way that they could Assessment – 2be fitted on to a wooden shaft and used to fell trees Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;and shape wood. They were probably used to clear Tool – Projectpatches of land. Fun with History!Life in the Neolithic Age Look up some pictures of Neolithic pottery using(a) Visit the website http://www.sitesandphotos. the following links: com/catalog/parent-88427.html for photographs www.historyforkids.org of Neolithic settlements. This would be a good www.oubliette.org.uk/Sixc.html (This has sketches starting point to make students to understand of Neolithic pottery designs) the dramatic difference in the lives of people www.commons.wikipedia.org (You will need to of this era. type in the key words “Neolithic Pottery” in the search section of the website)Beginning of farming Divide the class into groups. Give each group a small(b) Explain to students why the Neolithic Age is also clay pot and using the designs, let each group design known as the Neolithic Revolution. their own Neolithic pottery. Remember the colours• Transition from hunting-gathering to self to be used are brown, black, yellow and red. sufficiency in food production• This led to the rise of settlements and eventually Case Study – The Abhuj Maria Tribe towns and cities (a) Ask students to locate Bastar in Chhatisgarh in• Discovery of wheat grains at Mehrgarh, Gufkral, their atlas. Burzahom and Chirand (Locate these places on (b) Discuss the main features of the Abhuj Maria the map on Page 24 of the textbook) tribe.(c) Discuss the new changes in the life of the people: Main Features pottery, invention of the wheel and domestication • Live in complete isolation in an area of 1500 square of animals. feetPottery • Lead very simple lives in diet and dress• Used to store food grains, milk and water • Men and women wear only a simple piece of cloth• Some of the remains of pottery found show that around their waist and grow bananas, coarse they are beautifully painted and crafted grains and rice • They practice shifting cultivation and dependInvention of the Wheel heavily on hunting and gathering.• A remarkable discovery as it enabled people to • The tribe believes in the collective ownership of move from one place to another land.
  • 26 TEACHER’S MANUAL(c) You can find additional pictures of the Abhuj Maria Location- Baluchistan – Pakistan tribes using the following link: Time Period- 6500 BCE www.khorlo.com/chattishgarh.html Crops- Wheat and barleyAssessment – 3 Domesticated Animals- Cattle, sheep and goatsPurpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment; Pottery- Not yet begun to make potteryTool – Group Discussion Ornaments- Seashell, limestone, turquoise, lapisIn Text Question (Page 31) lazuli, sandstone and polished copperDo you think the Abhuj Maria still live in the Neolithic on Dwelling- Mud brick housesperiod? Why?Suggested Points Burzahom• They still live in primitive conditions and grow Location- Kashmir, India simple food Time Period- 3000 BCE• They have retained the same customs for so many Crops- Wheat, barley and lentils years Domesticated Animals - Dogs, cattle, buffaloes• They rely a lot on hunting and gathering Pottery- Handmade – shiny black colour, CrudeAssessment – 4 handmade pots, bowls and vases of steel grey andPurpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual brownAssessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group Discussion Ornaments- No informationIn Text Question (Page 32) Dwelling- Two phases of settlementUnderground pit houses are safer and more comfortable First Phase: Live in rectangular trenches plasteredthan houses on the surface or the ground. with mud, some pits have steps leading downYes, because Second phase: Pits were covered and people lived• They are cooler in summer in mud huts• Pit houses do not require brick and wood.• Pit houses protect people from wild Transition to the Chalcolithic Age animals and the cold (a) Explain the transition from the Neolithic to theNo, because Chalcolithic (Chalco meaning “copper” and Lithos• Drainage would be a problem meaning “stone”) Age.• It would require a lot of time and effort Main Features to construct a pit house under the ground • Chalcolithic Age – 1800 BCE to 800 BCE• Pit houses are only temporary shelters • Use of metal along with stone tools and implementsCase Study – Mehrgarh and Burzahom • Cultivated more cereals and the art of spinning(a) Divide students into two groups. Give each group and weaving flourished one of the case studies and ask them to collect • Inamgoan in Maharastra is one of the well known information according to the table given below. Chalcolithic sites Each group then goes on to make a presentation Assessment – 6 to the rest of the class. Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment;Assessment – 5 Tool – PuzzlePurpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment; Fun with History!Tool – Presentation At the end of the lesson, give the word search puzzleFeature/Detail to your students with the important names of theMehrgarh Neolithic period.
  • 27 TEACHER’S MANUALSummary and Recapitulation No, people of the Neolithic Age did not• The Neolithic Revolution enjoy more comforts because• The various inventions during the Neolithic • They still had not mastered the art of farming and Age had to also rely on hunting and gathering.• A comparative study of two sites – Burzahom and • Though they knew how to grow crops, it could Mehrgarh have been destroyed by wild animals and natural• Transition to the Chalcolithic Age Disasters. • They still faced the danger of wild animals.POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION • We do not know how if Neolithic communities faced invasions from other tribes.Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;Tool – Diary Entry Tool – Chart Work1. Diary Entry 4. Chart Work• I was extremely sad and disappointed to see my In addition to the websites mentioned in the crops getting destroyed textbook, you may also use the following links for• Earlier, I was excited at the thought of a rich harvest pictures and information:• Now, I will need to rely on hunting and gathering www.chowk.com/articles/mehrgarhthe-lost- to feed my family civililization• To ensure that this is not repeated, I will build en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh some embankments to stop the flow of running water• I will also plant some trees to arrest the flow of KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 35) water 1. Answer the following quiz:Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; a. I am a famous Neolithic site in Kashmir. Here,Tool – Map Work people grew wheat and lentils and lived in pit houses. Can you guess my name?2. Map WorkThe important sites in India and Pakistan are: Burzahom• Mehrgarh • Gufrkal • Burzahom b. I am a Neolithic site in Pakistan. I am close to• Koldihwa • Mahagara • Hallur the Bolan Pass. Guess my name.• Paiyampalli • Narsipur • MAski Mehrgarh• HallurRefer to the map on Page 24 of the textbook to mark c. I am an alloy of copper and tin. What am I? Bronzethese places. d. I use stone and copper tools and implements. ToPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; which age do I belong?Tool – Debate Chalcolithic Age3. Organize a Debate e. I am a famous civilization belonging to theYes, people of the Neolithic Age enjoyed more Chalcolithic Age. Guess my name.comforts because Harappan Civilization• Inventions such as the wheel, spinning and weaving would have helped them. 2. Answer the following questions in two or three• They could grow their own food and thus lead a sentences each. settled life. a. Why did Neolithic people stop wandering or• They learnt many new things such as building migrating from one place to another? houses, domestication of animals etc. Neolithic people stopped wandering from place• They had better tools to use. to place because:
  • 28 TEACHER’S MANUAL • They learnt the technique of farming. Hence, they and milk. They could also be used in agriculture no longer needed to roam from place to place in and transportation. search of food. They also had to remain in their 3. Answer the following questions in five to six settlements to tend to these plants. sentences each. • In addition to farming, the people also learnt to a. Write a note on Neolithic tools. domesticate animals which gave them a steady supply of meat and milk. The most important Neolithic tool was the celt. It was to fell trees. Neolithic tools were made of • As settled life came into being, people lived in polished stone and bone. As farming began, tools mud houses and pits. This meant that they did also included ploughs, sickles and axes. Neolithic not have to wander to different places during the people also needed implements to crush grain. cold or hot seasons. Hence, they used the mortar and pestle for thisb. How were Chalcolithic people different from purpose. the Neolithic people? b. Describe the burial practices of the Neolithic The differences between the Chalcolithic and people. Neolithic people were: Neolithic people believed in life after death. Chalcolithic People/Neolithic People They had elaborate burial practices. Pits were Used bronze tools/Used stone implements dug to bury the dead. Some sites show burial Cultivated more cereals like wheat, barley and grounds under the house or in the compound. lentil/Mainly cultivated wheat and barley Sometimes,animals such as dogs and wild animals were also buried along with humans. Used wheel turned pottery/Used hand made pottery c. Write a note on the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh.c. What are the differences between hand-made Mehrgarh is an important Neolithic site found in pottery and wheel-made pottery? Pakistan. It dates to about 6500 BCE. The findings in this site show that the first inhabitants cultivated Wheel made pottery was more durable and wheat and barley and also had herds of cattle and stronger than handmade pottery. Wheel made sheep. Historians have also found bead ornaments pottery was also bigger than handmade pots. It made of seashell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, was easier to make wheel made pots than hand sandstone and polished copper. People in this made pots. settlement lived in mud houses.d. What are the characteristics of the Neolithic d. Who are the Abhuj Marias? How is their society Age? organized? The characteristics of the Neolithic Age are: The Abhuj Marias are a tribe that live in Bastar • Introduction of farming in Chhatisgarh. They live in isolation and keep • Beginning of settled life away from the outside world. The tribes believe in • Invention of the wheel that helped in making pots, the collective ownership of land and live close to transportation and spinning of thread nature. The houses are built in two parallel rows • Domestication of animals like sheep, goats and with a broad space intervening where a common cattle granary stands. • Building of underground pits and mud houses e. Describe the houses during the Neolithic Age. • Growth of tribal life Neolithic people lived in rectangular huts madee. Name the important animals domesticated by of mud and reed. Slowly, they began to build the Neolithic people. How were these animals houses made of timber and grass. In some places useful to the people? like Burzahom, the people lived in underground The important animals domesticated in the pits with steps leading to the floor of the pit. These Neolithic Age were dogs, sheep, goats and cattle. pits protected the people from harsh cold, rain and These animals provided a steady supply of meat extreme heat.
  • 29 TEACHER’S MANUALf. How did the Neolithic people store or preserve Q. Describe the first period of settlement in the grains that they grew? Burzahom. In the early Neolithic period, people used baskets Ans. In the first period of settlement at Burzahom to store grains. They also built pits or trenches to the people lived in pits dug into the ground. store excess grains. Later they made hand made They used hard stone tools to dig round, oval, pots to store grains. With the invention of the sometimes rectangular trenches. The sides of wheel, wheel made pots enabled the people to the trenches were plastered with mud, a thatch- build stronger and more durable pots with long mud roof plastered with twigs was put over the necks to store milk and liquids too. trench. Some pits had steps leading into them. Remains of ash, charcoal, pieces of pottery, sharpADDITIONAL QUESTIONS stone tools and tools made of bones and antlers were found inside.Q. How did settling in one place help the Neolithic people? Q. Write about the burials at the Burzahom site.Ans. When the Neolithic people began to lead a Ans. The burials were usually under the house floors settled life they did not have to move frequently or in the compounds. Most of the burials did from place to place in search of food, their food not have any items placed with the body. Apart supply now became regular due to farming. from human burials, burials of animals were also Their population grew and some people became found, sometimes buried along with humans free to do other jobs. As their food supply and sometimes on their own. increased, they could store them for next year Fill in the blanks:Q. Give the names of Neolithic sites where ancient 1. Celts were stone tools used during the Neolithic grains were discovered by archaeologists. time.Ans. The Neolithic sites where the archaeologists have discovered ancient grains are – Wheat 2. Neolithic Age followed the Mesolithic Age. grains at Mehragarh in Pakistan, Gufkral and 3. Neolithic people also practiced fishing and Burzahom in Kashmir and Chirand in Bihar. hunting. Rice grains at Koldihwa and Mahagara in Uttar 4. Groups that lived together became close-knit and Pradesh. soon developed into tribes. Lentils in Gufkral and Burzahom. 5. Burzahom was the first Neolithic site to be Millets at Hallur in Karnataka and Paiyampalli discovered in Kashmir. in Andhra Pradesh. 6. The Indus Valley or the Harappan civilizationQ. Give the probable uses of wheel for the early belongs to the Chalcolithic Period. humans.Ans. People could have made wheeled carts to transport heavier things and even people. The wheel helped to make better pots. Later, the spinning wheel was made to spin thread.
  • 4 The First Cities LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate the distinctive life in cities • Identify the archaeological evidence of urban centres • Understand how this is used to reconstruct processes such as craft productionTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 8 periods Debris – Pieces left after something has been destroyedVOCABULARY Culture – The customs, arts, beliefs and ways of lifeDecade period of ten years of a group or a countryStumble trip up Seal – A piece of metal or clay with design on it Type-site – A site that is considered to be the modelArtisan skilled worker who makes things of a particular archaeological culture by hand Steatite – A type of sandstone used to make beadsDecipher make sense of, decode and sealsCrevices a narrow crack in a rock or wall Dockyard – An area with DOCKS ( the place whereMortar a small hard bowl in which substances ships are loaded and unloaded in a port) and are crushed with a pestle equipment for building and repairing shipsLittered scattered articlesFurrows long trench made by a plough TEACHING POINTSSpindle slender rod with tapered end used in spinning IntroductionWhorl spiral (a) Read the introduction aloud and discuss the questions at the end of the section.Terracotta Brownish-red earthenwareEmbossed with a raised design on it Assessment – 1Dockyard port Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/IndividualFigurines small statues Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group DiscussionUrn a tall vase with a stem and base In Text Question (Page 36)Epidemic outbreak of an infectious disease Where were these cities and how do we know aboutCalamities sudden event causing great damage them?
  • 31 TEACHER’S MANUALSome of the main cities that made up the Harappan (d) You can show the growth of the HarappanCivilization were: civilization in 3D format and a movie using the• Harappa – now in Pakistan following link:• Mohenjadaro - now in Pakistan http://www.harappa.com/3D/index.html• Lothal – in Gujarat• Kalibangan – in Rajasthan Assessment – 2• Rangpur – in Gujarat Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual• Kot Diji – is now in Pakistan Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group Discussion• Dholavira – in Kachchh in Gujarat In Text Question (Page 38)• We know that they were part of a civilization that Give any two differences between a city and a village. flourished around the river Indus. The remains of the civilization suggest that a highly evolved Hints group of people who lived in planned towns, • A city is much bigger than a village in terms of were engaged in trade and had a well developed size and population. socio-economic system that existed around 2500 • A city has trade relations with neighbouring BCE. towns and other cities. A village is usually selfCan you name any other ancient city that you may have sufficient and does not have trade relations.read or heard about?Suggested Responses Archaeological Finds• Athens in Greece (a) Explain to students that the script of the Harappan• Babylonian Civilization civilization is yet to be deciphered and thus• Cairo in ancient Egypt historians need to rely on the archaeological• Ur in Mesopotamia evidences found. (b) Discuss the main features of the HarappanDiscovery of the Indus Valley Civilization script.(a) Explain the main events leading up to the discovery of the Indus Valley civilization. Features • Pictographic script• Discovery of seals by Dayaram Sahni in 1921• Pottery discovered by workers in 1922 • Script is mostly found in seals and tablets• Excavation of the remains by R D Banerji of the • Script is yet to be deciphered Archaeological Survey of India Main Features of the Harappan Civilization(b) Use the map on Page 37 to explain the extent and • Use of burnt bricks baked in kilns and of a main cities. standard size(c) Discuss how historians such as Kenoyer have • Town planning – the city was divided into two charted the growth and evolution of the city with the help of a timeline. parts, the citadel (upper town) and the lower town 3500 BCE • Existence of granaries for storing surplus grains 3300 BCE Beginning of Harappa as • Important buildings like the Great Bath – a sort a farming community 3000 BCE of swimming pool 2500 BCE • Discovery of a type of Assembly Hall building where people used to meet 2200 BCE Harappa flourishes as a full grown city • Broad roads with covered drains 2000 BCE • Excellent drainage system with tight brickwork 1500 BCE Beginning of the decline of and wooden screens and slabs the Harappan civilization 1000 BCE • Large spacious houses with a courtyard, well, 500 BCE kitchen and garbage bins
  • 32 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 3 • Seals could have been used as stampsPurpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual • Seals of the Harappan civilization found inAssessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group Discussion MesopotamiaIn Text Question (Page 39) • A dockyard found in Lothal • Trade carried on with Persian Gulf Region, Iran,Why do you think that granaries were close to Central Asiathe river?Hints (b) Locate Iran, Central Asia, Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf on a map of the world. Connect the• Most of the cultivated land would have been close to river beds main cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa with• Surplus grains would have been transported these regions. across rivers Assessment – 4Life of the People Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual(a) The main features of the life of the people can be Assessment; Tool – Presentation explained with the help of a table. Fun with History!Aspect of Life You can enrich the explanation of the features of theDiet civilization and the life of the people with a slideFeatures show entitled ‘Around the Indus in 90 slides’ using• Farmers cultivated many crops the link www.harappa.com/indus/1.html• Main crops cultivated were wheat, barley, rice, fruits and vegetables Assessment – 5• Fish, milk, poultry and milk products may have Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual also been consumed Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group DiscussionAspect of LifeAnimals Discuss (Page 41)Features List all the occupations of the people. Were some of• Goats, sheep, pigs, oxen and buffaloes were these different from the earlier times? domesticated • Farmers • Craftsmen• Seals show the knowledge of tigers, bulls, camels, • Artisans • Traders rhinos and elephants • Masons and builders • PottersAspect of Life During the early prehistoric period and the NeolithicCrafts Age, people were largely hunters and gatherers.Features Since they did not know how to cultivate food, they• Pottery was red in colour with black designs could not engage in other occupations.• People knew how to spin thread with yarn and wool Religious PracticesAspect of Life (a) Explain that most of our knowledge regarding theClothes & Accessories religion of the people comes from the seals andFeatures figures found. Use the illustrations in the textbook• Men wore a dhoti like garment with an upper as well as the above mentioned slide show to teach shawl• Women wore skirts and an upper shawl this section.• Ornaments made of gold, silver, copper, bronze, • People worshipped trees and animals terracotta beads and shell have also been found • Pipal tree, bull, representations of Mother EarthAspect of Life were worshippedTrade • A male deity considered to be Pashupati or LordFeatures of the Beasts surrounded by many animals was• Many weights and measures found worshipped
  • 33 TEACHER’S MANUALDecline of the Civilization important buildings such as the Great Bath, granaries and the town hall. The streets were also(a) Discuss the possible reasons for the decline and well laid out and broad. Roads and drains were end of the civilization. paved with bricks and houses were built on either • Flooding may have led to migration to safer side of the streets. areas b. How can we say that the Harappans had trade • Natural disasters like earthquakes and climate with other countries? change • Invasions by Central Asian tribes There is evidence to support the theory that the • Decline of trade and commerce Harappans had trade with other cities. Weights and measures have been found. It is also believedAssessment – 6 that seals might have been used by traders toPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; stamp their goods. Some Harappan seals haveTool – Art Work been found in Mesopotamia and MesopotamianFun with History! seals have been found in Harappa. The dockyardDistribute the colouring pages to your students and at Lothal confirms that the Harappans weredisplay their work or stick in their scrapbook or familiar with ships. Hence, we can say that a brisknotebook. Students may also stencil their own art trade existed with the Persian Gulf region, Iran,work using the pictures from the textbook. Afghanistan and Central Asia. c. Give any two features of the Great Bath that haveRecapitulation and Summary impressed you the most. • Discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization The Great Bath was a large impressive structure • Features of the Civilization found in Mohenjodaro. The two outstanding • Life of the People features of the Great Bath are: • End of the Civilization • The bricks were tightly fitted to avoid seepageSummative Assessment 1 of water. The floor of the bath had five layers of brick and mortar. Even today, this structureKEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 43) holds water!1. Fill in the blanks: • It was well planned with changing rooms. d. Describe any three features of the housesa. Harappa in this civilization which are found in ourb. Rakhigarhi and Dholavira houses also.c. Dockyard The houses of the Harappan civilization wered. 2500 and 1500 BCE comfortable and well-planned. There are manye. Pictographic features that are similar with present dayf. Mohenjodaro houses.2. Answer the following questions in four to five • The house was built around a central courtyard sentences. and was usually two storeyed.a. How do we know that the Harappan people • All houses had a bathing area and was connected had planned cities? Gove any two points to to drain pipes. prove it. • Most houses had a well and also had dustbins to avoid littering of garbage. The Harappan cities had a planned layout wherein the city was divided into two sections – the upper e. What was so special about the drainage town called the citadel and the lower town. The system? citadel was built on a high platform and protected It is believed that the drainage system at Harappa the city during floods. The lower town contained was one of the best in the ancient world. The
  • 34 TEACHER’S MANUAL brickwork was tight to avoid leaking of dirty • Imagine that you used a tablet-like structure for water. Wooden screens ensured that solid wastes a slate. Copy some pictographic information as were not washed away with the water. Drains what you had been taught at school were constructed on either side of the road and • Mention a field visit by your teacher to the Great were covered with stone slabs. This helped it to Bath and the Town Hall as you had a history be cleaned regularly. lesson at schoolf. Describe the seals found at Mohenjadaro. What • Write about the toys you played with when you were they used for? come back and the homework you were given Many different types of seals have been found • Describe the food you ate for dinner at the Harappan civilization. They were made of • Mention a few lines about your bedroom – maybe terracotta, metal and steatite. They were square it is decorated with artefacts and terracotta toys tablets. Almost all the seals had an image of a • Sign off with your ‘name’. plant or an animal embossed on them. The seals Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; also had a raised upper surface. Some kind of Tool – Find Out pictographic script is also found on the seals. It 2. Make a list of the engineering skills of the is thought that the seals could have been used by Harappans as given in the textbook. Did your traders to stamp their goods. predictions at the beginning of the lesson matchg. Do you think the Harappans believed in life after with the clues given? death? Some pictures show the Harappans burying Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; the dead with pots and other belongings. This Tool – Art Work Design Activity supports the theory that they believed in life after 3. To complete this activity, you can refer to the death. Skeletal remains and urns with ashes have website www.harappa.com/indus/1.html. The been found. This suggests that the Harappans pictures and photographs will give you ideas to cremated the bodies and buried them. prepare motifs, seals and jewellery.h. Mention the possible reasons for the decline of Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; this civilization. Tool – Write Letters The Harappan civilization came to an end around 4.(a) The Pakistan Embassy – you may give the 1500 BCE. Some of the possible reasons for the following reasons decline of the civilization are: • You are studying the lesson and it will help you • Periodic flooding led people to safer areas to see history come alive • Epidemics and natural disasters like earthquakes • You are amazed by the advanced nature of the led to the decline of the civilization civilization and would like to see the excavated • The decline of trade with other cities led to a fall remains in prosperity • The Indus Valley is an important part of your cultural heritage • Invasions by Central Asian tribes • A visit will inspire you greatly and will enable you to enjoy history lessonsPOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION (b) Gujarat government asking for financial assistancePurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; • Dholavira is one of the most important sites of theTool – Diary Entry Indus Valley civilization 1. Diary Entry • Recent discoveries like the Rangbhumi and the • Begin your entry with a date in the BCE era. citadel have gained the attention of historians • Start off with a note on what you did when you • As you are studying the chapter, it will enrich woke up your knowledge of history
  • 35 TEACHER’S MANUAL• A visit will inspire you greatly and will enable Ans. The most important excavation sites are you to enjoy history lessons Harappa and Mohenjodaro now in Pakistan, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Ropar in Punjab, LothalPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; in Gujarat, Banawali in Haryana, AlamgirpurTool – Read the story of Sarang and Jeevai in Uttar Pradesh and two new sites of Rakhigarhi5. This is a story of two children in the form of a in Haryana and Dholavira in Rann of Kachchh colouring book, written by Dr. Jonathan Mark in Gujarat. Kenoyer. Sarang is a fisherman’s son who lives Q2. Why did the Harappan villages flourish? And in Harappa. He collects turtles as pets and what converted them to cities? watches the blind dolphins of the Indus from his Ans. Harappa lay on a fertile plain. So, most of the father’s boat. Everyday, he helps prepare fish for people were farmers. Good land and a reliable the city market. Jeevai is a girl who lives near food supply allowed the Harappan villages to Mohenjodaro. She carries a pot on her head to flourish. But Harappan villages were converted collect milk from her buffalo, Neel. Jeevai’s father into cities as they lay on the crossroads of several brings the milk to market in Mohenjodaro every trade routes. day. The book is published by Oxford University Q3. From where did the trader come and what all Press. Request your library to purchase the book they brought along with them? as a teaching resource. Ans. The traders came mostly from Baluchistan and Afghanistan and brought along with themADDITIONAL QUESTIONS copper, tin and lapis lazuli, from the southA. Fill in the blanks: western sea coast, clam and conch shells, timber from Himalayas, semi-precious stones from1. The excavation site of Dholavira is, a small place Gujarat and silver and gold from Central Asia. in the Rann of Kachchh Gujarat. Q4. What was exported by the Harappan traders,2. The Harappan seals are made of terracotta, metal and how were they paid? and steatite. Ana. The Harappan traders exported finely crafted3. The writing on the seals have not been deciphered Indus Valley products to Mesopotamia, Iran and yet. Central Asia and they were paid in the form of4. The bricks were made in the kilns. more raw materials and precious metals.5. The Harappan civilization came to an end around Q5. How can you say that Harappan people wove 1500 BCE. cloth?B. Identify these: Ans. The Harappan people knew how to spin1. An excavation site in the Rnn of Kuchchh cotton into thread and then weave it into cloth - DHOLAVIRA as few spindle whorls and woven cotton had been found.2. The largest structure in Mohenjodaro - GRANARY Q6. Write a short note on the religious practices of the Harappan people.3. A Harappan building which looked like Assembly hall - TOWN HALL Ans. The Harappans worshiped trees and animals, pipal tree and the bull were their favourites.4. Residential area where the common people lived Many terracotta female images have been found - LOWER TOWN which are believed to be the representation of5. Bright blue stone the goddess of earth or mother. - LAPIS LAZULI In one of the figurines, a plant is shownC. Answer the following questions growing from the stomach, this shows theyQ1. Name the various excavation sites discovered might have worshipped the mother goddess by archaeologists. for prosperity.
  • Devotional Lore and5 Sacred Fires LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate that different developments were taking place in different parts of the subcontinent simultaneously • Introduce simple strategies of textual analysis • Reinforce the skills of archaeological analysis already developedTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONTime required: 8 periods Guru Dakshina – Fees for the knowledge the ‘guru’ or teacher has given to his discipleVOCABULARY Patriarchal family – A family in which father or eldestArchery an art of shooting with a bow and male is the head of the family arrow Soma – Intoxicating drink extracted from a plant Shrutis – Texts told or revealed to the authors of theseDisciple student works by God himselfSkilled expert Gurukul – A system of education in which the studentTranquility calm lives in his teacher’s home and helps him in hisCustomary routine household worksStunned taken abackRemorse regret TEACHING POINTSUnruffled in control IntroductionRighteous moral (a) Read the story of Eklavya in the opening section ofHereditary inherited the textbook and discuss the questions at the endPastoral rural of the section.Ritual rite, ceremony Assessment – 1Intoxicating stimulating Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/IndividualPhenomena occurrence of event Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group DiscussionDoctrine policy In Text Question (Page 45)Yoked joined with a yoke Do you feel angry with Dronacharya? Was he right orInfer gather, assume wrong?Menial unskilled (Possible Responses)Strategic planned, calculated • Yes, we feel angry with Dronacharya becausePrecise exact he was unfair with Eklavya. In order to protect
  • 37 TEACHER’S MANUAL Arjuna and ensure his superiority, he asked for • We learn about society, political life and economy Eklavya’s thumb which would ensure that he of the Early Vedic Age from the Rig Veda would never be able to use the bow and arrow • For many thousands of years, the Vedas were again. orally transmitted• No, Drona was not wrong because he was entitled Assessment – 2 to ask anything as his dakshina or fees. Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment; Since Eklavya learnt his skills from Drona, he was Tool – Games entitled to give anything his teacher asked for as that was the custom of the time. Fun with History!Do you know from which great book this story has been Play a game of Chinese Whispers with the class.taken? Whisper a fairly long sentence in the first student’s• The story is from the Mahabharata. ear and ask him to pass it on by whispering to his/ her neighbour. When the final student has been toldORIGINS OF THE ARYANS the sentence, ask him/her to say it out aloud. Was it the same sentence as the original? Were there any(a) Since there are conflicting opinions about the variations? If yes, explain to the class how difficult it origins of the Aryans, discuss the main theories was in ancient India to pass down volumes of books with the help of a mind map. down the ages. ORIGINS OF THE (b) Discuss the various aspects of the Early Vedic Age ARYANS 1500 BCE with the help of a chart. (Available on Page 2) Political Life Rajan (King) Conflicting Theories Samiti Purohita Senani • Kingdom consisted of gramas or villages • A group of villages called the vish EducationMigrants from West Asia Original inhabitants of Gurukkul Systemand Eurasia and were India and descendants • Students lived with the teacher and helped himcalled Indo Aryans of the Harappans in his wor(b) Explain the broad division of the study of the • Parents imparted skills to their children Vedic Period. Assessment – 3 VEDIC AGE Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group Discussion Discuss (Page 47) Early Vedic Age Later Vedic Age What is the difference between the educational system of (1500 – 1000 BCE) (1000 – 600 BCE) the Early Vedic times and that of the present day? Which system would you prefer and why?Early Vedic Age Hints(a) Begin this section by reading the hymns of the Rig Veda. Explain to students that the Rig Veda is one In the Vedic Age, children had to live in the gurukul of the main sources of information of the Early and stay at the teacher’s house. In addition to being Vedic Age. taught, children also had to perform household chores. This is not the case in the present day.Rig Veda The modern system is preferable because it offers• Collection of prayers in honour of many educational opportunities for all instead of just the Hindu gods upper castes. Also, girls were not allowed to study• Consists of 10 mandalas or volumes in gurukuls.
  • 38 TEACHER’S MANUALEconomic Life Later Vedic Age• Transition from pastoral nomads to settled (a) A chart similar to the Early Vedic Age can be agriculturists prepared. Display both charts as a comparative• Cow was the principal form of wealth analysis on the display board.• Wars fought over cows Assessment – 4• Other professions included artisans, weavers, Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual potters Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group DiscussionSocial Life In Text Question (Page 50)• Father was the head of the family What sort of jobs do you think would these slaves have• Women were educated and participated in family performed for their owners? If a slave disobeyed his affairs and rituals master, what would have happened?• Girls were married at a young age HintsFood The slave would have had to perform cleaningCereals, grains, milk, honey, soma, meat tasks and other chores of the household. If theyReligion disobeyed their master, they would have been beaten• Believed in nature gods or killed.• Indra (Rain), Agni (Fire), Varnua (Water), Vayu Political Life (Wind), Usha (Sunrise) amd Surya (Sun) • King became very powerful and regarded as aCase Study – Inamgoan representative of god on earth(a) Refer to Page 24 of the textbook and ask students • Kingdoms known as janapadas emerged to locate Inamgoan on the map of India • Sacrfices like the ashvamedha, rajasuya and vajapeya performed(b) Discuss the main features of this site. • Women and assemblies no longer had a roleMain Features Education• People lived in Inamgoan between 1600 BCE to Continuance of the Gurukul system 700 BCE Economic Life• Located on the banks of the river Ghod • People lived in mud houses• Mud houses excavated thatched with grass - Refer • Iron tools used for agriculture to Fig 1 • Painted Grey Ware pottery found which was black• Rich farmers lived in the centre of the settlement in colour and painted black which was fortified • Emergence of the nagara and towns• Stone tools and pottery items found – red with • Some form of trade as barter existed black designs - Refer to Fig 2• Crops such as wheat, barley and lentils found Assessment – 5• Terracotta figurines found Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/Individual• Decline in farming in the later phase of this Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing/Group Discussion settlement Discuss (Page 51) Imagine a world without coins, paper money or credit cards. How would people buy and sell things in such a situation? Hint The barter system would have existed where people exchanged commodities based on need. It is also possible that some other item considered valuable Fig 1 Fig 2 such as cattle, beads or shells may have been used(Source: www.4to40.com/.../inamgaon/house.gif) as money.
  • 39 TEACHER’S MANUALSociety Recapitulation and Summary• Father continued to be head of the family • Origin of the Aryans• Position of women declined • Early Vedic Age• Caste became more prominent • Life in the Later Vedic Age• Four main castes – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas • Megaliths and its features and Sudras• Four phases of a man’s life – brahmacharya, Summative Assessment 1 grihasta, vanaprasthan and sanyasaFood KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 53)Rice, wheat, barley, soma, milk 1. Answer the following quiz:Religion a. I am one of the ancient sacred books of the Hindus.• Prajapati or the Creator the most important I am the first of a series of four books. Can you deity guess my name?• Other deities were Rudra, Pushan Rig Veda• Growth of sacrifices and rituals b. I am the Hindu God of rain and thunder.Megaliths Who am I?(a) Using the following link: www.homepages.ucl. Indra ac.uk/.../images/megalith.jpgshow to show c. I am the author of Ramayana. Who am I? students pictures of megaliths. Valmiki(b) Explain the features of megalithic structures and d. I am regarded as the most important deity of the their functions. Later Vedic Period. Who am I?• They are large stone graves in which dead people Prajapati were buried e. I am the author of Mahabharata. Who am I?• Mainly found in South India – Andhra Pradesh Ved Vyasa and Tamil Nadu (Refer to the map on Page 24 of the textbook 2. Answer the following questions in two to three• Megaliths were made of large boulders sentences each:• The dead person was buried with all his pottery a. What were the main games and pastimes of the and belongings like axes, daggers, jewels, Early Vedic people? coins etc. The favourite pastimes of the Early Vedic people• Megaliths help historians understand the were hunting, chariot racing and horse racing. economic life of the people They also knew the game of dice. In addition, they(c) You will find pictures of megaliths around the used to play musical instruments like the veena world at this website: www.megalithic.co.uk and the drum. They loved singing and dancing. b. Write a note on the dress and ornaments of theAssessment – 6 Early Vedic people.Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment; In the Early Vedic Age, people wore clothesTool – Drama made of wool and cotton. Men and women woreFun with History! an upper garment around their shoulders and aRead the stories enclosed with this lesson. Dramatize lower garment around their waist. They also worethem in class. earrings, necklaces, armlets and bangles.You will also find many stories of Indian mythology c. What were the food habits of the early Aryans?in the Chandamama series. Visit their website www. The diet of the people included cereals, vegetables,chadamama.com to read them online! fruits, honey, milk and milk products. The people
  • 40 TEACHER’S MANUAL also drank an intoxicating drink made from the neighbouring kingdoms. The vajapeya was a the soma plant. They also ate meat of different chariot race where the king’s chariot always won varieties. over his subjects.d. What were the painted grey Ware sites? d. Write a note on the site Inamgaon in Maharashtra. Painted Grey Ware sites were those where wheel- made pottery which was grey in colour and Inamgaon is a settlement on the banks of the river painted with red and black geometric designs were Ghod that dates back between 1600 to 700 BCE. found. Such pieces of pottery have been found at Archaeologists have dug about 100 mud houses Hastinapur, Kausambi and Atranjikhera. thatched with grass. They have also unearthed pots, copper tools, jewellery and terracotta figures.e. Why is the Later Vedic Period also called the Graves have been found where the body was Epic Age? placed towards the north. The body was buried The Later Vedic period is also called the Epic Age along with vessels containing food and water. because the famous epics such as the Ramayana e. What do you know about the caste system in the and the Mahabharata are believed to have taken Later Vedic Period? place during this period. The caste system that emerged in the Later Vedic3. Answer the following questions in five to six Age was based on occupation. Later, this became sentences each. fixed on the basis of one’s birth. The four maina. Who were the Aryans? When and how did they castes were the Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas come to India? (rulers and warriors), Vaisyas (traders and artisans) and the Sudras (uneducated menial The origin of the Aryans in India is debatable. caste). The caste system was also known as the Some historians believe that they came from West varna system. Asia and Eurasia and spoke Sanskrit. They say this on the basis of inscriptions found in Iran. Other POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION historians believe that they were descendants of the Harappan people as their religious practices Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; were similar. Initially, the Aryans settled in Punjab Tool – Diary Entry and Uttar Pradesh. The earliest record of their 1. Diary Entry settlement is 1500 BCE. • Today I was asked to perform the ashwamedhab. How was the society of the Early Vedic people sacrifice organized? • The king had set his horse around the neighbouring The basic unit of society was the family and kingdoms the father was the head of the family. He was • All the lesser kings accepted our king as the known as the grihapati. People preferred sons Supreme Ruler as they could fight wars. Women were educated • We performed the rituals with soma, ghee, and participated in rituals and assemblies. milk etc. People lived in joint families, where two to three • Later, we sacrificed the horse generations lived in the same family. The average Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; age of marriage was 17 years. Tool – Organize a Debatec. What were the important rituals and sacrifices 2. The administrative system of the Early Vedic Age performed during the Later Vedic Period? is better than present-day India During the Later Vedic Age, the main rituals Yes, because and sacrifices were the rajasuya, ashvamedha • The king was a first among equals and was elected and vajapeya. The rajasuya was said to confer by his peers. supreme power on the king. The ashvamedha • He had able people to assist him, including sacrifice confirmed the supremacy of the king over women.
  • 41 TEACHER’S MANUAL• The administrative system was close knit and thus d. Oldest religious text in Iranian language more efficient. AVESTANo, because e. He fought wars on behalf of the king• In present day, India, everyone has equal rights, SENANI which was not the case in the Early Vedic Age. f. The village headman• The main duty of the king was to fight wars and GRAMANI he did not look after the welfare of his subjects. g. This was supposed to confer supreme power on• Since the King’s post was hereditary, the best the king person need not have been chosen for the post.3. Refer to the mentioned websites in the textbook. RAJASUYA SACRIFICE h. Two famous towns of the Vedic AgePurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment;Tool – Textual Analysis HASTINAPUR, KAUSAMBI4. (a) This dialogue would have taken place in the Northern region of India QUESTION/ANSWERS (b) Animals used – cows, horses Q1. Name the texts composed by the Aryans. Transportation – boats, chariots Religion – nature gods Ans. The Aryans have composed four Vedas – Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda, Sama Veda and the two epics Ramayana, Mahabharata.ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS Q2. Why is this period of the Aryans called theA. Fill in the blanks: ‘Vedic Age’?1. Dronacharya was the guru of Pandavas. Ans. As we know the Vedas were written during this2. Civilization of the Harappans ended around 1500 period by the Aryans and they contain a lot of BCE. information about the life of the people of this3. Both Rig Veda and Avesta provide the same period, this age is called the ‘Age of the Vedas’ names for many deities. or the ‘Vedic Age’.4. The head of the family was called the grihapati. Q3. How were the Vedas passed from one5. Ramayana and Mahabharata were the two great generation to the other in the early times? epics of the Vedic Period. Ans. In the early times, for thousands of years theB. Match the columns: Vedas were passed from one generation to the a. Bhagvada Gita ‘Song of the Lords’ next by word of mouth. The priests and teachers b. Veena Lute taught the students to memorize and recite the c. Manu Smriti Laws of Manu hymns, with great emphasis laid on the correct d. Sama Veda Music book pronunciation of each syllable and word. e. Purohita Priest Q4. Describe in brief about the (a) Professional life of people in this period (b) Education in this f. Dasa Slave period. g. Megaliths Agni Ans.(a) The Rig Veda mentions different artisansC. Answer in one word: and crafts, people including chariot makers,a. Fees given to the Guru weavers, leather workers and potters. The GURUDAKSHINA metal workers produced weapons and otherb. One of the oldest books of the world objects of copper and bronze. RIG VEDA (b) The teacher imparted education to thec. Ages of the Vedas children in his home and often the students VEDIC AGE lived in the teacher’s home and helped
  • 42 TEACHER’S MANUAL him in his household work. This system of neighbouring kingdoms and the king claimed education was called – Gurukul System. In control over all the territories visited by the many families the parents themselves taught horse. Later, the horse was killed at a special their skills and crafts to the children. ceremony.Q5. Write in brief about each of the four Vedas. Q8. What was Vajapeya?Ans. The Rig Veda is a collection of prayers in Ans. Vajapeya was a chariot race in which the honour of various hindu deities. It consists of king’s chariot always won against those of his ten volumes. subjects. Yagur Veda contains prayers to different deities Q9. Name the stages a man passes through and also describes the religious rituals that have according to religious texts. to be performed by the devotees. Sama Veda is a music book which includes the Ans. According to religious texts, a man passes Rig Vedic prayer songs set to music. through four stages or ashramas in his life. These are Atharva Veda furnishes prayers and rituals for the cure of different diseases. 1. Brahmcharya or student life 2. Grihastha or life of a householder i.e. husbandQ6. Why were the rituals and sacrifices performed and father by the king? Name them. 3. Vanaprasthan or life of a hermitAns. The rituals and sacrifices were performed by 4. Sanyasa or complete renunciation of all worldly the king to strengthen his position. They were pleasures Rajsuya, Ashvamedha and Vajapeya. Q10. What are megaliths?Q7. What is Ashvamedha sacrifice? Ans. Certain communities adopted a distinct systemAns. In the Ashvamedha sacrifice, a powerful of burying the dead. In this system the dead king allowed his horse to freely roam the were buried in large stone graves which were called megaliths.
  • Early Kingdoms and6 Ganasanghas LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Introduce the concept of state and its varieties • Understand the use of textual sources in this contextTextbook : Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required : 8 periods Wet rice cultivation – Saplings are first planted in nurseries and then transplanted into the fields, toVOCABULARY save the plants and increase the produce Republic – A kingdom governed by an electedMaternal related through the mother’s side head of the family Guild – The groups in which the crafts people hadCatapult propel, hurl organized themselvesWhirled rotated Bali – It was a compulsory payment like tax, madeThatched roof covered with straw, reeds or to the king similar materialHusk dry covering of some seeds TEACHING POINTSPloughshare main cutting blade of a plough IntroductionYielded gave away (a) Read the opening section and discuss the questionsGeometric design with regular lines and at the end of the section. shapesHoe long handed gardening tool Assessment – 1Ambitious determined, motivated Purpose – Formative; Type– Group/IndividualAmbassador representative Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentClan tribe, family In Text Questions (Page 54)Hereditary inherited from the family What is a kingdom?Acrobat trapeze artist HintsAscetic frugal A kingdom is a territory ruled by a monarch or a king. The king expands his kingdom by fightingChaplain Member of the clergy attached to wars with his neighbours and defeating them. a chapel in private house He might also need to protect his kingdom fromMoat wide ditch filled with water invaders.
  • 44 TEACHER’S MANUALCan you think how a person could have become a king Rise of Magadhain ancient times? What happened in the Ramayana and (c) Discuss the reasons for the rise of the Magadhanthe Mahabharata? Empire under Bimbisara and Ajatashatru.A person usually became the king by succeeding his Expansion offather who was the previous king. A person could territory throughalso become the king by fighting wars and defeating marriageweaker kings. Since the king was considered as god’srepresentative on earth, his authority could not be Large collection Fertile lands of taxes enabled providedquestioned. Rise of the king to timber andIn the Ramayana, Rama became the king after Magadha agriculture maintain aserving his 14 years of exile, though he was supposed standing army flourishedto succeed his father Dasaratha. In the Mahabharata,the Pandavas had to fight a bitter war against their Good administrative setcousins, the Kauravas, before winning back their up to collect taxes andkingdom. keep the king informedHow does a person become the Prime Minister in India of happeningstoday? (d) The administrative structure can also be explainedIn India, there is a democratic process of choosing the using the following diagram.Prime Minister. Elections are held every 5 years andthe party that wins the maximum seats in Parliamentchooses their leader to be the Prime Minister.Janapadas (1000 BCE to 600 BCE)(a) Discuss the rise of janapadas in the period 1000 BCE to 600 BCE. SENAPATI Commander AMATYA• Tribes in the Upper Ganga - Yamuna Doab gave of the Army Helps in names to their territories such as Kosala, Kuru administration Panchala or Videha. This came to be known as KING janapadas.• A person could become king through war, bravery or by performing sacrifices like the asvamedha and the rajasuya sacrifice.Mahajanapadas (600 BCE to 300 BCE) PUROHIT(a) Locate the 16 mahajanapadas on the map given on Page 56 of the textbook. BALISADHAKAS(b) Explain the reasons why most of the mahajanapadas Explain another type of political set up called were located in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. ganasanghas.• Iron tools and implements were used to clear large • Clans like the Shakyas and the Vrijjis had this areas of the Ganga Valley leading to settlements political set up.• Growth of agriculture leading to surplus grains • The rajas of each clan met at an assembly hall that could feed artisans and craftsmen located at Vaishalli and discussed and debated• Surplus also taken by the king as tax to build army issues. and pay soldiers. • Each raja had his own army and storehouse.
  • 45 TEACHER’S MANUAL• Ganasanghas ensured that the rajas were first Main Professions among equals and no one individual could dominate.• Women and labourers could not attend Farmers Craftsmen Merchants meetings.Assessment – 2 • Main oc • Many • Jataka talesPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group cupation in occupations mentionAssessment; Tool – Story Telling & Group villages such as tradersDiscussionh • Crops such weaving, • MerchantsFun with History! as rice, metalwork were wheat, and jewellery prosperousRead the story enclosed along with this chapter to the sugarcane making existed and travelledclass. Talk to them about the usefulness of folktales and • Special pottery in caravansas a means of learning about the past! vegetables known as and carts grown Northerm • They tradedAssessment – 3Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment; • Grains were Black Polished in textiles, offered Ware has been ivory objectsTool – Group Discussion as tax to found.Discuss (Page 57) • They paid a the village • People having tax on theDo you find any difference between kingdoms and headman the same sales theyganasanghas? occupation madeHints lived in the same town • ImportantIn a kingdom, an individual (the King) was all seaports • Guilds orpowerful and dominant. His word was law and he were Bri- shrenis camehad unlimited rights and powers. The kingdom was into being. ghukachhaa large territory and the king was always • Craftsmen and Sopara taught their (Refer toseeking to expand his empire. trades to their map onIn a ganasangha, the rajas were the first among Page 56) sonsequals. Decisions were taken through discussionand vote. No one individual was dominant. The (c) Explain the features of the economy during thisganasanghas comprised small clans who came period. You will find pictures of the coins of thistogether. period at the following link: www.coinnetwork. com/group/punchmarkedcoinsofindiaLife of the People • Use of punch marked coins • Coins were made of silver and copperAssessment – 4Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group Assessment – 5Assessment; Tool – Story Telling Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group(a) Have a reading session of the various Jataka tales. Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment You can access many stories using the following In Text Question (Page 58) link: http://www.jatakkatha.com/index.htm How important do you think was farming to the king and why?(b) You will now be able to elicit the main features of the life of the people and professions which can be Hints explained with the help of a tree diagram. Farming was very important to the king as it gave
  • 46 TEACHER’S MANUALhim surplus grain and taxes to maintain a standing c. I am a book of tales about the Bodhisattvas.army. It also ensured that other professions such as Jatakaschariot making, tool making etc. could exist because d. I am the group the craftspeople formed.these workers could be fed with surplus grain. ShrenisSection on the Arthasastra on guidelines for e. We were the people who helped the king to runweavers the administrationIn Text Questions (Page 59)Do you agree with these guidelines? Why? Amatyas and SenapatiHints 2. True or False. Rewrite the false statementsSome of the guidelines are acceptable such as extra correctly.rewards and wages for those who work on holidays. a. The Rajas performed sacrifices to becomeHowever, some of them are not, such as cutting off a powerful – Truewoman’s thumb if she does not come to work. b. Champa was a port in Kosala – FalseWhich of these guidelines are applicable even today? c. The balisadhakas were the priests – FalseIncentives for those who do good work and d. The earliest coins were made of copper – Falseextra compensation for those who work on holidaysare applicable even today. However, a worker is e. Most professions became hereditary during thisnot given capital punishment if she does not come period – Truefor work. 3. Answer the following questions in two to threeWhat do they tell you about the position of women sentences each.in society? a. Which were the most powerful kingdoms of thisIt shows that women were not treated equally period? Name some important cities.with men. They were confined to their houses and Some of the most important cities of the periodcould be punished if they did not follow the rules were Kashi, Kosala, Magadha and Avanti. Theof society. important cities were Rajgriha, the capital of Magadha, Champa, the port of Kosala and tradingReligion centres such as Tamralipti and Bhrigukachcha.This period saw the rise of two new religions –Buddhism and Jainism b. What were the three types of towns?Recapitulation and Summary The three types of towns were:• The janapadas and the mahajanapadas • Craft towns• Rise of Magadha • Capitals of kingdoms like Rajgriha• Life of the people • Port towns like Bhrighukachcha• Rigidity of the varna system c. How were jatis formed?Summative Assessment 1 The craftspeople organized themselves into shrenis or associations based on the similarity ofKEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 60) profession. These came to be known as jatis where the son learnt the profession from his father. Since1. Answer the following ‘Who am I’ quiz: the profession became hereditary, the son too hada. I helped the king to collect taxes from the the same jati. villagers. d. Which two religions arose during this period? Balisadhakas Who were the teachers of these religions?b. I was a port town on the west coast. The two main religions that arose in this period Bhrighukachcha were Buddhism and Jainism. Its teachers were
  • 47 TEACHER’S MANUAL Gautama Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira • The Ganga was controlled for trade and respectively. transport4. Answer the following questions in four to five • The king was able to collect tax and maintain a sentences each. standing armya. How was tax collected from the farmers? How e. Why do we say that the varna system became did the king use it? more rigid? As time progressed, the varna system became The farmers produced a large variety of grains, more rigid. People of one varna could not marry fruits and vegetables. One sixth of what the farmer into another varna. Separate laws were made produced was paid as tax to the king. The royal for the different varnas. The punishments for agent used to collect it as grains or in the form of the sudras were more severe than the other varnas. money. The farmer could also use punch marked Hence, the varna system slowly crystallized coins to pay the tax. The king was also assisted by into one based on birth out of which one could the village headman in the collection of tax. The not break of. king used the tax collected to maintain a standing army, pay salaries and build roads. POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTIONb. How did towns arise? Refer to the textbook for Questions 1, 2 and 4 With the growth of the economy and the flourishing of trade and crafts, many towns emerged. Some of Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group them were craft towns that specialized in a certain Assessment; Tool – Organize a debate or a speech craft such as weaving, basket making, chariot 3. I want to live in a republic because making etc. Others emerged as capital cities such • I would not be under the rule of a king who could as Rajgriha, the capital of Magadha. A few towns be cruel and tyrannical to his subjects. • There would be equality among all the leaders emerged as port towns or trading centres, such as and decisions would be taken after discussion Benares. and voting.c. How was trade carried on? What were the goods • There would be collective ownership of land. traded? • Leaders would be elected on the basis of their Goods that were produced were carried over merit and not on birth long distances by merchants who travelled by I want to live in a kingdom because carts or sailed down rivers. All important cities • There would be a lot of economic prosperity. were connected to one another. The important • The king would work towards expansion of commodities that were traded were textiles, iron his kingdom and hence he would look after the tools and ivory objects. Punch marked money welfare of his subjects. was used in trade and accounts were maintained. • There would be opportunities for a lot of people to work and earn a living. Merchants also paid a sales tax on goods sold. I want to live in modern India becaused. Why did Magadha become powerful? • We do not live under the domination of one Magadha became powerful for the following person who seeks to expand his power and reasons: wage wars. • It benefitted from the fertile soil for agriculture • There are well defined laws and rights for • The Ganga and Sone rivers provided water for the people. • Everyone is treated equally and enjoys the daily needs same rights. • Forests that were close by provided timber and • Women too are equal to men and cannot be elephants discriminated. • Iron and coal deposits were used to make tools • We can choose our own leaders based on merit.
  • 48 TEACHER’S MANUAL and whirled around and caused immenseADDITIONAL QUESTIONS destruction among the enemy. We know aboutFill in the blanks: these from the books written by Jainas.1. Sacrifices like Rajsuya and Ashvamedha were Q3. How a person could have become a king in used to gain control over large areas. ancient times?2. Buddhist texts were written in Pali Language. Ans. A person could become a king because of many3. Wet Rice cultivation and irrigation wells helped reasons. He could have been elected. He could produce food surplus. have become popular because of bravery in war4. Senapati was the commander of the army. or he could have simply used physical strength to defeat others.5. Buddha belonged to the Shakya clan. Q4. How many kingdoms are mentioned in6. This period saw the rise of two new religions the Buddhist texts? Name the most powerful Buddhism and Jainism. ones.Write in one sentence about these Ans. Sixteen Mahajanpadas or kingdoms and1. Ganasangh – Were governed by elected head Ganasanghas or Republics are mentioned in the2. Gramanis – Were the headman of the villages Buddhists texts. The most powerful ones were3. Purohita – Was the priest who also advised Kashi, Kosala, Magadha and Vrijjis. the king Q5. Why did people move from the upper parts4. Senapati – Was the commander of the army and of the Ganga valley towards modern Uttar he assisted the king in administration Pradesh?5. Balisadhakas – The tax collectors were called the Ans. During this period iron was used extensively balisadhakas and efficiently in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and6. Karmakaras – Were the labourers who worked on Bihar to make stronger implements like the the land axe which helped in clearing the forests andMatch the columns: the cleared grounds could be used for agriculture. With better agricultural tools made 1. Vaishaali capital of Vrijjis from iron like the hoe and iron ploughshare, 2. Bimbisara 544 BCE – 492 BCE more grains could be produced. So people 3. Jataka Tales 550 stories moved from the Ganga Valley towards modern 4. Tax one sixth of the produce Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. 5. Shrenis are also known as guilds Q6. What helped in producing surplus food? How was the surplus food put to use? 6. Rajgriha capital of Magadha Ans. Wet rice cultivation and irrigation along with the use of better agricultural tools like the hoe andQUESTION/ANSWERS iron ploughshare helped produce surplus food.Q1. Who was Ajatshatru? The surplus food was used to feed people whoAns. Ajatshatru was the king of Magadha and son of lived in towns and were employed in producing Bimbisara. textiles, pottery, glassware, metal and ivory objects. And often the surplus food was takenQ2. What were the secret weapons used by away as taxes by the king. Ajatshatru? How do we know? Q7. What could the king do with the taxes collectedAns. The two secret weapons used by Ajatshatru and why was it important to collect taxes? for the first time were – a huge catapult that could throw stones and rocks and the other was Ans. With the taxes the king could build an army, something like a tank but was actually a chariot pay the soldiers and employ many officers. which had large attached rods that moved Collecting taxes was important because with
  • 49 TEACHER’S MANUAL an army and iron weapons, better chariots and group of independent clans with Rajas such as carts, kings could fight wars and extend their Virjjis. All the Rajas met at the assembly hall and territories. debated many issues. They often voted to makeQ8. Write a short note on Ganasanghas. a decision and each of the Raja maintained his own army and store house. The real power wasAns. Ganasanghas or republics were another type of with the group and not with one individual. The government found in the foothills of Himalayas, land was owned by the clan as a whole and was Punjab and North-west India. They either worked by karmakars. consisted of one clan like the Shakyas or a
  • Emergence of New7 Ideas and Religions EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Outline the basic tenets of these systems of thought, and the context in which they developed and flourished • Introduce excerpts from sources relating to these traditionsTextbook: Refer to pages Sermon religious lectureTime required: 8 periods Parable fable, story Virtues good valuesVOCABULARY Hailed called overMiser person who collects wealth and spends as little as possible DEFINITIONSGrant funding Atmagnam – Knowledge of the atmaPhilosophical relating to the study of reality and Upanishad – A set of books written in Sanskrit existence languageBestow give, grant Svetambara – One of the sects of Jains who wereRenowned well known, famous white-clad Digambara – A sect of Jains who were sky-clad orAmenities facilities nakedStatus position, standing Dhamma – Buddha’s teachingsBarter exchange Sangha – A formal religious order which the BuddhistRevert go back to your old ways devotees had to join to spread the teachings of BuddhaYearned longed, wanted Vinayapitaka – A Buddhist work which gives rulesSect group of people with different for bhikshus belief than the larger groupAscetic strictly self disciplined TEACHING POINTSTilling digging and turning over earthWhisk beat IntroductionNunneries religious houses of nuns (a) Read the story of Nachiketa and discuss theGigantic huge questions at the end of the section.
  • 51 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 1 wanted to make sure that all the ten were there inPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual the group and no one was washed away. He madeAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment a quick count of all but found that only nine wereIn Text Questions (Page 62) there. He was shell shocked. He asked all of them to line-up before him and counted by touching each oneDo you feel inspired by Nachiketa who defied death? and still the number came up only to nine. So, yetHint another student offered to recheck and he changedYes, the story of Nachiketa is very inspiring because positions with theleader and counted the same wayhe displayed great maturity of thought. He was also that the leader did. He also got only nine in frontunselfish in his wishes and asked for knowledge of him. Sure that tragedy had struck them, they satrather than material comforts. down and wailed loudly. A wise man was passing that way. Taking pity onWhat are the Upanishads? them he asked them what the problem was.Sobbing(a) Explain the meaning of the Upanishads and its uncontrollably they narrated the whole story. The teachings. wise man understood the problem!First, he assured• Meaning of the word Upanishads – ‘sitting them that they had no cause for worry. Encouraged near’ by his words, they took refuge in that wise man.• Written in Sanksrit in the form of a dialogue He made them stand in a line and asked the leader between teacher and student to count each one. The leader did so and counted• Important Upanishads – Chandogya Upanishad, all his friends and the figure came to nine. At this Kathopanishad and Taittriya Upanishad point the wise man intervened and told the leader• Called as shruti because they were believed to be that the one who counted the nine students, that is, told by God the leader himself was the tenth man. There was joy• The Upanishads emphasize that God’s rewards and happiness all around and they thanked the wise are given to hardworking and honest people man who had solved their problem.• The importance of rituals are also mentioned in Discuss the message of the story. the text HintAssessment – 2 It is to highlight the importance of the Self. ThePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group study of the Self is a study in itself. Through suchAssessment; Tool – Story Telling & Group simple stories, the Upanishads highlighted greatDiscussion philosophical truths.Fun with History! Causes for the origins of new religious ideas andRead the following story from the Upanishads. faithsTen students studied together and all of them one day (a) Recall the previous chapters and the organizationhad gone to attend a function in the neighborhood of the varna system. Also recall that with thevillage. They crossed a river by foot when they went passage of time the varna system became morebut when they were returning in the middle of the rigid and inflexible.river, flash floods in came and with great difficultythey managed to reach the shore. In the riverbed (b) Explain the reasons for the rise of new religionsafter relaxing for some time the leader of the group around this period.
  • 52 TEACHER’S MANUAL Rigidity of the Caste • Born in 540 BCE in Kundagrama in Bihar System • Father Siddhartha was leader of a kshatriya clan • Domination by the Rapid Urbanization while his mother was a princess of theLichchavi upper castes • Growth of clan • Vaisyas became new cities like • Married to a girl called Yashoda, but he left home prosperous due to Kausambi, Vaishali at the age of 30 and wandered for 12 years in trade and wanted and Kusinagar search of truth a new religion that • Use of money in • He attained true knowledge at the age of 42 and would give them a trade led to a was thus called Mahavira or Great Hero better position luxurious lifestyle • He died at the age of 72 in 468 BCE in Rajgriha • Sudras were being • People yearned for (b) You can find pictures of Mahavira at the following exploited and hence a simple lifestyle link wanted to escape that discouraged luxury http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavira from this (c) Having discussed the background of Mahavira, explain the triratna or the three essential teachings Causes for the rise of Mahavira. of new religions Teachings of Mahavira Triratna Demands of Complex Rituals • Right faith • Rituals were in Sanskrit that could not • Right knowledge be understood • Right action • Complex rituals were expensive and Other teachings time consuming • People did not like the sacrifice of • Do not lie bullocks and cows as they were needed • Do not hurt other beings for agricultural purposes Rules for Jain Monks • Carry a whisk to gently brush insects out of theAssessment – 3 wayPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • Wear a cloth over the mouth so that one does notAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment breathe insectsDiscuss (Page 64) • Do not light a lamp or walk in the dark or put outDo you think the caste system is strong in present a fireday India? Substantiate your answer with real life (d) Explain the contribution of Jain literature andexamples. art.Hints • Jain literature written in Prakrit, the language ofYes, the caste system is still strong in present day the common peopleIndia. We see so many groups exploited because • Tamil epics such as Silappadikaaram and Jivikathey belong to backward castes. Marriages are Chintamani deal with Jainismstill on the basis of caste. Political parties are also • Statue of Gomateshwara, a Jain monk atorganized on the basis of caste and votes are caste Sravanabelagolaalong caste lines. • Dilwara Temple at Mount Abu – a dream in marbleVardhamana Mahavira and Jainism (e) You can find images of Jain art and architecture(a) Explain the story of Mahavira and how he founded using the following link: Jainism. www.shunya.net/.../BHS/Sravanabelagola.htm
  • 53 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 4 as possible. Another factor was also that many of thePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group people who became his followers were not educated.Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Therefore, he needed to use simple examples toIn text Question (Page 66) explain his ideas. This would enable them to grasp the essence of his message easily.Point out two important features of Jain architecture bylooking at the pictures of these two temples. Assessment – 7Jain temples were intricately and richly carved Purpose – Formative; Type – Individualinside.The exteriors of the temple were also richly Assessment; Tool – Role Playcarved and had bee shaped towers. Fun with History!Gautama Buddha and Buddhism Let students choose one of the tenets of the eight fold path and try to practice it. Let each student spend(a) Read the story of Gautama Buddha and how he the first five minutes of the lesson each day to share attained enlightenment. how he/she tried to practice it.Assessment – 5 (c) Explain the three cornerstones of Buddhism – thePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Buddha, dhamma (teachings of Buddha) and theAssessment; Tool – Story Telling & Group sangha (the religious order of the Buddhists)Discussion (d) Read the rules for the bhikshus from theFun with History! Vinayapitika.Read the anecdotes of Buddha and his life at thefollowing site:http://www.buddhanet.net/bt_ Assessment – 8conts.htm. Alternatively, you can distribute them to Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Groupthe class and have a story telling session. Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment(b) On the completion of the above activity, you can In text Question (Page 68) now proceed to a discussion on the teachings of Do you think that some of these rules would have been Buddha. too difficult to follow?• Our present actions affect our future (Possible Response) Yes, some of the rules relating• People suffer on account of desire to how to eat food would have been difficult• If desire is conquered, people will be freed from to follow. the cycle of birth and death Does your mother ask you to follow some of the above? Which?Eight Fold Path (Possible Responses) Yes, the rules regarding not• Right Observation • Right Determination smacking one’s lips, making slurping noises,not• Right Speech • Right Action speaking with one’s mouth full etc. are emphasized• Right Livelihood • Right Exercise by our mother.• Right Memory • Right Meditation Buddhist literatureAssessment – 6 (e) List the three main books of Buddhist literaturePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group – Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and AbhidhammaAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Pitaka.In text Question (Page 68)Why did Buddha use simple everyday life situations to Assessment – 9explain complex moral virtues? Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentThe main reason for the birth of Buddhism was asa response to the complex teachings of Hinduism. In Text Question (Page 68)Hence, Buddha wanted his teachings to be as simple This is a beautiful sculpture of Buddha. Compare this
  • 54 TEACHER’S MANUALwith the sculpture of Mahavira on Page 65. Do you notice Vardhamana Mahaviraany similarities? c. I follow the Svetanbara sect. To which religion doYes, both the sculptures show the personages to be I belong?cross legged and in a meditating position. They are Jainismalso adorned in simple clothing. (Mahavira’s statue d. I am the son of Jabali and the disciple of sagehas no clothes). The hair style is also the same. Gautama. Who am I? Satyakama JabalaBuddhist art and architecture(f) To explain the main features of Buddhist 2. Arrange the following events in chorological architecture, present a slide show on the main order, i.e. the order in which they occurred. types of monuments and structures. You can find a. Composition of Upanishads images at the following website: b. Birth of Mahavira www.buddhanet.net/gallery.htm c. Birth of Buddha(g) Explain the main features of stupas using the slide d. Enlightenment of Buddha show as you point out the main features. e. Death of Buddha• Stupa is a hemispherical mound containing the f. Death of Mahavira relics of Buddha 3. Answer the following questions in two to three• Outer face is made of burnt brick sentences each.• Stupa is crowned by a small square platform with a. What are the tripitakas? a number of umbrellas• A fenced path called the pradakshina path The teachings of Buddha are compiled in encloses the hemisphere three main books called the tripitikas. They are the Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and the(h) Explain the main features of chaityas and viharas. Abhidhamma Pitaka. Use the pictures in the textbook to highlight the b. What is the astangika marga? features.• Chaityas are prayer halls, examples of which are The astangika marga is the eight fold path found in Sanchi and Karli recommended by Buddha for his followers.• Viharas are monasteries where Buddhist monks They are: right observation, right determination, lived right speech, right action, right livelihood, right• Viharas consisted of long rows of small rooms exercise, right memory and right observation. each occupied by a monk c. What are stupas?Recapitulation and Summary Stupas are hemispherical mounds built over the sacred remains of Buddha or some Buddhist• Upanishads monks like tooth, hair or nail. There is a small• Rise of Jainism – the Triratna chamber where the relic is kept in a carved casket.• Rise of Buddhism – the Eight Fold Path• Buddhist literature, art and architecture The outer face of the stupa is made of burnt brick. In India, the most famous stupa is theSummative Assessment 1 Sanchi Stupa. d. What are chaitya grihas?KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 70) The chaitya griha is a Buddhist prayer hall.1. Answer the following quiz: These are large halls made of brick or wood.a. I was born in the Lumbini forest and I attained Sometimes, the hall is circular in shape. enlightenment at Sarnath. Who am i? Sometimes, the chaitya griha would house a Gautama Siddhartha stupa in the corner.b. I am the last of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras. e. The Jains did not become soldiers or farmers. Who am I? Why?
  • 55 TEACHER’S MANUAL Mahavira emphasized non-violence and his teacher. The authors were learned Hindu sages compassion to all creatures. He held life very belonging to the Brahmana caste. Some of the dear. Hence, the Jains did not become soldiers important Upanishads are the Taittriya Upanishad, because they did not want to kill anyone. They Chandogya Upanishad and Kathopanishad. also did not practice agriculture as they did not want to accidentally kill any of the minute POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION organisms that lived in the soil.4. Answer the following questions in five to six Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group sentences each. Assessment; Tool – Role Playa. How did the jains contribute to the growth of 1. Imagine that you are a Jain monk living during the literature? days of Mahavira. You have had a long discussion The Jains made a very valuable contribution on religion with him. Describe the discussion or to literature. After many centuries, when the describe your daily life inside the cave shown on teachings were transmitted by word of mouth, page 69. they were compiled in a place called Vallabhi, in • I had a discussion with Mahavira on the meaning Gujarat. The language adopted was Prakrit, the of life and death. I asked him about why there common language of the people. Jain literature is suffering and what the meaning of truth is. included epics, dramas and novels and in different I also asked him how one can attain truth and true languages. Tiruvalluvar, the famous Tamil poet knowledge. I requested him to teach and guide is believed to have been a Jain. The Tamil epics me on the triratnas so that I too could conquer Silappadikaaram and Jivaka Chintamani also deal my desires. with Jainism. • My day started at dawn – after a bath, I sat down for prayers. I meditated and tried tofollow theb. Describe the childhood of Buddha. teachings of Mahavira. I practised the triratnas Gautama Buddha was born in 563 BCE in Lumbini during the day. I read the teachings of Mahavira near Kapilavastu to a chieftain of the Sakya clan. and walked to the surrounding areas to spread He lost his mother when he was 7 days old and the message. was brought up by his stepmother. An astrologer Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual had predicted that at some point in his life, he Assessment; Tool – Map Work would see four sad things that would make him an ascetic. To prevent this from happening, his father 2. Refer to the attached map. kept him in comfortable surroundings, where he 3. Refer to the websites mentioned in the scheme of would never see poverty and suffering. work to get pictures.c. What was the Buddhist Sangha? Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment The sangha was the formal religious order of the Buddhists. The members of the sangha hailed 4. Hints from different various castes, professions and (a) The Dalai Lama came to India in 1959 after the communities. They had to follow the teachings Chinese invasion of Tibet. (Refer to of Buddha strictly. They also spent most of their www.wikipedia.org for complete details of the time in prayer and meditation. Since they lived incident. on charity, they were also known as ‘Bhikshus’ (b) Buddhists can worship at home or at a temple. or beggars. It is not essential for them to worship at a temple. At home, a small room is set aside as a shrine.d. What are the Upanishads? It contains an image of Buddha, candles and The word Upanishad means ‘sitting near’. The an incense burner. Worshippers may sit on Upanishads are a set of books written in Sanskrit the floor bare foot facing an image of Buddha and in the form of dialogues between a student and chant. They will listen to monks chanting
  • 56 TEACHER’S MANUAL from religious texts, perhaps accompanied by d. Trishala – Mother of Mahavira who was the instruments, and take part in prayers. princess of Lichchavi clan It’s common to use prayer beads to mark the e. Yasoda – Wife of Mahavira number of repetitions of a mantra.Mantras may f. Prakrit – The language of the common people also be displayed on a prayer wheel and g. Shuddhodana – Father of Gautam Buddha, and a repeated by spinning the wheel, or written on Sakya chieftain of Kapilavastu a prayer flag - in which case the prayer is h. Yashodhara – Wife of Siddhartha (Gautam repeated each time the flag moves in the wind. Prayer wheels can be tiny things that a Buddhist Buddha) carries with them or enormous objects up to nine feet high found in monasteries. These QUESTION/ANSWERS physical prayer devices are very common in Q1. Give names of the important Upanishads. Tibetan Buddhist communities.(c) Visit the website http://www.buddhanet.net/ Ans. Taaitriya Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad audio-chant.htm for audiochants of Buddhist and the Kathopanishad mantras. Q2. Describe in brief the teachings of the5. Visit the following links for ideas: Upanishads. www.cca.edu/gallery/gmedia/919.jpg Ans. The Upanishad teachings highlight the awards that God bestows on honest, compassionate,ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS generous, courageous and hard working people.Fill in the blanks It describes the importance of certain religiousa. The Later Vedic Period extended from 1000 BCE rituals. to 600 BCE. Q3. What were the main causes of the origin of newb. Upanishadas are philosophical saying of wise religious ideas and faiths? Describe in brief. men. Ans. The main causes for the origin of new religiousc. The authors of the Upanishads were learned ideas and faiths were- Hindu Sages. 1. The rigid caste based society- This division ofd. Brahmanas who were priests and teachers society led to conflicts between people belonging claimed the highest status in society. to different castes, so the people felt a longinge. Jainism and Buddhism evolved as the most for a new religion that would put an end to their important and popular religions. miseries.f. Vardhamana Mahavira was the founder of 2. Demands of complex rituals- which was time Jainism. consuming and expensive, many poor peopleg. Dilwara Temple at Mt Abu has been described as could not afford the dakshina or fees demanded ‘a dream in marble’. by the brahmanas who performed the sacrificesh. Gautama Buddha was a contemporary of on behalf of the others. Also the time period Mahavira. of new agriculture based economy had beguni. Lord Buddha teaches that we should respect all which required the use of bullocks. So the religions and their beliefs. farmers were against the killing of cows andGive an introduction of-: bullocks in Vedic sacrifices.a. Aryanakas and Brahmanas – Hindu scriptures 3. Rapid urbanization- People disliked the ideab. Gargi – A woman thinker who actively participated of coin money and the luxuries of city life and in debates held at the royal palaces. wanted to revert to simple lifestyle of the pre- iron age, and yearned for a religion that wouldc. Satyakama Jabala – Son of a slave woman and the disciple of a Brahmin sage Gautam encourage a simple lifestyle.
  • 57 TEACHER’S MANUALQ4. Write a short note on Mahavira. Mahavira also told his followers not to speakAns. Vardhamana Mahavira was the founder of lies, not to steal and not to kill any living beings. Jainism. And the followers of this religion are He laid great emphasis on non-violence and compassion. He did not attach any importance called Jains. Mahavira was born in 540 BCE to religious ceremonies, rituals and sacrifices. in a village called Kundapura near Vaishali in Bihar. He was married to a girl named Q6. What were the rules followed by the Jain Yasoda, but he was not interested in the life of monks? a householder and at the age of 30 became an Ans. The rules followed by the Jain monks were – ascetic and wandered from place to place for • A jain monk must carry a whisk with which to the next 12 years. At the age of 42, he attained gently brush insects out of the way so as to not the highest spiritual knowledge or Kaivalya, tread on them while walking. he discontinued wearing clothes. And was • He must wear a cloth over his mouth so as not to now called-Mahavira (Great Hero) or Jina harm insects or minute organisms by breathing (Conqueror). He propagated his religion for 30 them in. years in places as Kosala, Magadha, Mithila and • He may never light a lamp at night, walk about Champa. He passed away at the age of 72 in 468 in the dark, or put out fire. BCE at a place called Pavapuri near Rajagriha. Q7. Name the sects of Buddhism.Q5. What were the teachings of Mahavira? Ans. In the later times, Buddhism was divided intoAns. The teachings of Mahavira were simple, he two sects – stressed on three things – Right faith, Right • Hinayana (the lesser vehicle) knowledge and Right conduct or action. • Mahayana (the greater vehicle)
  • The First Empire and8 Ashoka EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Introduce the concept of empire • Show how inscriptions are used as sourcesTextbook: Refer to pages TEACHING POINTSTime required: 8 periods Some important datesVOCABULARY Alexander’s Invasion – 326 BCEMint a place where money is coined Ashoka - 272 BCEMystified puzzled End of Mauryan Empire – 185 BCEMotif designAnnex take possession and control of IntroductionUnification union (a) Read the introductory section aloud to the class.Shrewd sharp, wise Discuss the questions at the end of the section.Slaughtered butchered, killed Assessment – 1Domain area of influence Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupCoronation crowning as the king Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentEdible safe to eatAmbassador representative In Text Questions (Page 71)Impressive remarkable What is a script? In which language and script were mostEspionage spying, intelligence of AshokaÊs inscriptions written?Abundant plentiful HintsSustenance provisions A script refers to the alphabets, letters or characters that make up a language. A script has an organizedDEFINITIONS set of rules. Most of the Ashokan inscriptions wereMotif – A decorative design or pattern written in the Brahmi script.Proclamation – An official statement about something Why did Princep find it difficult to decipher the script? important that is to be made public • There was no other script that he could use toEspionage – The act of secretly getting important match the Brahmi script information by using spies • He had to study all the inscriptions for a clueStupa – A domed shaped structure of bricks and • Finally, based on one word, ‘gift’, which appeared stone in all inscriptions, he was able to decipher theViharas – Monasteries or living quarters of the script Buddhist monks
  • 59 TEACHER’S MANUALAlexander’s Invasion (326 BCE) were not alert, Alexander and his army crossed the(a) Introduce this section with a brief background of river. With great difficulty the others reached the Alexander. other side. Though Porus fought bravely, he soon knew that he had been defeated. Alexander had seen• Alexander – one of the greatest conquerors of the how bravely his enemy had fought and wanted to world speak to the brave warrior. When Alexander asked• Hailed from Macedonia, in Greece Porus how he wished to be treated, he answered, ‘As• He became the king of Macedonia after his a king.’ Alexander was so pleased with this reply father Philip and embarked on a campaign of that he immediately returned the kingdom to the conquest defeated Porus.• He conquered many regions including Egypt, Mesopotamia and invaded India in 326 BCE The Mauryan Rule(b) Discuss the events of Alexander’s invasion. (a) Introduce this section by reading the story of• Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE – the war Chandragupta Maurya and how he gained control lasted for two years of Magadha from the Nanda dynasty.• Most famous battle was with Porus whose • Differing accounts of the origin and history of kingdom lay between the river Jhelum and Chandragupta Maurya Chenab (refer to the Atlas for these rivers) • One story says that he belonged to the clan of• Defeated Porus but returned his kingdom Moriyas or peacock tamers, another version• Before leaving India, he appointed governors to claims that he was the son of a Nanda prince and look after the conquered territories a slave • Legend is that when Chanakya approached theAssessment – 2 Nanda king for help, he was insulted and hePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group vowed revenge. He spotted Chandragupta onAssessment; Tool – Drama top of a mound playing a game with his friends.Fun with History! Impressed with his intelligence, he trained himEnact the following legend of the exchange between in the art of statecraft and overthrew the NandaAlexander and Porus. dysnasty, laying the foundation of the Mauryan empire.Alexander’s army reached the shores of Hydapses,the Greek name for the river Jhelum. The army was (b) Prepare a family tree outlining the details of theforced to halt because on the other side of the river Mauryan dynasty. Display this on the board.was King Porus, a powerful king.Porus had with him Assessment – 3a number of elephants, and when they trumpeted, Purpose – Formative; Type – Individualthe horses of the Macedonians took flight. The banks Assessment; Tool – Diagramof the river were slippery, and the enemy was readywith arrows, should the king order his army to cross Chandragupta Maurya (321-297 BCE)the river. Alexander had made up his mind to crossthe Hydaspes, but first he wished to put Porus off hisguard.Every night, Alexander ordered the trumpets Bindusara (297-272 BCE)to be blown to signal the Macedonian army tomarch. It advanced always to the edge of the river, Ashoka (272 – 232 BCE)while Porus, thinking the whole army was going tocross, commanded his elephants to be moved to the Dasaratha (232 – 224 BCE)bank. Since this happened every night, Porus soonbecame careless, thinking that the Macedonians werecowards.But one stormy night, when the Indians Lesser Mauryan Kings (224 - 185) BCE)
  • 60 TEACHER’S MANUAL(c) Explain the expansion of the Mauryan Empire • They were widely distributed throughout his under Chadragupta with the help of the attached empire (Refer to the map on Page 75 of the text maps. book)(d) Read the section about Ashoka and the Kalinga • They were written in the Brahmi script War. Discuss the end of section questions. • They explained his concept on dhammaAssessment – 4 Assessment – 6Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentIn Text Questions (Page 74) Discuss (Page 74)Ashoka does not write about himself in the first person. How do our leaders speak to us today?What does he call himself? (Possible Responses): They speak to us through theKing Piyadasi media in the form of press conferences,interviews,Why was he so disturbed by the war? speeches, advertisements, distribution of pamphlets• Deeply pained by the death and destruction that etc. took place Is it important for a ruler or a leader to talk to the• Hurt that brahmanas, saints and householders are people? separated, killed and injured Hints: Yes, it is important, since he/she must know• Even those who are not affected get upset when about the problems being faced by the people and they see friends and relatives wounded or killed their needs. If a leader is cut off from the people,He decided to annex Kalinga. Do you think he did the then he/she is not a good leader,it means that he/right thing? she does not care about the welfare of the people.• As a king, he did the right thing because Kalinga gave him multiple advantages – he could Ashoka’s dhamma complete the unification of his empire, gain access to the coast and helped him trade with South-east (f) Discuss the concept of dhamma. Asian countries. • Dhamma refers to a code to lead a virtuous life• In a way, the Kalinga war changed the course of • Ashoka wanted people to lead a peaceful and his life! tolerant life • This meant showing respect to elders, relatives,Assessment – 5 friends, being kind to animals etc.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual • He wanted people of all groups to live inAssessment; Tool – Research harmonyFun with History! • As part of his dhamma, Ashoka planted trees, built roads and guest houses and constructedRead more about King Ashoka on the website www. hospitals.asoka.com (g) Read the edict on dhamma. (The complete textEdicts of all Ashokan edicts can be found at the website(e) Before explaining the section on the edicts, prepare http://www.accesstoinsight.org). Discuss the end a slide show on the various edicts that have been of section questions. found in India. Visit the link http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Edicts_of_Ashoka for images and Assessment – 7 information. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• An edict means a proclamation or an Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment announcement In Text Questions (Page 75)• The Ashokan edicts were issued on rock surfaces Give two examples to show that Ashoka cared a lot for and polished pillars animals.
  • 61 TEACHER’S MANUAL• He issued orders to cut down the slaughter of Assessment – 9 animals Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• He built hospitals for the medical treatment of Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group animals DiscussionWho were the officers he appointed to go on inspection? Fun with History!• Yuktas, Rajjukas and Pradesikas Read the following account from the Arthashastra onWhat did the dhammamahamatras have to do? how the king should manage his day. Does it surprise• They work for the establishment of dhamma, you that the king was also given a timetable! the promotion of dhamma and the welfare and If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally happiness of all those devoted to dhamma. energetic. If he is reckless, they will not only beFrom the text, can you say something about the kind of reckless likewise, but also eat into his works. Besides,ruler he was? a reckless king will easily fall into the hands of his• Ashoka was a caring and a kind ruler enemies. Hence, the king shall ever be wakeful.• He was also very systematic and organized He shall divide both the day and the night into eight• He worked hard for the spread of dhamma nálikas (1½ hours), or according to the length of the(h) Ask students to prepare a map of the Ashokan shadow (cast by a gnomon standing in the sun): the Empire based on the map given on Page 75. shadow of three purushás (36 angulás or inches), ofAssessment – 8 one purushá (12 inches), of four angulás (4 inches),Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual and absence of shadow denoting midday are the fourAssessment; Tool – Map Work one-eighth divisions of the forenoon; like divisions (in the reverse order) in the afternoon.In Text Questions (Page 75) Of these divisions, during the first one-eighth partName any two ancient towns and one modern town from of the day, he shall post watchmen and attend tothe map. the accounts of receipts and expenditure; during• Ancient Towns - Mathura, Sravasti, Sarnath, the second part, he shall look to the affairs of both Maski, Kapilavastu, Lauriya-Araraj (any two) citizens and country people; during the third, he• Modern Towns – Peshawar shall not only bathe and dine,but also study; duringCan you locate one pillar and one rock edict of Askoka? the fourth, he shall not only receive revenue in• Pillar – Sanchi, Kausambi, Delhi (any one) gold (hiranya), but also attend to the appointments• Rock Edict – Maski, Girnar, Barabar, Brahmagiri of superintendents; during the fifth, he shall (any one) correspond in writs (patrasampreshanena) with theName the three kingdoms in the south not included in assembly of his ministers, and receive the secrethis empire. information gathered by his spies; during the sixth,• Chera, Chola and Pandya he may engage himself in his favourite amusements(i) Explain the system of administration as advised or in self-deliberation; during the seventh, he shall by Kautilya in the Arthashastra. superintend elephants, horses, chariots, and infantry, and during the eighth part, he shall consider various• King was the most powerful person• He travelled extensively to get to know what was plans of military operations with his commander- happening in his empire in-chief.At the close of the day, he shall observe the• He was assisted by his ministers and officers evening prayer (sandhya).During the first one-eighth• Tax collected was used to build roads, plant trees, part of the night, he shall receive secret emissaries; pay the army etc. during the second, he shall attend to bathing and• The empire was divided into four provinces supper and study; during the third, he shall enter each under a prince. The provinces were further the bed-chamber amid the sound of trumpets and subdivided into districts and in turn into villages. enjoy sleep during the fourth and fifth parts; having The headman was the most important official in been awakened by the sound of trumpets during the the village. sixth part, he shall recall to his mind the injunctions
  • 62 TEACHER’S MANUALof sciences as well as the day’s duties; during the • The Ashokan pillar at Sarnath is the nationalseventh, he shall sit considering administrative emblem of Indiameasures and send out spies; and during the eighthdivision of the night, he shall receive benedictions Assessment – 11from sacrificial priests, teachers, and the high priest, Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Groupand having seen his physician, chief cook and Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessmentastrologer, and having saluted both a cow with its In Text Question (Page 77)calf and a bull by circumambulating round them, he Name three skills needed to make architectural marvelsshall get into his court. such as the Sanchi stupa.The city of Pataliputra Hints(j) Read Megasthenes’ account of the city of • Craftsmanship Pataliputra. Discuss also the life of the people • Skill of design as described by him. • Skill of structural engineering• People lived in villages, towns and forests Assessment – 12 depending on their profession Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual• Important cities were Pataliputra, Taxila and Assessment; Tool – Observation Test Ujjain where traders and crafts people lived Fun with History!• Roads were well developed Make a list of all the places where you see the• Traders used punch marked coins with symbols national emblem of India.(Hints: Currency notes, of birds, animals, arrows etc. cover of Indian passport, coins etc.)• Farmers and traders paid taxes to the king. (m) Discuss the end of the Ashokan empire with theAssessment – 10 weaker successors and the possible reasons forPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group the end of the empire.Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • Breakaway of the outlying regions due to distanceIn Text Question (Page 76) and difficulties in transportName the crops mentioned by him (Megasthenes). • Enough taxes could not be collected to maintain the army• Millets, pulses, wheat, sesamum, fruits • Foreign attacks from the northwestern regionsWhat do you think is the most important thing he is saying • End of the dynasty in 185 BCE when the last rulerin this extract? was killed by his senapati(Possible Response): He is referring to the success Summary and Recapitulationof agriculture and how there was always anabundance of food. He is also referring to the • Invasion of India by Alexanderprosperity of the region. • Rise of the Mauryan Empire • Reign of Chandragupta MauryaArt and architecture • Reign of Ashoka the Great(k) Before discussing Mauryan art and architecture, • Ashokan Edicts and Dhamma recall the meanings of stupa, chaitya and vihara • Mauryan art and architecture from the previous chapter. Summative Assessment 1(l) Show pictures of Mauryan art and architecture, especially the Askokan pillars at Lumbini, Sarnath KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE and Delhi. Explain the main features. Refer to the 78–79) following link for more pictures. 1. Answer the following quiz.• Pillars made of a single piece of stone a. Alexander dedfeated me but returned my• Highly polished kingdom. Who am I?• Was crowned with a carved capital Puru/Porus
  • 63 TEACHER’S MANUALb. I was the adviser to Chandragupta and I wrote carved on rocks and pillars. These were put up in the Arthashastra. Who am I? public places. Moreover, he issued these edicts in Kautilya Prakrit, the common language of the people.c. I was sent by Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta d. What are edicts? and I wrote the Indika. Who am I? Edicts are royal announcements or proclamations. Megasthenes During Ashoka’s rule, he issued many edicts ond. We were sent to distant lands by Ashoka to spread administration, religion and dhamma. He also his dhamma. Who are we? issued royal orders through the edicts. Dhammamahamatras e. Which were the main occupations of thee. I overthrew the last Mauryan king after killing people? him. Who am I? The main occupations of the people were Pushyamitra Sunga agriculture and trade. Craftsmen and artisansf. I converted to Jainism and retired to South India. also prospered due to many beautiful stupas and Who am I? viharas that were built during this period. Chandragupta Maurya f. Name the sources from which we come to know about the Mauryan rule.2. Arrange the events in chronological order, i.e in the order in which they occured. The main sources of information about Mauryan rule are: a. Alexander defeated Porus b. Chandragupa defeated Seleucus • Kautilya’s Arthashastra c. Bindusara succeeded his father • Megasthenes’ Indika d. Ashoka fought the Kalinga War • Pillar and rock edicts issued by Ashoka e. Ashoka became a Buddhist • Punch marked coins of the period f. Pushyamitra succeeded the Mauryans • Art and architecture of the period3. Answer the following questions in two to three 4. Answer the following questions in five to six sentences each. sentences each.a. Why did Alexander turn back from north– a. Why did Ashoka give up war? western India? The Kalinga War changed the course of Ashoka’s It is said Alexander turned back from north life. Though he won the war, he paid a very western India because his soldiers were tired heavy price for it. There was a lot of death and after fighting for 10 long years and they refused destruction, tremendous suffering and injuries to march on. It is also possible that they heard of caused to thousands of people. Ashoka was the powerful Nanda dynasty ruling in Magadh deeply affected by this. He gave up war altogether and did not want to go further. and became a Buddhist after the Kalinga War.b. Why did Ashoka attack Kalinga? b. Describe the city of Pataliputra. Kalinga was an independent kingdom with a The city of Pataliputra was large, beautiful and flourishing trade. Ashoka wanted to conquer it very impressive. Towers and gateways along because it would help in the unification of his with a wooden wall surrounded the city. People’s empire. It would have given him access to the houses were made of brick and wood, while the coast and also helped him trade with South-east palace was made of stone. The roads were well Asian countries. developed and goods were brought in fromc. Why do we say that Ashoka spoke directly to different parts of the country to the capital. his people? c. What wa Ashoka’s dhamma? It is said that Ashoka spoke directly to the people Ashoka’s dhamma was a code of conduct for because he spread his message though edicts virtuous behaviour. Ashoka wanted his subjects to
  • 64 TEACHER’S MANUAL lead a peaceful life and develop a tolerant attitude has the message of dhamma been spread – what towards all religions. He also wanted his people would you like to tell your subjects? to be kind and respectful to other animals and (d) Life of a woman bodyguard – quite interesting - living creatures. As part of his dhamma, he built the king travels in disguise to meet his subjects roads, planted trees, constructed rest houses and – this way he gets to see if his laws are being built hospitals for animals and human beings. He followed – I have visited many new places like also protected certain animals from being killed Pataliputra, Ujjain and Taxila and controlled the slaughter of other animals. Life of a spy – a spy is expected to know all thed. Describe Mauryan art. guidelines of the arthasastra – he is taught the various chapters of how to mingle with others During their reign, the Mauryans built many – how to behave and how to extract information stupas, chaityas and viharas. The most famous secretly - the art of making weapons and poisons stupa was built at Sanchi. The Mauryans are also taught to him. also excelled in the art of sculpting stone Life of a farmer’s wife – the day starts early – we figures especially female figures called yakshis. go to the fields for tilling and sowing – we grow The polished Ashokan pillars were beautifully fruits, cereals, rice and millets – we work hard chiselled, shaped and polished. The capital in the field and enjoy good harvests – a bumper of the pillar was crowned with the figures of bulls crop for many years. and lions. The most famous pillar is at the Sarnath Museum and has been adopted as India’s national Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual emblem. Assessment; Tool – Map Work 2. Use the map on Page 75 as a reference.POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION Purpose – Formative ; Type – Group Assessment;Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Tool – Make a pamphlet on Sanchi or SarnathAssessment; Tool – Diary Entry 3. In addition to the information given in the1. (This can be done in groups. Give each group one textbook, you can also refer to the following task to be completed). Produce a newspaper on websites for information and pictures: http://www.mptourism.com Ashoka’s time. You could include some of the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanchi following things:(a) An interview for a soldier who fought the Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Kalinga War Assessment; Tool – Organize a debate Suggested ideas: The war was terrible – it had 4. (a) Ashoka was right in fighting the Kalinga a terrible impact – many thousands killed – War hundreds wounded and injured – death and Yes, because destruction on a massive scale • He was like any other king who was interested in(b) An interview with a child who was wounded expanding his empire. Suggested ideas: I saw my parents being killed • Conquering Kalinga would have helped him to and I was wounded trying to help them – not unify his empire. only my parents but also my relatives were killed • Kalinga gave him access to the coast. – after the war, the king built many hospitals and No, because I was sent there for treatment.(c) An interview with Ashoka • He already had a vast empire and did not need to conquer more land. Suggested Questions: Tell us about your early • The death and destruction caused was so life – why did you decide to conquer Kalinga – massive what did you go through after the war – what • He could have signed a treaty with the ruler of is dhamma – why is dhamma important – how Kalinga to give him access to the coast.
  • 65 TEACHER’S MANUAL(b) Ashoka did not have the right to tell people 4. Alexander returned the kingdom to Porus after how to behave defeating him.Yes, because 5. Chandragupta founded the Mauryan dynasty.• He forced people to follow dhamma because he 6. Bindusara was the son of Chandragupta. felt guilty of his wrongdoings. 7. A stupa is a domed structure of bricks and• Being a king, it would have been easy for him to stone. manage with the rules of dhamma but it would 8. Pushyamitra Sunga established the Sunga have been difficult for the common man. dynasty.• Farmers and hunters would have lost their livelihoods because of his rules. QUESTION/ANSERS No, because Q1. Who was the founder of Mauryan dynasty? • He being a king had every right to exercise Name the famous rulers of this dynasty. his rule over his subjects Ans. Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of • His rules were meant to develop compassion and the Mauryan dynasty. Chandragupta, Bindusar tolerance among the people and Ashoka were the famous rulers of this • He looked after the needs of the people through dynasty. his welfare activities. Q2. Write in brief about Alexander’s invasion.(c) Life was better in the Mauryan times Ans. Alexander was the greatest conquerors of theYes, because world, he marched from Macedonia, in Greece,• Trade and commerce prospered with the growth to north-western India, conquering all the of towns and cities. countries on his way. His campaign lasted for• The king looked after the welfare of his subjects. two years. The most famous of his battles was• The economy prospered as roads were built and with Porus or Puru whose kingdom lay between agriculture flourished. the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. He returned theNo, because kingdom to Porus after defeating him. He was unable to continue his march towards the east as• The king formulated too many laws for the his soldiers refused to go on. They were probably people. tired after fighting for so long or they might have heard about the great army of the Nandas. So• As the empire expanded, taxes were higher to Alexander left after appointing governors to maintain the army. look after the conquered territories.• Too many wars were fought leading to death and Q3. When did Ashoka feel an inclination towards sufferings. dhamma?Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Ans. After the Kalinga war, Ashoka was so disturbedAssessment; Tool – Punch-marked coins (Project) and pained by the heavy losses and the5. You can make this out of clay. Refer to the website sufferings of the people that he came to feel a www.med.unc.edu for ideas. strong inclination towards dhamma. Q4. How did Chandragupta overthrow Nandas?ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS And who assisted him in doing so?Fill in the blanks Ans. The Nandas were ruling Magadha when Alexander attacked India. Their rule had become1. In 1915, it was confirmed that Piyadasi was the unpopular, taking advantage of their weakness great Ashoka. Chandragupta succeded in overthrowing2. Ashoka fought only one war before giving up war them and founded a new dynasty called the for peace and tolerance. Mauryan dynasty. He was guided and assisted3. After the Kalinga war, Ashoka felt a strong in this by a shrewd and intelligent brhamana inclination towards the dhamma. Kautilya or Chanakya.
  • 66 TEACHER’S MANUALQ5. How do we know about the methods used by Q9. How do we know about the administration of Chandragupta? the Mauryan period? Explain.Ans. We know about Chandragupta’s methods Ans. We know about the administration of the from - The Mudrarakshasa, a classical play, Mauryan period from Kautilya’s Arthashastra, which contains information about the methods which contains the guidelines on how the Chandragupta adopted to make his army and empire was to be governed and gives the details how he planned the revolution to overthrow about the mauryan administration. the Nandas. In the Mauryan period, the emperor was theQ6. Why was the rule of the three Mauryans most most powerful person. He not only made impressive? decisions after consulting his ministers, butAns. The rule of the three Mauryans was most also traveled extensively to gain a first hand impressive as they were able to unite different account of what was happening. He was assisted groups of people into one large administrative by several officers to collect taxes and keep unit. accounts. The tax money was used for buildingQ7. Describe the ways taken up by Ashoka to and maintaining roads, wells, rest houses, spread his dhamma. irrigation projects and the army. The empire wasAns. Ashoka never forced his dhamma on his divided into four provinces each under a prince. subjects. The ways taken by Ashoka to spread The provinces were further divided into districts his dhamma were- and districts into villages. Officers collected • Everywhere in his domain he sent the yuktas, the taxes, worked as judges and kept records. There rajjukas and the pradesikas on inspection tours was an espionage system with the spies to bring every five years for the purpose of dhamma information from the faraway places. instruction and also to conduct other business. Q10. Write about the people of Mauryan Period. • He sent his son Mahendra and daughter Ans. In the large empire of the Mauryan period, Sanghamitra, to Sri Lanka to preach his there were people speaking different languages, dhamma. following different food habits and doing • He also sent his ambassadors to five rulers different jobs. People lived in villages, towns outside India. and forests. Most of them were farmers, they paid taxes and constantly settled new lands for • He held the third Buddhist council. cultivation. People also traded and used coinsQ8. How do we know that Ashoka was an animal and also paid taxes. The people of the forests lover? were hunters.Ans. We can say that Ashoka was an animal lover by Q11. How did the Ashokan Empire end? reading from many of his edicts, which say that – Ans. The Ashokan Empire ended because – The living beings were not to be slaughtered or • The successors of Ashoka could not control the offered in sacrifice. empire which was too large. He made provision for two types of medical • Various regions were isolated and communication treatment – medical treatment for humans and was difficult, the outlying provinces broke medical treatment for animals. away. After 26 years of his coronation he declared • Perhaps enough taxes could not be collected to various animals to be protected. He said that maintain the large army with so many officers. the husks hiding living beings were not to be burnt and the creatures not to be killed. • A series of attacks from the north-west also weakened the empire.
  • From Villages9 to Towns LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Demonstrate the variety of early urban centres – coastal towns , capitals, religious centres. • Illustrate the use of archaeological material including coins, sculpture and textual sources to reconstruct social and economic histories.Textbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 8 periods Urbanization – To change from village or rural life to city or urban life.VOCABULARY Ring Wells – Vows of pots or ceramic rings placedRendered turned into one on top of the other, which were used as toiletsUrbanization turning into a modern city or as drain pipes or garbage bins.Transplantation relocationWithered dried away TEACHING POINTSVeterinary that of the animals IntroductionPerennial returning (a) Read the story of Ananthapindika from the JatakasOppressive unfair to illustrate the new found prosperity of merchants.Salutation greeting Discuss the questions at the end of the section.Blacksmith one who makes things of ironGuild association Assessment – 1 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupProcuring getting hold of Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentPatronage backing and support In Text Questions (Page 80)Vicinity surrounding area How did the merchants become so wealthy?Thriving successful It is likely that students may not be able to answerSlacking dropping this question completely. However, try to recall someMerchandise goods for selling of the important points from the previous chapter,Tributary branch especially the flowering of trade and commerceExcavation digging during the Mauryan dynasty.Unearth uncover What caused small villages to develop into prosperous, thriving towns? Let us find out.Barter exchange
  • 68 TEACHER’S MANUALThe Second Urbanization Hints(a) Ask students what was the first wave of • They may have been exempt because they urbanization. Recall the Harappan civilization, performed some important services. Forexample, which is regarded as the first modern city. the priest contributed to religion and the moral(b) Explain the main features of the second upliftment of people. The veterinarian looked urbanization. after the health of animals like cattle needed in• Use of Northern Black Polished Ware agriculture and horses required in the army.• Iron tools and implements • Also, the people exempt from taxes may have been• Burnt bricks in the direct service of the king andperformed• Metal money duties on behalf of the king for the welfare of his• Discovery of ring wells used as toilets and subjects. drainpipes Which of the above are the most important duties of theAgriculture king?(c) Discuss the various factors that helped in the • Protecting the people by building forts improvement of agriculture, and which in turn • Building roads led to the development of towns and cities. • Constructing canals for irrigation • Taking measures to ensure the safety of crops• Iron axes helped in clearing forests and creating land for cultivation Which of these are relevant even today?• Use of the iron ploughshare that helped in tilling All of the above are relevant today. the fields People in the villages• New methods of cultivation such as transplantation of seeds (e) Explain the different sections of people in the• New methods of irrigation such as wells, tanks, villages and in the towns. Remember, most of these canals etc. have been covered in the previous chapters and is a summary of the same, so you need not devoteAssessment – 2 too much time to this section.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Assessment – 4In Text Question (Page 81) Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupHow would an ordinary person have helped in the Assessment; Tool – Diagramconstruction of a canal? Hierarchy of Society in South IndiaHints Vellalars (Rich Landlords)• Would have carried the material required such as brick, mortar and stone Uzhavars (Farmers)• Would have also helped in the laying of bricks and the construction process Kadasiyar(d) Read the section from the Arthashastra on the (Landless Labour) duties of the king and answer the questions at the Hierarchy of Society in North India end of the section. Grama BhojakaAssessment – 3 (Rich Landlords)Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Grihapatis (Farmers)In Text Questions (Page 82) Dasa KarmakaraWhy do you think that certain people were exempted (Landless Labour)from taxes?
  • 69 TEACHER’S MANUAL(f) Discuss the importance of potters and the evidence Case Study – Puhar or Kaveripattinam of two types of pottery Black and Red Ware and (a) Read about Puhar as described in the Sangam Northern Black Polished Ware. texts. • Small fisherman’s portGuilds of craftsmen and merchants • A Sangam poem describes how precious(g) Recall the organization of craftsmen and artisans merchandise was brought to the port in the form of guilds. (This has already been taught • Large mansions with many rooms existed in in the previous lessons). You can add on a few Puhar points on how the guilds helped merchants and • Read about the plan of the city and discuss the artisans. questions at the end of the section.• It organized trade activities on behalf of its Assessment – 6 members Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• It provided technical training to the younger Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment craftspeople• It also procured raw materials for the members In Text Questions (Page 84)• Guilds helped in the marketing and selling of How can you say that Puhar was a flourishing city? goods Hints• Often, the guilds functioned as banks where • There were day and night markets wealthy people invested their money. This was • It had a busy shipyard used by many travelers used to give loans to craftspeople. • The town had several warehousesEmergence of towns and cities What are the two districts of Puhar mentioned in the Silappadikaram?(h) Explain the different types of towns that emerged and how they can be categorized. • Maruvurpakkam and Pattinapakkam Reconstructing History through various sources Capital cities like Madurai, (a) Locate Bhrighukaccha on the map. Refer to the Pataliputra, Ujjain, map given on Page 75 of the atlas. Towns of Sravasti Cities rich in (b) Discuss with students how this port is mentioned religious minerals such as as Barygaza in the book ‘The Periplus of the significance like Kodumanal in Ayodhya, Bodh Tamil Nadu Erythraenean Sea’. Read the extract given in the Gaya textbook and discuss the questions at the end of Categories the section. Towns on of Towns important trade Ports like Barygaza, Assessment – 7 routes like Nagarjunakonda, Arikamedu, Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Kaveripattinam, Mathura, Korkai Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Amravati Craft centres In Text Questions (Page 85) like Varanasi Why was it dangerous to navigate ships? Hints • It was very narrow and full of rocksAssessment – 5Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual What were the items imported into Barygaza?Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • Wine, copper, tin, lead, coral, topaz, thin clothing, bright coloured girdles, sweet clover,flint glassFun with History!Think of modern day India. Name at least two towns Mention the special items imported for the king.of each category.For example, capital cities like • Singing boys, beautiful maidens, wines, finest thinDelhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata etc. weaves, special ointments
  • 70 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 8 • Factors leading to the growth of townsPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual • Categories of townsAssessment; Tool – Story Telling • Case studies – Puhar, Barygaza and PuharFun with History! Summative Assessment 1Read about the legend of Bharuch or Barygaza.You will find the various stories related to it in the KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 86)website www.wikipedia.org 1. Answer the following quiz. a. I earned my living by working on the fields ofCase Study – Mathura others. What am I?(a) Introduce the study of the third city of Mathura Dasa Karmakara by locating it on the map. Recall the various b. I collected taxes from people. Who am I? reasons why Mathura is famous from the previous chapter. Grama Bhojaka c. I was an ancient port of Gujarat. What is• Importance of Mathura as a trading centre – my name? one linking Taxila to Tamralipti and the other Bhrighukaccha connecting North India to Western and South India d. I am a small fishermen’s village on the eastern coast of Tamil Nadu. Who am I?• Considered to be the birthplace of Lord Krishna• Centre for art and many sculptures of red Kaveripattinam sandstone found e. I am the birthplace of Krishna. What is• Many inscriptions have been found recording the my name? gifts and donations made by kings and queens Mathura(b) You can find images of the Mathura School of art 2. Say whether the following statements are True at the following link: or False. encarta.msn.com/.../mathura_buddha.html and a. The first urbanization took place during the Vedic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathura. Age – False Discuss the questions at the end of the section. b. The use of iron in India began around 1000 BCE – TrueAssessment – 9 c. Barygaza is in Gujarat – TruePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group d. Our knowledge of Puhar is based on architecturalAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment sources – FalseIn Text Questions(Page 85) e. The Peripuls of the Erythraean sea is a Roman Periplus – FalseGive three reasons for the importance of Mathura as ahistorical site. 3. Answer the following questions in two to three sentences each.Hints a. What were the most important duties of the king• Mathura is important as it lay at the crossroads according to the Arthashastra? of two important trade routes According to the Arthashastra, the king’s most• It also has religious significance as the birthplace important duties were to construct reservoirs of Lord Krishna filled with water. If he could not construct• Mathura is also famous for a school of art known them, he should provide the materials for their as the Mathura School of Art construction. The king also had to protect cropsRecapitulation and Summary from being destroyed by thieves and cattle. He• The Second Urbanization should also ensure that crops were not subject to high taxes.
  • 71 TEACHER’S MANUALb. Name the categories of farmers. b. What do we come to know from the Periplus? There were three main categories of farmers: The Periplus describes the navigation and • The Grama Bhojaka who was the largest landowner trading opportunities from the Roman Egyptian and also the village headmen. He collected taxes ports along the coast of the Red Sea and others on behalf of the king. along East Africa and India. It gives us a lot of • The Grihapati who was a smaller, independent information of lands around the Indian Ocean. It landowner. describes the port of Bharuch in detail, including the goods that were imported and exported from • The Dasa Karmakara who was a landless labourer there. For example, we come to know that it was and worked on the farms of others. difficult to navigate ships because the coast wasc. In Indian history, what is ‘second narrow and rocky. We also get to know the special urbanization’? items imported for the king such as singing boys, Around 100 BCE, many towns and cities emerged wine, fine cloth etc. in different parts of India. This is referred to c. Write a note on the Shrenis. as the Second Urbanization because the first Shrenis refer to the guilds or the organizations urbanization took place around the time of the that craftsmen were organized in during the Harappan civilization, dating back to 2500 BCE. ancient period. There were two kinds of guildsd. H o w w e r e g u i l d s b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e – the merchant guilds and the crafts guilds. The craftspeople? merchant guilds organized trade activities for its Guilds were beneficial to merchants in many members. The crafts guilds provided technical ways: training to the younger craftspeople. It also • It organized trade activities on behalf of its procured raw materials for the members. Guilds members helped in the marketing and selling of goods. • It provided technical training to the younger Often, the guilds functioned as banks where craftspeople wealthy people invested their money. This was • It also procured raw materials for the members used to give loans to craftspeople. It was also • Guilds helped in the marketing and selling of common for guilds to make lavish donations and goods gifts to temples and monasteries. • Often, the guilds functioned as banks where d. Write a note on ancient Indian towns that lay on wealthy people invested their money. This was important trade routes. used to give loans to craftspeople. The important towns that lay on trade routes4. Answer the following questions in five to six were Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, Nagarjunakonda, sentences each. Amravati and Kondapur in Andhra Pradesh anda. What do you know about the agricultural Sannati in Karnataka. These towns developed conditions during the period of the ‘second simply because they lay along these important urbanization’ in India? routes. In fact, many of the ancient cities in Andhra Agriculture was the chief occupation of the people. Pradesh developed because of their location as Farmers used a variety of methods to practice a link to south eastern India with the western agriculture and thus grew very prosperous. One Deccan. These towns in Andhra lay on the banks method was the transplantation of seeds or small of rivers and thus served as inland ports. plants. Though the farmers were initially very e. Mention the main features of the ‘second dependent on irrigation, they soon used other urbanization’. methods of irrigation. These included wells, tanks The main features of the Second Urbanization and artificial lakes. The king also helped farmers are: by constructing canals. The king also took special • Use of Northern Black Polished Ware measures to protect agriculture from high taxes, thieves and cattle. • The use of iron tools and implements
  • 72 TEACHER’S MANUAL• The use of burnt bricks Yes, because• The use of metal money • Towns and villages are interlinked to one• Discovery of ring wells used as toilets and another drainpipe • Villages supply the food and raw material• Expansion of agriculture because of better tools necessary for traders and craftsmen, otherwise and improved irrigation they need to grow their own food to survive • No town has emerged in history without thePOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION development of villages first No, becausePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual • The town can develop due to other factors – as aAssessment; Tool – Diary Entry centre of trade, discovery of precious metals etc1. Hints • Many villages and towns are far away from one• Life at Kaveripattinam is very busy another – hence, it is possible that they developed• Everyday one wakes up to the sound of horn of independently ships coming in • Food can always be imported from other places.• Hustle and bustle of the market place A town does not have to depend on the village• Night markets are very exciting for food.• I love to visit the night market – one gets to see I would have liked to live in a town during different stalls selling unique and interesting this time items from foreign places Yes, because• One day, my father bought me a dress made of the finest weave • I would have experienced people lived in the past• I go to sleep every night dreaming of foreign • I would have seen how trade with foreign lands countries took place, seen interesting sights • It would have been exciting to see peoplePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group from foreign lands, conversing in differentAssessment; Tool – Organize a debate languages etc.2. Archaeological sources are more useful than No, because literary sources of history • Life would have been difficult and hard withoutYes, because modern conveniences• We can get to know about how people lived • Unless, one belonged to the royal or a rich person’s• A lot of information has been got even though family, one would have to work very hard for a certain scripts have not been deciphered little moneyNo, because • No one was safe in the town as there would• We get only partial information from archaeological always be the danger of robbers and thieves. sources 3. Refer to the information given in the textbook.• There might have been many objects that have Purpose – Formative ; Type – Individual/Group been lost or destroyed Assessment; Tool – Read and answer (Oral• Archaeological sources cannot be tampered with Assessment) unlike literary sources 4. (a) The king should reside in a city surrounded• A complete account of the times cannot be pieced by strong walls to protect him from together from archaeological sources alone invaders.Development of towns cannot take place without (b) He should have horses and elephants so thatthe development of villages he could use them in wars.
  • 73 TEACHER’S MANUAL(c) The word ‘cars’ denotes chariots Q2. Describe the location of Kaveripattinam.(d) The royal capital should be well stocked with Ans. Kaveripattinam is a small fishermen’s village on grain so that it could be used in times of the eastern coast of Tamil Nadu. It is located at a famine or if the capital was surrounded by the point where the Kaveri river flows into the enemies during war. Bay of Bengal.The historian would gather information about how Q3. How can you say that Puhar was a flourishingthe capital was structured and the strategies used at city?times of war. The historian would also get to know Ans. We can say that Puhar was a flourishing cityhow kings used to prepare themselves for war. from the detailed description available in the Tamil epic Silappadikaram – The two districtsADDITIONAL QUESTIONS of Puhar, Maruvurpakkam and Pattinappakkam were separated by a stretch of gardens andFill in the blanks orchards where daily markets were held under1. The change from rural life to city life is known as the shades of trees. And the marketplace had Urbanization. both daily and night markets. The former being2. Ring Wells were used as toilets or as drain pipes close to shore was preferred by the merchants or garbage bins. and foreigners, the kings and nobles, rich traders and farmers, physicians, astrologers, members3. In India the use of iron began around 3000 of the king’s army, court dancers occupied years ago. Pattinapakkam. Maruvurpakkam was inhabited4. The village head man was called the grama by the fisher folk, weavers, silk-merchants, bhojaka in North India. vendors, potters, grain merchants, jewelers and5. Mathura was the capital of the Kushanas. diamond makers, the town had several ware houses.Match the columns Q4. Why was it difficult to navigate ships coming1. Urbanization turning into a city to Bharuch?2. Dasa karmakara did not own land Ans. It was difficult to navigate ships, because the3. Muziris port is in Kerala gulf to Baryagaza or Bharuch was very narrow4. Transcontinental crossing continents and very hard to navigate for those coming from5. Tappaga and Cotymba large boats the ocean as it was full of rocks called Herone.Identify - Who am I? Q5. What were the items imported into Barygaza?1. Silappadikaram – The Tamil Epic Ans. The items imported into Barygaza were - wine,2. Cheran Senguttuvan – Chera King copper, tin and lead, coral and topaz, thin3. Ozene – Ujjain clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright4. Herone – Rocks in the gulf near Bharuch colored girdles, sweet clover, flint glass, gold5. Tappaga and Cotymba – well manned large and silver coins; and ointment. boats Q6. Mention the special items imported for the6. Shreni – guilds formed by traders and craftsmen kings in Puhar. Ans. Special items imported for the kings were - very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautifulQUESTION/ANSWERS maidens for harem, fine wines, thin clothing ofQ1. Which were the two districts of Puhar the finest weaves and the choicest ointments. mentioned in Silappadikaram? Q7. What was exported from Puhar?Ans. The two districts of Puhar were – Ans. Things exported from Puhar were – ivory, agate Maruvurpakkam near the sea and and carnelian, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, Pattinappakkam to its west. cloth yarn and long pepper.
  • 74 TEACHER’S MANUALQ8. Give three reasons for the importance of Q9. What do the inscriptions tell us about the Mathura as a historical site. people of Mathura?Ans. Mathura’s importance lay in its location at the Ans. The inscriptions tell us about the gifts cross-roads of two major ancient trade routes offered to monasteries and temples by kings, – one linking Central Asia and Taxila now in queens, merchants and craftsmen. From these Pakistan to the port of Tamralipti in eastern inscriptions we also come to know that there were India and the other connecting North India with colonies of goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, trade centers in western and southern India. basket makers and perfume makers in It was a religious center, as it was also the Mathura. The city was very big and was birthplace of Hindu God Krishna. enclosed by strong fortifications. Farmers from neighbouring villages supplied food to the Mathura had been a centre of art and people of this city. archaeologists have discovered several inscriptions in and around Mathura.
  • Flowering of Religion10 and Commerce LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Introduce the idea of different contexts of contact between distant lands and the motivating forces (including conquest) • Examine the implications of journeys within the subcontinent • Illustrate the use of textual and visual material for reconstructing histories of such contactsTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 8 periods Sangam – A gathering of Tamil scholars and poets was called sangam.VOCABULARY Vats – Large tanks or vessels where cloth is dyedDeity God Transit depots – Temporary storehousesSpecific exactScholar learned man TEACHING POINTSExcavation digging IntroductionEmblem symbol (a) Recall Sangam literature from Chapter 1. ExplainCharred burnt to students that Sangam literature can be classifiedDepict describe into two categories: Agam (inner) and PuramInvade enter by force (outer). While the former deals with the innerReign time in power emotions and feelings of a person’s personality, theScooped dug out latter deals with aspects of heroism and bravery.Halted stopped (b) Explain how the ecological classification of SangamNavigation direction in finding literature influenced the lifestyle and religion of the people.Pirates bandits of the seaCommodity article of trade (c) Read the introductory section that details this and discuss the questions that follow.Scrupulous carefulSustain keep going Assessment – 1Fragment portion Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupLucrative rewarding Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentChiseled carved In Text Questions (Page 88)Rugged rough, rocky In which ecozone do you live?
  • 76 TEACHER’S MANUALThis could raise a variety of answers depending on The Cherasthe location of your school. (a) Point out in the map the area over which the CheraDo you think that professions or occupations of people are dynasty ruled.influenced by the natural environment? (b) Explain the key features of the kingdom.Hints • Capital was Karur or VanjiYes, people living in the plains would most likely • Located on the banks of the river Amravatibe agriculturists while those living in the desert • Chief port was the Muziris on the Malabar Coastcannot be farmers because the landscape does not • Emblem was the bowsuit them. • Greatest ruler was Senkuttavan – invaded NorthIn which ecozone would you like to settle when you grow India and crossed the Gangaup? Give reasons for your answer. • Power of the Cheras declined after 2nd centuryThis too could throw up a variety of answers. BCEHowever, guide students to think of practical andlogical reasons as to why they would like to settle in Case Study – Karura particular area. Also point out the disadvantages (a) Discuss the example of Karur to understand lifeof living in certain areas. during the Sangam Age. • Dates back about 2000 years agoThe Sangam Age • Many objects such as pottery, bricks, mud toys,(a) Locate Madurai on the map. Explain the meaning coins, ceramic vessels etc. excavated of the Sangam Age and why it is so interesting to • Karur connected Muziris with Kaveripattinam historians. • Coins from Greece and Rome have been found 1. Scholars from different lands assembled at confirming that it was a centre ofinternational Madurai for academic discussions trade 2. This gathering is referred to as Sangam • Silappadikaram mentions that Sengukattuan 3. The Sangam was held between 200 and 300 BCE ruled from Karur; Ptolemy also mentions it(b) Explain the concept of Tamilakam. Draw a map of Tamilakam detailing the areas ruled by The Cholas the Satavahanas, Cheras, Cholas and Pandya (a) Point out the area where the Cholas ruled in the dynasty. map. (b) Discuss the main features of their empire. • Kingdom had two capitals – Uraiyur and Kaveripattinam • Uraiyur was known for its textiles while Kaveripattinam was a famous trading port • Greatest ruler was Karaikala • Emblem was the Tiger The Pandyas (a) Discuss the main features of the Pandya dynasty after showing the main areas of their rule on the map. • Capital was Madurai • Emblem – the fish • Most famous king was Nedunchezhian (Source: www.wikipedia.org)
  • 77 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 2 Assessment – 3Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Purpose – Formative; Type – IndividualAssessment; Tool – Art Work Assessment; Tool – DiagramFun with History! Invaders from the North WestYou have read about the emblems of the Chera, Indo GreeksChola and the Pandya dynasties. Imagine that you Menanderwere the royal artist at the court of one of these (165-145 BCE)dynasties and were asked to design these emblems. SakasDisplay your work. Rudraman (130-150 BCE) ParthiansThe Satavahanas Gondophernes(a) Introduce this section by reading the inscription Kushans of Gautami Balashri about her son Gautamiputra Satakarni. (c) Discuss the contribution made by the Kushan king, Kanishka. He is the one…. • Encouraged the growth of art and architecture ...who crushed down the pride and conceit of the • Ashvaghosha the famous Buddhist scholar lived Kshatriyas (the native Indian princes, the Rajputs in his court – authored Buddhacharita of Rajputana, Gujarat and Central India); who • Kushanas patronized the Gandhara School of Art destroyed the Shakas (Western Kshatrapas), (d) Visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanishka Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo- and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhara for Parthians),... who rooted the Khakharata family images and additional information. (The Kshaharata family of Nahapana); who restored the glory of the Satavahana race. Impact of the foreign rule in India(b) Explain that the Satavahanas also known as the (e) Ask students to think about the possible impact of Andhras were known as Dakshinapatha or the the foreign invasions. Lords of the South. Assessment – 4(c) Discuss the main features of the dynasty. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• Women enjoyed a special role in administration Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment• They could hold property • Import of new forms of dress like long coats,• Sculptures show women participating along with trousers, tunics, caps, helmets etc. men in rituals • Trade between India and Central Asia increased• Capital of the kingdom was Pratishthan leading to greater prosperity• Hinduism and Buddhism were both practiced • Spread of Buddhism to different parts of the• Built many rock cut structures at Nagarjunakonda world and Amravati(d) Visit the link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The Story of the Roman Trade Satavahana for more information and pictures of (a) Recall what students have studied about the the Satavahana dynasty. foreign trade based on the account of Periplus. (b) Explain the information given by literary worksInvasions from the North West – Graeco-Roman and Tamil about Indo- Roman(a) This section contains a lot of minor details of the trade and the features of this trade. many invaders such as the Indo-Greeks, Sakas, • Romans first came to Africa and from there sailed Parthians and the Kushanas. to India(b) Hence, use the following chart to briefly touch • First Romans came to the coast of Muziris in 300 upon these rulers. BCE
  • 78 TEACHER’S MANUAL• From Kanyakumari, they travelled to the Western • Kings also demanded tribute or a form of payment Ghats and then on to the eastern coast (Show this in return for the protection of merchants from on the attached map) thieves• The main goods exported from India were gems, Spread of Buddhism silk, cotton, spices, sandalwood etc. (a) Ask students if they know what a travelogue is. A• The main goods imported were corals, wine and travelogue is a traveller’s account of the different metals like gold and silver places that he/she has visited.• References in Tamil literature – the poem Purananuru (b) Talk about the travelogue of Fahien and Hiuen• Tamil poems refer to the Yavana lamp Tsang. Read Fahien’s description of crossing the• Graeco-Roman works like Pliny’s Natural History Indus. and Periplus Maris Erythraei also refer totrade • Fahien came during the Gupta period and stayed• Many Roman coins found in India for three years at Pataliputra• These occur as hoards underground buried in • Upon his return to China, he translated some mud pots important works that he carried with him• Decline of Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasty led alongwith an Indian monk, Buddhabhadra to the decline of the trade • Hiuen Tsang lived in India for 14 years. He studied at the famous Nalanda UniversityA Case Study – Arikamedu • He translated many Buddhist texts • He wrote a book entitled Si-tu-ki(a) Point out Arikamedu on the map. Mention that it was an important port for the Romans who called (c) Discuss with students that Indian scholars also it Poduke. travelled to other places such as Prabhakaramitra who reached China in 627 BCE.(b) Visit the links www.thepondicherry.com and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arikamedu. You (d) Conclude this section by talking about the spread will find many pictures of the Roman objects found of Buddhism to other countries such as Sri Lanka, at the site. Show these to students and discuss how Burma, Thailand and Indonesia. archaeologists have excavated a warehouse-like Recapitulation and Summary structure containing many of these finds. • The Sangam Age • Rule of the Chera, Chola and Pandya DynastyThe Story of the Silk Route • Invaders from the north west(a) Explain to students why the Silk Route was so • Trade through the Silk Route called. • Spread of Buddhism• The Chinese were the first people to make silk around 5000 BCE Summative Assessment 1• They used to carry this as gifts to foreign lands• The routes that they used to take was known as KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES the Silk Route 1. Answer the following quiz.• It stretched for 7000 miles from China to Rome a. I was a famous Satavahana king. My mother’s through West Asia name was Gautami Balashri. Who am I?(b) Show students the Silk Route on the map on Gautamiputra Satakarni Page 96. b. I was an ancient Chera ruler who invaded North(c) Ask students how Indians became involved in the India and crossed the River Ganga. Who am I? Silk Route. Senkuttuvan• Indians who lived near the Ganga played the role of middlemen. c. I built the Kallani Dam across the River Kaveri• The Chinese would trade silk for precious stones near Tiruchi in Tamil Nadu. Who am I? and metals Karaikala
  • 79 TEACHER’S MANUALd. Historians call me ‘Second Ashoka’. Who am I? foreigners from the North West. Among the first Kanishka invaders were the Greeks who ruled the regione. I was the Saka ruler who repaired the Sudarshana in Northern Afghanistan known as Bactria. The Lake in Kathiawar in Gujarat. Who am I? Greeks who settled down in India were known as the Indo-Greeks. Their rule is very important Rudraman because they were the first rulers to issue coins2. Answer the following questions in two to three bearing the portraits of kings. Their rule was also sentences each. important because a new style of art, blendinga. What were the main items that the ancient South Indian and foreign influences, known as the Indians exported to and imported from Rome? Gandhara School of Art emerged. The main items that south Indians imported were b. Why did the Roman trade decline in the 5th – 6th coral, wine, olive oil and metals such as gold centuries CE? and silver. In return, the main items that were Roman trade declined in the 5th centuries BCE for exported were gemstones, silk, cotton, ivory, the following reasons: spices, sandalwood and peacocks. • Europe learnt the art of rearing silkworms andb. What is the Silk Route? hence the demand for Indian silks in Europe The routes taken by Chinese traders to carry their reduced. silk to foreign lands came to be known as the Silk • The decline of dynasties like the Sakas, Route. The Silk Route was a route that stretched Satavahanas, Cheras etc. who had supported this for about 7000 miles from China to Rome. It passed trade with the patronage also led to the decline through West Asia. of trade.c. What is the main attribute of the Gandhara • The artisans fled from their homes and thus School of Art? the ruling families and artists’ guilds that had The Gandhara School of Art was a blend of Indian sustained this trade were no longer available. and foreign influences. The art was Buddhist in c. Write a note on art and literature during the reign theme but Graeco-Roman in style. of Kanishka.d. What do you know about the coins minted by Kanishka encouraged art and literature during the Kushanas? his reign. Ashvaghosha, the famous Sanskrit The Kushans were known for their beautiful scholar, lived in the court of Kanishka. He wrote coins that were minted in gold and copper. These two important works, the Buddhacharita and carried the imprint of the Kushan kings and were Saundarananda. Other scholars patronized by used extensively in trade. Kanishka included VAsumitra, Charaka and Nagarjuna. A new style of art blending Graeco-e. Why did Hiuen Tsang visit India? Roman elements and Indian styles emerged Hieun Tsang was not content with reading during the reign of Kanishka. It was known as the translations of Buddhist books in Chinese, so Gandhara School. The main themes of the art were he came to India and lived here for 14 years. He Buddhist elements. studied at the famous Nalanda University and d. What are the two main sects of Buddhisn? What was honoured by the king Harshavardhana. are the important differences between the two3. Answer the following questions in five to six sects? sentences. The two main sects of Buddhism were Mahayanaa. Who were the Indo-Greeks? Why is the rule of Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism. Mahayana the Indo-Greeks very important in the history Buddhists believed in the worship of Buddha and of India? had elaborate rituals. The Hinayana sect believed Following the decline of the Mauryas in the in the old ways of worship and followed a simple 2nd century BCE, India was invaded by many style of rituals and worship. While Mahayana
  • 80 TEACHER’S MANUAL Buddhism became popular in Central Asia, China, Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Korea and Japan, Hinayana Buddhism spread to Assessment; Tool – Find out Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand and Indonesia. 4. (a) The website www.indianexporters.com wille. How do we know that the Romans traded with help students find out more about this. Arikamedu? Explain with examples. (b) This activity can be as group work. Visit the Arikamedu is a coastal site close to Pondicherry. link en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk for The Romans called it Podouke. Archaeologists information on how silk is produced. have excavated the site and discovered a brick structure that may have served as a warehouse. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS They have also found vats where cloth was dyed. Many Roman objects have been discovered. These Match the following. include fragments of glass vessels, mud lamps, 1. Muvendar Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas jars, semi-precious stones and pottery. From these 2. Satavahana kings Lords of Dakshinapatha findings, they have concluded that the Romans 3. Mahayana Sect worshiped Buddha traded with Arikamedu. 4. Hiuen Tsang Chinese traveler 5. Teral WinePOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION 6. Buddhacharita Ashvaghosha Fill in the blanks.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual 1. The gathering of Tamil Scholars was calledAssessment; Tool – Diary Entry Sangam.1. Prepare a chart or a report on any one of the cities 2. Senkuttuvan was the greatest Chera ruler. along the Silk Route.Divide the class into four groups. Give each group one of the following 3. Two capitals of the Cholas were Uraiyur and places. Kaveripattinam.• Samarkhand 4. The fish was the emblem of the Pandyas.• Qiemo 5. Augustus and Tiberius were Roman Emperors in• Shahrud the 1st century CE.• Baghdad 6. People of China were the first to make silk.Guide them to visit www.wikipedia.org forinformation and details. QUESTION/ANSWERSPurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; Q1. How do we know about the Sangam age?Tool – Prepare a brochure for a museum on thecontacts between ancient India and Rome Ans. Archaeological excavations, old coins and inscriptions tell us about the life and culture of2.• To complete this task, prepare a map showing the people in the sangam age. the various trading centres in India. • Also visit the websites as mentioned earlier for Q2. Who were the Muvendar? pictures on artefacts and information Ans. The Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas were called the Muvendar (‘three main kings’) of Tamilakam.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Textual Analysis Q3. Name the categories of the Tamil poems.3. (a) Muziris is a port located on the Malabar Ans. The Tamil poems can be grouped into three Coast main categories – the Pattupattu meaning ten (b) It is described as overflowing with prosperity lyrics, the Ettuthogal meaning eight anthologies because it was an extremely important centre and the Padinenkilkanakku meaning eighteen of trade minor works. (c) From the above passage, we learn that the Q4. Who demanded taxes from the traders passing trade between India and Rome was very through their lands? What did they offer in prosperous. return?
  • 81 TEACHER’S MANUALAns. The kings and traders living along the Silk Route State their importance demanded tributes and taxes from the foreign Uraiyur – Capital city of the Cholas and was famous traders passing through their lands. In return, for its fine cotton textiles. these kings offered protection to the traders Kaveripattinam – Served as the secondary capital against robbers. city for the Cholas and was a major trading port andQ5. Write about the importance of Arikamedu. harbour.Ans. Arikamedu is a coastal site close to Pondicherry Kallanai Dam across the river Kaveri near Tiruchi was in South India. It is situated close to the spot built by Karikala the greatest Chola ruler. where the river Ariyankuppam joins the Bay of Fahien was a Chinese who came to India, he stayed Bengal. It is an important port for the Romans. at Patliputra for 3 years learning Sanskrit and he They called it Poudouke. Many French, British, returned to China after sailing to Sri Lanka from the Indian and American archaeologists have eastern port of Tamralipti. excavated this site. Buddhabhadra was an Indian Monk.
  • India from the 4th Century11 to the 7th Century LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Introduce the idea that strategies of expansion and their logic, differ • Explain the development of different administrative systems • Understand how prashastis and charitas are used to reconstruct political historyTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 5 periods Imperial – Related to an emperor or empire Wharf – A flat area near the sea where a ship can loadVOCABULARY or unloadExaggerated overstated Prashasti – The writings written in praise of theVelour plush woven fabric resembling velvet kingDynasty reign Genealogy – List of family members, which help us trace the descent of a familyCampaign drive Ur – Village of the common type, where the peopleAlly friend of all castes lived.Prowess ability Nagaram – Village where the traders livedPike peak, summitDart rush TEACHING POINTSAfflicted caused problems IntroductionCavalry soldiers who fight on horse backSavage fierce and violent Assessment – 1 Purpose – Formative; Type – IndividualAnnoyance displeasure Assessment; Tool – Role PlayVanish disappear (a) Divide the class into pairs or groups. Ensure thatObscure difficult to understand the pairs consist of good friends who generally getGenealogy family tree along together. Ask each member of the pair toIllustrious memorable write about their partner (of the pair). Now usingGlorious wonderful a draw of lots system, ask the students to pick up slips and depending on the person, whom theyScribe engrave get, ask them to write about their classmate. DoContingent group the first account and the second account match.Wharf landing stage, dockside (In all probability, they should not!)
  • 83 TEACHER’S MANUAL(b) Read the opening section of the text and discuss Yes, this can be considered as a truly glowing account the points raised at the end of the section. Explain because the king is compared to the various gods. He how we cannot totally rely on biographies as they is spoken of in the highest terms. He is considered may be biased and exaggerated. to be very virtuous and someone who always has the interests of his people at heart.Guptas Can we believe everything a court poet says? Why?(a) Introduce the discussion of the Gupta Empire by drawing a dynastic tree of the key rulers. It is difficult to believe everything a court poet says because he was employed by the king. He would Chandragupta I (280 – 319 CE) naturally praise the king and be biased in his account. If he did not, he would always fear that the king would punish or kill him. Samudragupta (320 – 380 CE) Assessment – 3 Chandragupta II (381 -413 CE) Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment(b) Explain the main features of each king’s rule. Discuss (Page 100)Chandragupta I What do you think was the main difference between• Founder of the Gupta Empire Ashoka and Samudragupta?• Married a Lichchhavi princess and took the title Hint of Maharajadhiraja While both expanded their kingdoms, Ashoka wentSamudragupta through a major change after the Kalinga War. He• Information about this king comes through a renounced war. Samudragupta, on the other hand prashasti or an edict of praise written by the court was more zealous and ambitious and continued poet Harisena to expand his empire. He wanted to establish his• Inscription gives a list of the territories conquered complete supremacy all over India. and the kings who accepted Samdragupta as their Chandragupta II overlord • Also known as Vikramaditya• Some of the Himalayan states accepted his power and paid him tribute • He had friendly relations with the Deccan• Samudragupta was also known to be a great lover kingdom of music and art • Daughter married a Vataka prince • Also a patron of arts and literature(c) Read the inscription written by Harisena and discuss the questions at the end of the section. Assessment – 4 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment – 2 Assessment; Tool – Story Telling and GroupPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group DiscussionAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Fun with History!In Text Questions (Page 100) Read about the legend of Vikram and Betal.TheHow many battles had he fought? What was his legendary tales of Vikram and the Vampire are anstrength? account in which the king tries to capture and holdHe had fought 100 battles. His strength was the on to a vampire. However, each time the vampireprowess of his arm. tells a confusing story and ends it with a questionWhy does he call his woundsÊ confused Ê? for the king. The king can be quiet only if he doesHe calls his wounds confused as he does not know not know the answer.which weapon caused them – whether it was the The vampire threatens him that if he knows thearrow, spear, pike etc. answer but does not answer, his head will burst.Do you think this is truly a glowing account? Why? Read the enclosed story and dramatize it.
  • 84 TEACHER’S MANUALHarshavardhana Deccan and South India(a) Explain to students that our main information (a) Discuss with students that the Deccan region about King Harshavardhana comes from a and South India were largely full of conflict biography entitled Harshacharita written by a between two main dynasties – the Pallavas and court historian Banabhatta. Also explain that the Chalukyas. another account is that of Hiuen Tsang, who was (b) Explain the main features of both dynasties. a guest of the king. Chalukyas(b) Discuss the various aspects of his reign as described • Capital was at Badami by these two writers. • Well known ruler was Pulakesin II• Shifted the capital from Thanesar to Kanauj • He fought the Pallava kings, Mahendravarman• He built a large kingdom covering Punjab, and Narasimhavarman Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa• Empire was divided into uparika or provinces Pallavas• These in turn were divided into vishaya or • Capital was Kanchipuram districts • Greatest rulers were Mahendravarman and• The king gave lands to monasteries Narasimhavarman• Officers were rewarded with land grants • Important port towns were Mahabalipuram and• Defeated rulers had to supply troops of soldiers Kaveritpattinam to the king (c) Explain the struggle for supremacy between the Pallavas and the Chalukyas.Assessment – 5Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment – 6Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupDiscuss (Page 102) Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentDo you think it was a good idea to give land grants? Did Discuss (Page 103)it weaken the king? Why did kings want to control the coasts?Hints HintsLand grants would have weakened the king if he was Kings wanted to control the coasts as it gave themnot strong and did not have an able set of officers to direct access to the sea. This would be extremelyassist him. He would have also lost on the revenue useful for trade. It would also help them in times offrom that land, which could have gone towards the war as it would give them an access route to attackpayment of salaries, building of roads etc. their enemies.(c) On an outline map of India, draw the extent of (d) Visit the website www.mahabalipuram.co.in for Harshavardhan’s empire. details of the rock cut caves and temples built by the Pallava kings. Life of the people (a) Conclude this chapter by explaining the life of the people. • Three types of villages existed; Ur – where all castes lived; Sabha – an exclusive brahmana village given as a grant and Nagaram – where only traders lived • Village Assembly managed affairs of the village and took decisions Source: www.wikipedia.org • People paid 1/6 th of their income as tax
  • 85 TEACHER’S MANUAL • Townspeople were comfortable and lived well f. Name two women princesses mentioned. Who • Caste system became rigid with the concept of were they? untouchability The Harshacharita talks about the daughter • Craftspeople designed coins and produced of Vikramaditya who married a Vataka prince polished stones and beads and ruled the kingdom on behalf of her son, • Trade flourished with Iran, Arabia, Indonesia and when her husband died. The second princess Cambodia mentioned is in the pillar inscription at Allahabad, Recapitulation and Summary where Samudragupta is said to be the son of a • Guptas – important developments Licchavi princess. • Reign of Harshavardhana g. What are genealogies? • Pallavas and Chalukyas Genealogies are a list of family members that • Life of the people help us to trace the descent of a family. DuringSummative Assessment -1 the period 4th to 7th CE, many kings had their genealogies done and took pride in tracing the descent of their ancestors.KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 105) 2. Write True or False and correct the false1. Answer the following questions in two to three statements. sentences each. a. Harhsavardhana moved his capital from Kanauja. W h i c h i n s c r i p t i o n t e l l s u s a b o u t to Thanesar – False Samudragupta? b. Pulakesin defeated the Pallavas twice – False We come to know about Samduragupta from a c. The Pallavas had their capital in Kanchipuram pillar inscription in Allahabad. This was composed by his court poet Harisena. The inscription is – True called a prashasti and praises his conquests and d. Kaveripattinam was a famous port in Gujarat campaigns. – Falseb. How was the empire divided? e. 606 CE is in the 6th Century – False The empire was divided into provinces called f. Prasshastic are biographies of people – True uparikas which were generally under princes. The 3. Answer the following questions in five to six provinces were subdivided into districts called sentences each. vishaya under the vishayapati.c. How were the officers paid? a. Why did the Pallavas fight the Chalukyas? Though officers were paid in cash, occasionally Pulakesin and his son, Pulakesin II, the Chalukyan they were rewarded with land grants. The revenue kings wanted total control of the Deccan Plateau. paid from the land became their salary. Hence, they had a long drawn conflict withd. How do we come to know about Harsha’s rule? the Pallavas. While Pulakesin II defeated Mahendravarman, he was defeated in the next We come to know about Harsha’s rule from two battle by Narasimhavarman and his capital, literary sources. One is the Harshacharita written Badami, was also conquered. The struggle between by the court historian, Banabhatta. The other is the account of the Chinese Buddhist traveller, Hiuen the two dynasties continued until the middle of Tsang who was a guest at the court of Harsha. He the 8th century when they both declined. gives many details in his book Si-Yu-Ki. b. Which were the types of villages found in Southe. In what type of houses did people live in towns India and what did the assemblies do? and villages? There were three types of villages found in South People lived in brick houses with drains and India. The Ur was the village where all the castes wells in the towns. In villages, they lived in lived. The Sabha was an exclusive brahmana thatched houses. village that was given as a grant.
  • 86 TEACHER’S MANUAL The Nagaram was a village where traders lived. he learnt it from his father – hours of hard The village assembly managed the affairs of work and intricate labour – teaches me the the temple and controlled matters relating to importance of paying attention to minute irrigation, tanks and roads. Decisions were taken details – at the end of my training, I will need by majority votes. to design an object that will be reviewed byc. Why did Samudragupta return some all the other craftsmen – if they like it and it is kingdoms? sold, it means I have passed the test – I am working very hard and am excited by the day Samudragupta returned some kingdoms to the when I will have my own workshop. kings who accepted his supremacy and paid him 2. Refer to the map on Page 104 to complete this tribute in return. Rulers of kingdoms in Nepal task. and Assam paid him tribute. Others gave him Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual presents of garuda tokens in gold and silver and Assessment; Tool – Analysis – Samudraguta and their daughters in marriage. He also ensured that Ashoka – A Contrast the rajas of the tribal people and the forests were forced to obey him. 3. Samudraguptad. What did Fahien say about some people in • He was a brilliant general at war and conquered India? many territories Fahien says that the people in India lived • Expanded the Gupta Empire and brought great comfortably and in peace. The people were prosperity to the kingdom prosperous. Men and women painted their • Was able to sustain his ambition as a king unlike nails and scented their body and hair. Society Ashoka who imposed his beliefs on the people was divided into castes. There was one group Ashoka of people, the untouchables who lived outside • Was a noble king as he renounced war the town separately. The upper caste people • Undertook many welfare activities for the people felt polluted if they came in contact with these – built guesthouses, roads etc. people and they were treated as impure. The • Was a true believer in dhamma and spread his untouchables carried dead bodies, slaughtered message directly to the people animals and did cleaning up jobs. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupPOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION Assessment; Tool – Debate & Group Discussion 5. (a) Yes, it is fair to make villagers pay for soldiersPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual and government officers on tour as they areAssessment; Tool – Diary Entry working for the safety and welfare of the 1. (a) My day starts very early – I get up and clean villagers and the people of the kingdom. my teacher’s house – fetch firewood and Their work would indirectly or directly water – help out to prepare breakfast – lessons benefit the people. They were taking great in the morning – in the afternoon, I press my risks on their own safety for the people. teacher’s feet as he rests – collect fruits and No, it was not fair to make villagers pay complete other chores – in the evening, we for the soldiers and the government officers of are taught more subjects like mathematics, the tour because it was the king’s duty to warfare and grammar – prepare dinner and pay them. The king did not share the booty and go to bed. wealth that he got when he conquered (b) I am so fortunate to be learning the craft from other territories. He used it for his own my father – he is a master craftsmen – his luxuries. The king was often interested in goods are exported to Rome, China, Central his own glory. Asia – kings order his crafts as gifts and (b) Life in the forests was different because they presents – my father teaches me the craft as had to be self sufficient and independent.
  • 87 TEACHER’S MANUAL The people had to gather and hunt for their Q4. What were the administrative changes during own food. They also had to protect themselves this period? as they were isolated from the main city. They Ans. Some administrative changes were that the king had to take precautionary measures against gave land grants to religious leaders, temples wild beasts and robbers. Also, they could and monasteries. Most of the officers were paid preserve their customs and traditions as the in cash, but a few were rewarded occasionally by rules of the king could not be enforced on land grants. The revenue collected from the land them. Collecting taxes from them would be became their salary. Land or villages given to difficult. brahmana was developed to extend cultivation. The Buddhist monasteries were given villagesADDITIONAL QUESTIONS to maintain themselves.Fill in the blanks Q5. Do you think ordinary people would have read1. Chandragupta I took the title of Maharajadhiraj. and understood the Prashastis? Why?2. Harisena composed the pillar inscription in Ans. No, the ordinary people would not have Allahabad, which is also called prashasti. understood the Prashastis as the language in the inscription was difficult.3. Harshacharita is the first properly written biography of a king. Q6. Who were the Samantas?4. The languages used in the Deccan and the south, Ans. Samantas were the defeated rulers who had to between 4th to the 7th century were Sanskrit, Tamil supply contingents of army to the victorious and Kannada. kings. Also some of the officers who had been given land grants maintained an army called5. The two great rulers of the Pallavas were samantas. Mahendravarman and Narsimhavarman. Q7. What all did the craftsmen make during this period?QUESTION/ANSWERS Ans. During this period, the craftsmen designed highQ1. What was the reason behind the conflict of the quality coins, made utensils and implements, Deccan and South India? produced ivory work, prepared a variety ofAns. The reason for the conflict was the aim to control polished stones and beads, manufactured the coastlines and the land between the various textiles and made red coloured pottery. rivers. Rapid fire questionsQ2. Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana. Q1. Five items exported by India.Ans. Banabhatta, Hiuen Tsang and I-Tsing. Ans. Pepper, pearls, sandalwood, precious stones and textilesQ3. Write a short note on Pallavas. Q2. Countries India traded with.Ans. The Pallavas were a local tribe who came to control Southern Andhra and Northern Ans. Iran, Arabia, Africa, Indonesia and Cambodia Tamil Nadu. Their capital Kanchipuram Q3. A major item of import. became a great centre of learning and a town Ans. Horses of temples. The two great Pallava rulers were Q4. Imperial title taken by the Gupta rulers. Mahendravarman and Narsimhavarman. Mahabalipuram and Kaveripattinam were their Ans. Maharajadhiraj important port towns.
  • Stories in Stone,12 Stories on Paper LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Develop a sense of appreciation of textual and visual traditions of the period • Introduce excerpts from texts and visual material for analysis and appreciationTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 6 periods Free standing temples – Temples that stood by themselves and were not cut into rocks or cavesVOCABULARY Deity – God or Goddess that people worshipAnklet ornament worn on the ankles Metallurgy – The study of metals Pie – 16th century Greek letter, value in Math = 3.14Trial testing Mural – A very large image applied directly to a wallAnguish suffering or a ceilingRaging uncontrolled Monolithic – Carved out of a single block of stoneFascinate charmHumanity human kind TEACHING POINTSVividly brightly IntroductionSkimming floating (a) Read the opening story of Kannagi and Kovalan. Try to dramatize this in the class. Ask students atFragrance smell the conclusion of the skit if Kannagi was correctBetrayal disloyalty in burning down the city of Madurai.Hermit solitary person Assessment – 1Oppression domination Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupMoral ethically right Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentAccurate correct In Text Question (Page 107) Do you think Kannagi was right in destroying Madurai?Anatomy composition Why?Invade attack • It is difficult to answer an absolute ‘Yes’ or ‘No’Epidemic outbreak to this question. Naturally, Kannagi’s anger atMural wall painting the injustice committed to her husband was such
  • 89 TEACHER’S MANUAL that she wanted to destroy the entire city. But her Puranas wrath may also have been unjustified as it resulted • 18 Puranas that were originally narrated and then in the destruction of an entire city and so many written down people. • Contain stories of the universe, solar system, earth, continents etc.Stories on Paper(a) Introduce this section with the help of a small Abhigyana Shakuntalam activity. Read the following story to students • Written by Kalidasa who lived in the court of aloud. Ask them what they can conclude from the Chandragupta Vikramaditya story about the life and times of Somalika. • Deals with love, betrayal, anger, humour andAssessment – 2 couragePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (d) Have students enact the extract from Kalidasa’sAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment work and discuss the questions at the end of theHints section.• We get to know about the life of weavers• Existence of towns and cities Assessment – 4• Religious beliefs of the times Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• Theory of karma is brought out in the story Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment• Description of various cities In Text Question (Page 109)(b) Explain to students that historians too use literary As you finish reading this, what are your feelings? sources to reconstruct history. Cite the examples One feels a sense of excitement and anticipation at of Manimekalai and the story of Anadal. Read the the next phase of the story. There is a hint that the poem given in the text and discuss the questions boy is destined to be somebody great. at the end of the section. What do you think were DushyantÊs innermostAssessment – 3 thoughts?Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Perhaps, he had a nagging doubt that this might beAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment his son. He was definitely curious and attracted byIn Text Questions (Page 108) the boy and wanted to know more about him.Can you say why she was in a hurry to wake her friend? Find out how the story ends.What was happening all around them? The story ends with the reuniting of Dushyanta and• She was in a hurry to wake up her friend because Shakuntala. she was missing all the beautiful sights and (e) Discuss with students stories that dealt with the sounds of nature common people.• All around her were the sounds of the birds humming and talking, the sight of the cow girls Sudraka’s Mrichchhakatika skimming the yoghurt and the sweet fragrance of • Written in Sanskrit in the 5th century CE their flowers. • The hero is a simple businessman and the heroine(c) Discuss the various forms of literary sources. Some a dancer of them have already been covered in the previous • The characters are victims of social injustice chapters. You can enliven this section by reading Jatakas and Panchatantra tales stories or excerpts from these books. • Jatakas are a set of Buddhist tales about BuddhaThe Epics of India in his previous births• Ramayana written by Valmiki • Panchatantras are a set of five books written by• Mahabharata written by Vyasa – the longest poem Vishnu Sharma in the world • They contain moral tales and teach values
  • 90 TEACHER’S MANUAL(e) Read the story of The Musical Donkey. You • Carved out of single piece of rock will also find more stories of the Jatakas and the • Dedicated to Lord Shiva Panchatantra at the following websites www. panchatantra.org and www.jatakkatha.com. Also Other important structures compare them with Aesop’s Fables, which you can • Shore temple at Mahabalipuram read at http://www.aesops-fables.org.uk/. Ask • Free standing temples at Deogarh, Bhitargaon, students if they find any similarities between the Aihole and Pattadakal three sets of stories. (d) You will find many images of the above mentionedAssessment – 5 monuments at the following links:Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • www.shunya.net/.../Ajanta/Ajanta.htmAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • www.columbia.edu/.../berger/berger.htmlHint Recapitulation and SummaryAll the three books use animals as central characters • Main literary sources and their contentsto teach morals and virtues. Certain animals are • Importance of monuments as a source of historygiven certain traits, such as, the fox as cunning, the • Some important monumentslion as proud etc. Summative Assessment 1(f) Mention the other important books of the time.• A book on dance and drama called Natya KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES Shastra 1. Match the names in the first table with the names• Aryabhatiya written by Aryabhatta – a book on in the second table. mathematics and astronomy• Panchasiddhantika written by Varahamihira A B• Charaka Samhita that gives details on the human Panchasiddhantika Varahamihira anatomy and treatment of illnesses• Susruta Samhita written by Susrata on surgeries Natya Shastra Bharata Susrata SurgeryStories in Stone(a) Discuss with students what is meant by ‘stories in Sudraka Mrcichhakatika stone’. Explain that monuments also give us a lot Shakuntalam Kalidasa of information on the history of India. 2. Write True or False and correct the false• Monuments built by princes and kings, merchants, statements. rich landowners, craftsmen etc. a. Andal wrote and sang humns in Tamil – True• Temples and monuments employed a large number of people b. The Shore Temple was built by the Chalukyas – False(b) Recall some of the important monuments covered c. Only kings could build temples – False in the previous chapters – stupas, viharas, chaityas etc. d. Artificial colours were used in the murals at Ajanta – False(c) Discuss some of the important monuments. e. The Ratha Temple is in Ellora – FalseAjanta and Ellora Caves 3. Answer the following in five to six sentences each.• These caves located at Aurangabad contain some of the most elaborate paintings a. Why were temples so important during• Paintings made from natural dyes this period?KailashanathaTemple Temples were important during this period because once constructed, the revenue collected• Largest monolithic rock structure from certain villages was used solely for their
  • 91 TEACHER’S MANUAL maintenance. The temples also employed a large in the crown of rock cut temples. Carved to number of people to cook, wash and clean. Some represent Mt. Kailash, the home of Lord Shiva, it people made garlands and jewellery while others is the largest monolithic structure in the world. It sang and danced. Hence, the temple was not has been carved from a single rock and finished only a religious structure, it also performed an as a free standing temple. It has been decorated important social function. with exquisite sculptures inside and outside.b. How are free – standing temples different from the rock – cut temples? POINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION The structural features of a free standing temple 1. Refer to the suggested websites in the textbook to were different from a rock cut temple. It had a tower called the vimana and a room called complete this activity. a garbagriha where the deity was placed. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Free standing temples offered more place for Assessment; Tool – Textual Analysis sculptures. There was also place for inscriptions 2. The city of Devagiri is so colourful and that could detail the king’s history and coronation. Unlike rock cut structures that were carved from beautiful – everywhere there is an air of a single piece of rock, free standing temples were festivity– songs, dances in the palace – the carved from many pieces. message that I carry matches with the mood of joyand happiness – I see children playingc. What do we know about the Iron Pillar on the streets without a care in the world – at Delhi? the busy marketplace also shows people The Iron Pillar is located at Mehrauli in Delhi. buying and selling clothes, colourful beads etc. It is the best example of metallurgy during this – the rain would be a delightful gift period. It has still not rusted despite being exposed to all sorts of weather for so many centuries. It Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual is an excellent testimony of the high skill and Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment craftsmanship of the ancient times. 3. (a) Ganesha and Hanumand. What was Charaka’s contribution to science? (b) The builders would have faced the problem Charaka wrote a book entitled Charaka Samhita. of darkness, which would have hampered It provides a detailed anatomy of the human body their work. Since they would have used with methods of diagnosis and treatment for torches inside the cave, it would have been hundreds of illnesses. It lists plant, mineral and very hot and dusty as well. animal substances required for the preparation of (c) The job of carving would have been most medicines. Being a treatise on Ayurveda, it gives difficult. us an insight into the depth of medical knowledge during the ancient period. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONSe. Why are the paintings of Ajanta so important? Fill in the blanks The Ajanta Caves are the most elaborate examples of cave sculpture, architecture and painting. 1. Story of Kannagi is from the Tamil Epic The murals illustrate the stories of Buddha. Silappadikaram. The brilliance of the paintings is such that it 2. Ramayana the great Hindu epic was originally has been named by UNESCO as a World Heritage written by Valmiki. Site. The colours used in the paintings are 3. Mahabharata the longest poem in the world was completely natural and have been derived from written by Vyasa. plants and minerals. 4. Aryabhatta was the most famous astronomer andf. What is so special about the Kailasanatha scientist of the ancient period. Temple? 5. In Ajanta the Murals illustrate the stories of The Kailasanatha temple is regarded as the jewel Buddha.
  • 92 TEACHER’S MANUAL6. Kailasanatha temple is carved to represent Mt people of lower caste spoke in Prakrit. His poems Kailasa. and plays take us to the world in which he lived.Identify who am I There is love, anger, humor, betrayal, courage and a lot of drama in his works. But his writings1. I am the largest monolithic structure in the world also give us an idea about the life of the people. – KAILASANATHA TEMPLE His greatest work was Abhijanashakuntalam.2. I gave an accurate value of Pie – ARYABHATTA Q5. Who wrote Mrichchakatika and what is it3. I am an astronomer and wrote Panchasiddhantika about? – VARAHAMIHIRA Ans. Sudraka wrote the Sanskrit play Mrichchakatika.4. I am a surgeon of the ancient period – It is about common people. Its hero is a simple SUSHRUTA businessman and the heroine a dancer. The5. I am one of the earliest free standing temples near other characters of the play belong to lower Jhansi - temple at DEOGARH castes, they are portrayed as honest sincere and vocal against the oppression of the king and areQUESTION/ANSWERS victims of social injustice. Q6. What does Charaka Samhita says?Q1. What kind of books were written in the ancient period? Ans. Charaka Samhita says: Life or Ayu is the combination (samyoga) of body, senses, mindAns. Apart from fiction, many books were written and soul. Ayurveda is the most sacred science in the ancient period on mathematics, religion, of life, beneficial to humans both in this world relationships, science, governance etc. and the world beyond.Q2. What are the stories on fiction? Why are they Q7. Give the description of hay fever given by important? Sushruta.Ans. Stories on fiction are imaginary but based on Ans. Sushruta describes hay fever in Sushruta some event that happened in the ancient periods. Samhita like this – Sometimes pollens of They are important because they give us an idea poisonous flowers or grasses, drifted by the about the period in which they were set. winds, invade a town or village, and produceQ3. Write a short note on Puranas. a sort of epidemic cough, asthma, or fever,Ans. Puranas are old-world stories which deal with irrespective of all constitutional peculiarities. the origin of the universe, a detailed description Q8. With what kind of material were the Ajanta of the solar system, a description of the earth, paintings made? its continents and mountain ranges, family tree Ans. The base of the paintings at Ajanta was prepared of gods and rishis and royal families. There are with clay, cow-dung, powdered rock mixed eighteen puranas which were originally orally with molasses. After applying this on the wall narrated and later written down. a coat of lime was plastered while wet. ThenQ4. Write about the works of Kalidasa. color was applied and the mural was polishedAns. Kalidasa was one of the greatest writers of India. by rubbing. The colors were made from plants He wrote in Sanskrit but in his plays women and and minerals.
  • Planet Earth and13 the Solar System EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the unique place of the earth in the solar system, which provides an ideal condition for all forms of life, including human beingsTextbook: Refer to pages DEFINITIONSTime required: 8 periods Gravity – The natural force of attraction exerted by a celestial body, such as earth, upon objects at orVOCABULARY near its surface, tending to draw them towards the centre of the body.Probe examine Constellations – A formation of stars perceived as aSpace an empty area figure or design, especially one of 88 recognizedRegion large area on earth groups named after characters from classicalAstronaut pilot of spacecraft mythology and various common animals and objects.Amazed surprised Solar system – The sun, together with the eight planetsAccompanied attached to and all other celestial bodies that orbit the sun.Heavenly celestial Satellites – A celestial body that orbits a planet; aRocky stony moon. Asteroid – One of the many thousands of small planetsSole lone (minor planets) revolving around the Sun, mainlyImaginary unreal between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Motions movements Meteoroids – A solid body, moving in space, that isUnique exclusive smaller than an asteroid and at least as large as a speck of dust.Flattened depressedRevolve go around TEACHING POINTSSupport reinforceVegetation flora A. Pre-Instructional ActivitiesNumerous infinite Assessment – 1Celestial heavenly Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupExpeditions campaigns Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentRanging varying (a) Ascertain how much previous knowledge students
  • 94 TEACHER’S MANUAL possess about the planet earth and the solar system. (b) Through this activity, you can explain the following This can be achieved by posing some simple concepts: questions: Universe: The Sun, Moon, Earth, stars, other• What is the name of the planet that we live on? heavenly bodies, dust, gases etc. all• How many planets are there in the solar system? are found in a limitless vaccum called the universe. Another name for theB. Introduction - Motivation Activity universe is space.(a) In order to get students thinking about the solar Stars: Stars are heavenly bodies that shine by system and the way it functions, undertake the producing their own light. following activity: Planets: Heavenly bodies that are constantly in motion. They revolve around theAssessment – 2 sun.Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment;Tool – Role Play Sun: The sun is the biggest and brightest star. It is made up of hot gases, whichYou will need the following materials: produce light and energy. This light and• A large yellow ball or balloon energy makes life possible on earth.• A white ball/balloon Milky Way: Stars are found in groups or clusters• Eight balls or balloons of different colours called galaxies. The earth’s sun belongs• Cut outs of stars in silver foil to a galaxy called the Milky Way. The• Chalk or markers to mark out the orbit of the Indian name for the Milky Way is planets Akash Ganga.Activity C. Motions of the Planets1. Take the class outdoors (this will not be necessary, if there is sufficient space in the classroom). Place Recall the motivation activity and ask the students markers for the position of each of the eight what were the two actions the planets performed. planets. Mark the path of the eight planets. Hints2. Select a student to be the sun and give him/her • The planets moved in their orbits during the first the yellow ball/balloon. round.3. Select eight students. Direct the eight students • When the planets completed the first round, a to their chosen places. Each ‘planet’ holds their new action was introduced, wherein the planets respective ball/balloon. were asked to spin around and walk along their orbit.4. The remaining students are given the cut outs of (a) Explain to students that the two actions performed stars and take their place around the planets. by the planets are termed as ‘revolution’ and5. Each ‘planet’ will start walking in their respective ‘rotation’. orbit. Explanation Points:6. Point out to students that the sun is at the centre 1. Every planet has its own path in space called an of the solar system and does not move. Rather, it orbit. is the planets that move around the sun. 2. The shape of the orbit is an elongated circle or an7. Emphasize that planets never travel outside their ellipse. (Draw an ellipse on the blackboard) fixed orbits.8. After the students have completed one orbit, ask Ellipse them to spin around while orbiting the second 3. Planets never leave their own orbits; else they time. (You must be careful that students do not would collide with each other. get dizzy doing this!) 4. The orbit around the sun is called ‘Revolution’.9. Give all students a chance to a part of this activity 5. All planets spin around an imaginary line that and complete an orbit. runs through their centre known as an axis. The
  • 95 TEACHER’S MANUAL second action that the planets performed is known (i) Make students draw this diagram in their as Rotation. notebooks. (Refer to the table on Page 119 of the6. Rotation and Revolution occur together. textbook for details on the distance of the planets from the sun.)D. The Solar System (j) Complete the activity ‘Try this!’ found on page 118(a) Explain to students that the family of eight planets of the textbook. that go around the sun is called the solar system. (k) Ask students what they concluded from this(b) Explain that the word planet means ‘wanderer’ activity. because they are in constant motion.(c) List the eight planets in order of their distance from Assessment – 5 the Sun: Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • Mercury • Venus • Earth • Mars • Jupiter • Saturn Hints • Uranus • Neptune • When the distance from the paper to the torch is doubled, the size of the beam decreases.(d) Use the popular technique of mnemonics to • The intensity of the light also decreases. help students memorize the order of the planets. • This tells us that the further the distance from the (A mnemonic is a memory aid, using word sun, the colder it becomes. associations to enable one to recall long lists). • This makes Mercury, the hottest planet, and(e) Example: My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Neptune, the coldest planet. Us Noodles • Life is thus not possible on these two planets due to the extreme temperature conditions.Assessment – 3Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual (l) Explain the key features of each planet to studentsAssessment; Tool – Mnemonic Game in terms of distance from the sun, time takenFun with Geography! to complete an orbit, temperature and knownLet each student construct their own mnemonic satellites. (Refer to the chart on page 119 of thedevice to remember the order of the planets. textbook for the same.)(f) Visit the website www.si.edu and www.nasm.edu Assessment – 6 to see the universe from space. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group(g) Students can also take a virtual solar system walk Assessment; Tool – Role Play if they visit the website www.njaa.org Extension Classroom ActivityAssessment – 4 • Divide students into nine groups.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • Make one group the sun and the remaining eightAssessment; Tool – Chart Work groups are allotted one planet each. • Tell each group that they are the ‘ambassadors’(h) Make a chart of the solar system and show it to of their planets. Each group must make a your students. presentation in the class on the unique features of their planet and invite other ‘planets’ to visit them. S J E • Students can make masks, hats, bracelets etc. depicting the distinctive style of their planets. Sun M Mars V Extension Homework Activity • Students make postcards narrating their visit to N U a planet of their choice.
  • 96 TEACHER’S MANUALE. Earth – A Unique Planet (d) Ask students to recall the night sky and ask them if(a) Recall the ‘Try this!’ activity of the previous they see the same shape of the Moon every night. section. (Students will reply in the negative.)(b) Remind students that one of the reasons why it (e) To explain why we see different shapes of the would not be possible to live on Mercury is that it moon, conduct the following activity is too hot (because of its closeness to the sun). Assessment – 7(c) Life is possible on earth dies to certain key Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group factors. Assessment; Tool – Simulation ActivityKey Factors why life is possible on earth Phases of the Moon• Suitable temperature – since earth is neither too You will need the following materials: close nor too far, it has a moderate temperature (averaging about 22º C) making it comfortable to • A table lamp with the shade removed or a bulb live in. on a stand• Availability of water to support plant, animal and • 5 small white balls (preferably made with soft human life. material)• The presence of a layer of gases called the • 5 sticks (about the length of a pencil) atmosphere. The atmosphere contains oxygen 1. Place the table lamp at the centre of the (vital for humans) and carbon dioxide (vital for classroom. plants). 2. Select five students and make them stand in a(d) Explain the other features of planet earth. semicircle around the bulb. 3. Tell students that their heads are earth. (So, if it isOther features midnight on earth, then their faces will be turned• Earth is shaped like an orange. away from the bulb.)• It is slightly flattened at the two poles. 4. Give one ball to eaczh student. Pierce each ball• It is known as the ‘Blue Planet’. and insert the stick through it.• Earth has one known satellite known as the 5. Ask students to move with their balls around the Moon. bulb.F. The Moon 6. The remaining students will note down their(a) Define the term satellite to students. observations.A satellite is a heavenly body that ‘follows’ or (f) Discuss the observations of students.accompanies a planet. It does not have any light of Discussion Pointsits own and also revolves around the sun. • The angle between the moon and the sun’s rays(b) Recall that earth has one satellite called the determines how much we see of the moon, since moon. the area of the moon that reflects light back to(c) Show pictures of the moon and explain its key earth varies. features. • When the moon is almost directly between theKey Features of the Moon earth and the sun, the side facing the earth is unlit and is called the New Moon Phase.• The Moon is the only known satellite of Earth. • About a week later, is the Half Moon Phase, as• It shines because of the reflected light of the only half the side of the moon facing the earth is Sun.• It goes around the Earth in 27 days and 8 hours. lit.• It also rotates once on its own axis. • A week later is the Full Moon Phase, where the• The moon has many depressions called craters. full side of the moon facing the earth is lit.• The moon has no water or atmosphere. • About 5-6 days later, the lit area gets reduced to• The first man to walk on the moon was Neil half a circle again. Armstrong on 21st July 1969. • The cycle continues thereafter.
  • 97 TEACHER’S MANUALG. Other Celestial Bodies water to support plant, animal and human life,(a) Explain to students the other heavenly bodies and an atmosphere containing oxygen (vital for found in the solar system. humans and animals) and carbon dioxide (vital for plants). Asteroids: These are small bodies found in the gap between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is d. What is a satellite? the largest asteroid. A satellite is a small heavenly body thatMeteoroids: These are small pieces of rock and dust. accompanies or follows a planet. For example, They are also known as ‘shooting stars’ the moon is a satellite of earth. Satellites do not because they fall to earth with a flash have their own light. They revolve around the sun of light. and shine through the reflected light of the sun. Comets: They appear as bright stars with a bright e. What are asteroids and where are they found? tail. Comets are made up of dust Asteroids are small bodies found in the gap particles and frozen particles. between Mars and Jupiter. They range in size from a few metres to hundreds of kilometres in(b) Let students see the pictures of asteroids, diameter. meteoroids and comets in the textbook. 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:H. Recapitulation a. Saturn b. Light Years c. Stars(a) Students read the lesson. Recap the main points. d. Constellation e. Neptune • The sun, moon and planets are found in a large 3. Distinguish between the following .Use a limitless space called the universe. tabular form: • There are eight planets that make up our solar a. Star and Planet system. • The sun is at the centre of the solar system. Planets Star Planet revolve around the sun. • A star is a heavenly • Planets are heavenly • Planets have companions known as ‘satellites’. body that shines by bodies that do not • Earth is the only known planet to have life because producing its own have their own light. of the suitable temperature, availability of water light and heat. They revolve around and the conducive temperature. the sun (the biggest star) and reflect theSummative Assessment 1 light of the sun.KEY TO TEXT BOOK EXERCISES b. Jupiter and Venus1. Answer in one or two sentences each: Jupiter Venusa. Which is the closest neighbour to our solar • It is gaseous and liquid • It is rocky in nature. system? in nature. • It is 778 million km • It is 108 million km The closest neighbour to our solar system is the from the sun. from the sun. Andromeda galaxy. • It takes 11.9 years to • It takes 225 days to orbitb. Which is the largest planet? orbit the sun. the sun. Jupiter, the fifth planet from the sun is the largest • It has 63 known • It has no known planet in earth’s solar system satellite. satellites.c. Which is the most unique planet in the solar c. A Satellite and a Planet system? Why? Satellite Planet Earth is the most unique planet in the solar • A satellite is a small • A planet is a heavenly system. It is the only planet that is known to heavenly body that body that along with a support life due to three important factors. They accompanies a planet. satellite revolves are the suitable temperature, availability of around the Sun.
  • 98 TEACHER’S MANUAL4. Mark True or False against the following (Hint: Neptune has a temperature of -220 degrees statements: Celsius and is 4496 million km from the sun. Sincea. The earth revolves around the sun from east to it takes 165 years to orbit, it would be affected west – False first.b. The Moon completes its rotation and revolution Mercury has a temperature of 350 degrees at in the same time – True daytime and -170 degrees at night. Since it takesc. All planets are celestial bodies – True 88 days to orbit, it would be affected last.d. Saturn is the biggest planet – False Point out that truly speaking, since earth is the only known planet to support life, it will bee. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the affected the worst. ) surface of the moon – True5. Match Column A with Column B to make correct Summative Assessment 2 statements: Column A Column B ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS (a) 3 1. Name a natural satellite of the Earth. (b) 5 Moon is a natural satellite of the Earth. (c) 6 2. Why were the astronauts amazed by the view of (d) 1 the Earth from space? (e) 2 (f) 4 The astronauts were amazed by the view of the Earth from space, because the beautiful blueThings to do oceans and swirling clouds made the earth look 2. Collect the names and pictures of the first people like a shimmering marble against a dark sky. who went into space. 3. What are heavenly or celestial bodies? (Hint: Yuri Gagarin was the first person to travel The sun, the moon and all objects that shine in the in space. You can find his picture in Google night sky are called heavenly or celestial bodies. images.) 4. Define space. Give the name of the spacecraft. The expanse in which the solar system, stars, and (Hint: Vostok 1) galaxies exist is called the space. It is vast and Find out who was the young Indian astronaut limitless and is also called the universe. on board the Spacecraft Columbia in 2003 and 5. Define stars. Also name the closest star. what happened to it eventually. Heavenly bodies that shine by producing their (Hint: Kalpana Chawla; the spacecraft disintegrated own light are called stars. There are millions of on its entry to the earth killing all members on stars in the universe, but the closest is the sun. board.) 6. How are distances in space measured? 5. Which planet would be affected first if the Sun Distances in space, which are very vast, are suddenly died? measured in light years. The distance covered by (Hint: Neptune as it is the farthest from the light in one year is called a light year. This measure Sun) is used as the sunlight travels very fast, covering Which planet would be affected last? a lot of distance, at a speed of 3,00,000 km. per (Hint: Mercury, as it is the closest to the Sun) second. Find out and list the differences between these 7. Define galaxy. Also name the galaxy to which two planets explaining why they would behave the Sun belongs. in different ways. Stars are found in groups or clusters, which are
  • 99 TEACHER’S MANUAL called galaxies. The sun belongs to a galaxy called The Moon revolves around the Earth (from West the Milky Way or Akash Ganga. to East). The Moon also rotates on its axis. The8. How were the Sun and the planets formed? time taken by the moon to complete one rotation and one revolution is the same, which is 27 days No one really knows how the Sun and the planets and 6 hours. This is why we always see the same were formed. Scientists think that a nebula (a face of the Moon. swirling cloud of cosmic dust and gases )broke 16. Name the planets in order of their distance from up into several areas of gas,which collapsed under the Sun. gravity to form planets. 1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. Earth9. What is a satellite? 4. Mars 5. Jupiter 6. Saturn A satellite is a celestial body which moves around the planets in the same way as the planets move 7. Uranus 8. Neptune around the sun. 17. Name three dwarf planets.10. What does the word ‘Planet’ mean? 1. Pluto 2. Ceres (asteroid) The word ‘Planet’ comes from the Greek word 3. Xena (2003,UB 313) ‘planeta’, which means ‘Wanderers’. 18. What are the criteria that a dwarf planet has to fulfil to be classified as a dwarf planet?11. Distinguish between Star and Satellite According to the IAU, a dwarf planet fulfils the Star following criteria:1. It is a celestial body, with its own heat and light.2. They are very far from us and thus look very small 1. It is in orbit around the sun They also twinkle. 2. It is heavy enough to create its own gravity Satellite 3. It has not cleared the neighbourhood around1. They do not have their own heat and light. its orbit2. They do not twinkle and look big 4. It is not a satellite of a planet.12. Distinguish between Comet and Asteroid. 19. What do the letters IAU stand for? Comet International Astronomical Union1. Luminous heavenly body with a glowing tail. 20. Name the two motions of all planets.2. Comets probably consist of ice, dust and frozen Revolution and Rotation gases. 21. Underline the correct answer. Asteroid a. The planet known as the ‘Earth’s Twin’ is1. Very small planet like solid body found between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter. i. Jupiter ii. Saturn iii. Venus2. Asteroids are pieces of some planet, which b. Which is the third nearest planet to the sun probably exploded soon after its birth. i. Venus ii. Earth iii. Mercury13. Why is the Earth called a ‘Blue Planet’? c. All the planets move around the sun in a The Earth appears blue because its two-third i. Circular path surface is covered by water. It is therefore called ii. Rectangular path the Blue Planet. iii. Elliptical path14. Name the planets which have rings around d. The Pole Star indicates the direction to the them. i. South ii. North iii. East Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus have rings around 22. Fill in the blanks. them. These rings are belts of small debris. a. A group of stars forming various patterns is called15. Why do we see only one side of the Moon at all a constellation. times? b. A huge system of stars is called a galaxy.
  • 100 TEACHER’S MANUALc. The Moon is the closest celestial body to our View from Earth earth. First Quarterd. The Earth is the third nearest planet to the sun. Waxing Gibbous 90 Waxing Crescente. Planets do not have their own heat and light. 45 13523. Why is the Earth a unique planet? view from Earth B The Earth is a unique planet because it is the only Full 180 C A 0 New planet known to have life, because the conditions Earth View from Earth D to support life exist only on the earth as far as we 135 Sunlight 45 know. 90 Waning Gibbous Waning Crescent These are Third Quarter • Suitable temperature view from Earth • Availability of water The Sun-Moon angle is the angle defined by • Breathable atmosphere Sun->Earth->Moon with Earth (where you are) as24. Write a short note on the Moon. the angle vertex. As the Sun-Moon angle increases we see more of the sunlit part of the moon. Note The moon is the brightest body in the night sky. that if this drawing were to scale, then the Moon It looks the brightest because it is closest to the would be half this size and its orbit would be earth. It shines because of the reflected light of about 22 times larger in diameter and the sun the sun. It goes around the earth in 27 days and 8 would be about 289 times farther away than the hours. At the same time it also rotates once on its Moon! own axis. The time taken for a single rotation and (http://fueledcobra.com/resources/moon- revolution around the earth is the same, which is phases-diagram.gif) why we always see the same side of the moon. 26. Name some smaller celestial bodies found in the25. Write a short note on the phases of the Moon. solar system. The sun always illuminates half of the moon facing Asteroids, meteoroids, and comets are smaller the sun (except during lunar eclipses, when the celestial bodies found in the solar system. moon passes through the earth’s shadow). When 27. Define Asteroids. the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the earth, the moon appears “full” to us, a bright, Asteroids are thousands of small bodies that lie in round disk. When the moon is between the earth the gap between Mars and Jupiter. They range in and the sun, it appears dark, a “new” moon. In size from a few metres wide to the largest—Ceres, between, the moon’s illuminated surface appears which is 690 km in diameter. to grow (wax) to full, then decreases (wanes) to 28. Define Meteoroids. the next new moon. Meteoroids are small particles of rock and dust. The edge of the shadow (the terminator) is always They sometimes come closer to the earth and burn curved, being an oblique view of a circle, giving brightly. Some fall with a flash of light and are called shooting stars. the moon its familiar crescent shape. Because the “horns” of the moon at the ends of the crescent 29. Define Comets. are always facing away from the setting or rising Comets are small, fragile, irregularly shaped sun, they always point upward in the sky. It is fun bodies composed of a mixture of dust particles to watch for paintings and pictures which show and frozen gases. They have highly elliptical orbits an “impossible moon” with the horns pointed that bring them very close to the sun and swing downwards. them deeply into space, often beyond the orbit of Pluto. They appear as very bright stars with (some of above information courtesy of NASA a massive shining tail behind them. They glow http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov) when they come close to the sun.
  • The Globe - Latitudes14 and Longitudes EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand two motions of the earth and their effectsTextbook: Refer to pages Bisect – divide something into two equal partsTime required: 6 periods Globe – spherical representation of the earth TEACHING POINTSVOCABULARYFascinate interest A. Pre-Instructional ActivitySpherical round Assessment – 1Tilted slanting Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupDeflate collapse Assessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral AssessmentPrecise exact (a) Before showing a globe to students, you canImaginary make believe demonstrate the shape of the earth by showingPattern outline them an orange. Explain that the spherical shapeStretch span of the orange is very similar to the shape of earth.Sphere ball shaped (Depending on the number of students in the class, you can even distribute an orange to each studentIntersection junction or pair of students. Else, you can ask each student to bring an orange.)DEFINITIONS (b) Define the term ‘Geoid’ to describe the actualGeoid – An object shaped like the earth shape of the Earth. Use the orange to show andMuseum – A place where various objects are emphasize the flattened shape at the poles. displayed for study • The word Geoid means earth-shaped, denoting aObservatory - An observatory is a place or location spherical shape, slightly flattened at the poles. used for observing earthly and/or celestial events B. IntroductionMeridian - An imaginary curved line on the Earth’s (a) Show students a model of a globe. If possible, surface extending from the North Pole to the South display two globes to show students that though Pole. globes come in different sizes, their shape remainsGrid – A pattern of intersecting lines. the same. You can also highlight that on theSatellite – An object revolving around a planet in an globe all the continents, oceans and countries are orbit. depicted in their relative sizes and correct shape.
  • 102 TEACHER’S MANUAL(b) Do the following activity to explain the important • The Earth takes 24 hours to rotate on its own axis. terms and concepts related to the globe. Hence, it takes 4 minutes for each degree to passAssessment – 2 in front of the sun.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (f) This can be demonstrated by rotating the pumpkinAssessment; Tool – Simulation Activity & Oral (Earth) around a torch, bulb or candle (Sun). ThisAssessment can be used to explain the concept of local timeYou will need the following materials: and standard time.• A blue balloon Local Time• A permanent marker • All meridians have their own specific timeBlow up the balloon to represent earth. Use a called local time. So, when meridians east of thepermanent marker to show the axis and the North particular longitude are 12 noon, the places westPole and South Pole. of it will be ahead of 12 noon.C. Meridians of Longitude Standard Time • Every country adopts a central meridian whoseAssessment – 3 local time is accepted all over the country as thePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Simulation Activity & Oral Standard Time. 1Assessment • In India, 82 2 º is chosen as the standard time. This(a) In order to explain the concept ‘longitudes’, use a passes through Allahabad and is five and a half pumpkin because it has parallel lines running from hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. North to South. Tell students that each line faces (g) Locate Allahabad in the atlas and ask students to the sun in turns (which can be represented by a mark it on the map of India. Let students draw the torch/bulb/candle). Hence, when that longitude longitude passing through Allahabad. faces the sun, it is 12 noon.(b) Run your fingers along the pumpkin to show that Assessment – 4 two opposite ‘longitudes’ form one Great Circle. Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; (All longitudes are thus equal semi-circles.) Tool – Project Fun with Geography!(c) Explain to students that the longitude running through Greenwich at 0º, near London, was chosen Take a complete week’s programme schedule of a as the Prime Meridian. Use a marker to mark this children’s TV channel. Divide students into seven on the pumpkin. Mark the opposite ‘longitude’ as groups. Tell students to imagine that they are the International Date Line at 180º. travelling to London for a week and they do not want to miss their favourite programmes. They must(d) Discuss the existence of 360 longitudes amounting prepare the revised timings of the schedule. to 360º with each degree taking 4 minutes to pass (This activity can be modified to include other in front of the sun. countries. You can also use airport schedules as anTeaching Points extension of this task.)• Longitudes run from North to South• The longitude that runs through Greenwich D. Parallels of Latitude is chosen as the Prime Meridian. The opposite (a) Students tend to get confused between latitudes longitude is the International Date Line. and longitudes. Since the pumpkin has been• There are 360 longitudes, thus amounting to used to demonstrate longitudinal lines, use the 360º. following rhyme to make students remember that(e) Discuss how longitudes can be used to calculate latitudes are horizontal lines that run from east to time. west.
  • 103 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 5 Board pins or paper pinsPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual Slips of paper with coordinates of different placesAssessment; Tool – Rhymes Divide the class into teams. Make slips with theLatitudes Rhyme coordinates of different places. (Ensure that youLatitudes, Latitudes, have a master list of the names of the places withThis is my attitude, coordinates for your reference). One member of the team must locate the place on the map displayedI run from east to west, (or the atlas) and shout out the name of the place.Because I’m the best! Award points for the correct answer. The team with(b) Draw and mark the important degrees of the maximum points wins! latitude. North Pole Recapitulation and Summary 1 66 2 ºN • The shape of the earth is a Geoid. Arctic Circle • To make the study of the Earth easier, imaginary lines are drawn on its surface called longitudes Tropic of Cancer and latitudes. 1 23 2 ºN • Longitudes help us to calculate the local and Equator 0 standard time of a place. Tropic of Capricorn • Longitudes and latitudes together help us to find 1 23 2 ºN the location of a place. Summative Assessment 1 Antartic Circle 1 66 2 ºS KEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES South Pole 1. Answer in one or two sentences:(c) Explain the three climatic zones with the help of the above diagram. a. Give two disadvantages of globes.• Torrid Zone – lying between the Equator and the The two disadvantages of globes are: two Tropics • Due to the different sizes of globes, it cannot show• Temperate Zone – lying between the Tropic of too many details of mountains, plateaus etc. Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the northern • Another disadvantage of globes is that it cannot hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn and depict an accurate representation of a small area Antarctic Circle in the southern hemisphere like a town or city.• Frigid Zone – lying between the Arctic Circle and North Pole in the northern hemisphere and the b. What is the true representation of the Earth? Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the southern The true representation of the earth is ‘Geoid’ hemisphere which means ‘earth-shaped’. The earth is rounded(d) Show how a place can be located using the like a ball but is flattened at the poles. information of latitude and longitude. Using c. What are the limits of the Torrid Zone? the coordinates, locate a place in the atlas using The Torrid Zone lies between the equator (0º) and latitude and longitude. 1 the Tropic of Cancer (23 2 ºN) and the equator and 1Assessment – 6 the Tropic of Capricorn (23 2 ºS).Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual d. What is local time?Assessment; Tool – Latitude Game Local time refers to the specific time that allFun with Geography! meridians of longitudes possess. The time atPlay the Latitudes Game! the meridian when it faces the sun is thus alwaysYou will need the following materials: 12 noon.An enlarged map (or atlas) e. Which two lines are used for locating places?
  • 104 TEACHER’S MANUAL The two lines used for locating a place are the c. The North Pole and the South Pole are mere points latitude and the longitude. – Falsef. Name two countries that have many time zones. d. A grid is a pattern of lines drawn on the surface Russia and USA are two countries that have many of the Earth – False time zones. 5. Explain with diagrams2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words : a. Heat zones North Pole a. southern b. torrid c. opposite 1º D 66 2 N d. 24 e. prime Arctic Circle3. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular A form: Tropic of Cancer 1º 23 2 Na. Latitudes Longitudes Equator • It is the angular • It is the angular B 0 distance of a place distance east or west Tropic of Capricorn 1º 23 2 N north or south of the of the Prime Meridian equator measured measured from the C from the centre of the centre of the earth. Antarctic Circle 1º 66 2 S earth E • There are 180 degrees • There are 360 degrees South Pole of latitude. of longitude. Image taken from - www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/ Atmospheric.htmb. Local Time Standard Time • Each meridian has • The central meridian, Explanation its own specific time whose local time is A Torrid Zone • Lies between the Equator known as local time. accepted by a country, and the two Tropics is known as standard • Very hot temperatures time. as it receives the direct rays ofc. Torrid Zone Torrid Zone the Sun • It is the hot zone. • It is the hot zone. B & C Temperate • Lies between the Tropic of • It lies between the • It lies between the Zone Cancer and the Arctic Equator and the Equator and the Circle in the northern Tropic of Cancer in the Tropic of Cancer in the hemisphere and the Tropic northern hemisphere. northern hemisphere. of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle in the southern • It lies between the • It lies between the hemisphere Equator and the Tropic A n t a r c t i c C i r c l e • Moderate temperatures as it of Capricorn in the and the South Pole receives the slanting rays of southern hemisphere. i n t h e s o u t h e r n the sun hemisphere. D & E Frigid Zone • Lies between the Arctic Circle • It has extremely hot • It has extremely cold and North Pole in the northern temperatures. temperatures. hemisphere and the4. Mark true or false against the following Antarctic Circle and the South statements: Pole in the southerna. The moon is the brightest body in the night sky hemisphere – True • Cold temperatures as itb. Latitudes are of equal length – False receives very little sunlight
  • 105 TEACHER’S MANUALb. Locating a place THINGS TO DO SECTION Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment; Tool – Atlas Work Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment 2. # City Longitude Time 1 Moscow 37 36 E 4:00pm 2 Sydney 151 0 E 10:00pm (Picture Source: http://www.georgefcram.com/ 3 London 05 W 1:00pm education/gloact6.jpg) 4 New York 71°51’W to 79°46’W 8:00am To locate a place, imaginary lines are drawn 5 Mumbai 72 51 E 5:30pm on the surface of a globe to form a grid. The east-west lines are latitudes and the north- Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual south lines are longitudes. Suppose you want Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment to locate a place, you would look for its 3. Five countries that lie in the Temperate Zone – latitude and longitude. The point of United Kingdom, USA, France, Belgium, Ireland, intersection between the latitude and Wales, Russia (any five) the longitude would be the location of the place. Five countries through which the Equator passesc. The direction of one place from another Sao Tome and Principe, Gabon, Republic of The direction of one place to the other can also the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, be found in a way similar to the location by Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, identifying the intersecting latitude and longitude Kiribati, Bakes Island, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and then marking a path. For example, here we (any five) shall mark the direction of New Delhi (located at Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual the intersection of Longitude 72 degrees east and Assessment; Tool – Project the latitude 27 degrees north) to New York (40.47 4. To complete this task, visit the website www. degrees north and 73.58 degrees west). http://gc.kls2.com/ Step 2 – Look for the corresponding latitudes and This website will help you to map the desired longitudes in the map. For example, the route and will also tell you the distance that is approximate position of New Delhi to New charted. York which is seen to be to the north west of New Delhi can be marked on the map in Purpose – Formative Assessment, Individual the following way: Assessment; Tool – Project (Discover your world) 5. Ask students to visit www.wikipedia.org to get information and pictures to complete this activity. Summative Assessment 2 ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS I. Choose the correct answers: 1. The latitude in the middle of Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is
  • 106 TEACHER’S MANUAL a. Arctic circle b. Equator 2. On what basis the Standard Time of a country c. Antarctic circle d. South Pole is calculated?2. The time taken to pass through 15 degrees The standard time for a country is determined longitude is on the basis of a chosen central meridian whose time is accepted across the entire country. It is a. 60 minutes b. 4 minutes then calculated on the basis of its distance from c. 15 minutes d. 3 minutes the Prime Meridian. For example,; the centralII. Fill in the blanks: meridian of India is exactly 5 ½ hours ahead of 1. The distribution of temperature is not equal the Prime Meridian. on the surface of the earth. 3. What is a time zone? How many Time Zones are 2. Greenwich Standard Time is known as there on the earth’s surface? International Standard Time. A time zone is a region covering 15 degrees of 3. The Sun rays fall slanting on the earth in the longitude and which takes exactly one hour to evening. pass in front of the sun. There are a total of 24 4. The 82 ½ degrees East longitude is the standard time zones on the earth’s surface for the 24 hours meridian in India. of the day.III. Match the following: 4. How is the Indian Standard Time calculated? 1. Earth’s shape – geoid Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.5° E longitude, which is near Allahabad in the 2. Vertical rays – very hot state of Uttar Pradesh. The longitude difference to 3. World surface – satellite images the Prime Meridian is an exact time difference of 4. Prime meridian – 0 degrees 5 hours 30 minutes. Local time is calculated basedIV. Answer the following: on this time difference.1. How does the 0 degree longitude divide the earth? The 0 degree longitude or Prime Meridian divides the earth into eastern and western hemispheres and also into time zones.
  • Rotation and15 Revolution EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand two motions of the earth and their effectsTextbook: Refer to pages Equinox – The day in the year when the duration ofTime required: 6 periods the day and night are exactly equalVOCABULARY TEACHING POINTSSpin rotate A. Pre-Instructional ActivityTilt angled (a) Recall the introductory activity of the solar systemIllumination lighting and the rotation of planets.Coincide match (b) Conduct the activity given on page 131 of theDawn morning textbook. Ask students what they concluded fromDusk evening this activity.Diffuse scattered Assessment – 1Freeze chill Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupEllipse oval Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentIncline slant Possible ResponseParallel corresponding • The earth rotates around the sunHemisphere half of a sphere • Only half of the earth’s surface faces the sun while the other half is dark • This leads to the phenomenon of day and nightDEFINITIONS B. RotationTwilight – Time of the day when the sun sets and is (a) Explain the concept of rotation. not visible but there is still some light.Circle of illumination – The imaginary circle on the • The earth rotates on its axis from west to east surface of the earth that divides the day from the • Each rotation takes 24 hours (hence a day night constitutes 24 hours) • The earth is tilted at an angle of 23 1 called the ºLeap year – The year with 366 days instead of 365 is 2 known as the leap year. inclination of the earth’s axisSeason – A period of the year for a region when the • The circle that divides day from night is called temperature conditions are constant. the circle of illumination
  • 108 TEACHER’S MANUAL(b) Demonstrate the phenomenon of dawn, dusk and D. Seasons twilight through the activity given on page 131. Assessment – 5(c) Draw the diagrams given on page 130 to illustrate Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group the phenomenon of rotation. Assessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & OralAssessment – 2 AssessmentPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (a) Visit the following link for an excellent animatedAssessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral simulation on how seasons occur:Assessment http://edutube.org/en/video/what-causes-(d) You can also show an animated simulation of different-seasons-animation rotation by following this link: (b) Using the above video, explain the various concepts http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_ related to seasons. science/terc/content/visualizations/es0404/ Summer Solstice: On June 21, the rays of the Earth es0404page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer and the areas near the Tropic of Cancer receive more sunlight. InC. Revolution the northernAssessment – 3 hemisphere, days are longer than nights andPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group temperatures are high.Assessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral Winter Solstice: On December 21, the rays of theAssessment Earth fall directly on the Tropic of Capricorn and the(a) To demonstrate the phenomenon of revolution, southern hemisphere has longer days and shorter show an animated simulation of how revolution nights. takes place. You can access the following link: In the northern hemisphere, the days are shorter and the temperatures are lower. http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_ science/terc/content/visualizations/es0408/e Spring Equinox: On March 21, the direct rays of s0408page01.cfm?chapter_no=04 the sun fall on the equator and the whole world experiences equal day and night.(b) Explain the concept of revolution as the second movement of the earth. Autumn Equinox: On September 23, the direct rays of the sun fall on the equator and the whole world• The earth takes 365 ¼ days to complete a single experiences equal day and night. revolution• Hence a single year is taken as 365 days and the Recapitulation and Summary quarter day is added to the month of February to • The two main movements of the earth are rotation add on a full day every four years. and revolution. • Rotation leads to the phenomenon of day andAssessment – 4 night.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual • Revolution leads to the phenomenon of seasons.Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment (Rhymes)Fun with Geography! Summative Assessment 1Learn the following rhyme to know how many KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISESmonths have 31 days and how many have 30!Thirty days has September 1. Answer in one or two sentences:April, June and November a. What is a leap year?All the rest has 31 We take 365 days as a single year. A quarterExcept February alone day is added to the month of February to giveIt has 28 days every year one whole day every four years known as aAnd 29 days every leap year! leap year.
  • 109 TEACHER’S MANUALb. Why do Poles have a six-month day? 4. Mark True or False against the following During the summer solstice and the winter solstice, statements: the North Pole and South Pole respectively is a. Alaska is called the ‘Land of the Midnight Sun’ inclined towards the sun. Hence, they have – False sunlight for 6 months and darkness for the b. Places near the equator have long hours of dawn remaining 6 months alternately. and dusk – Falsec. What causes day and night? c. On 21 June, the rays of the Sun are vertical on the Day and night is caused by the rotation of the Tropic of Cancer – True earth. When the earth rotates on its own axis, one d. The earth rotates from east to west – True half faces the sun experiencing day, while the 5. Explain with diagrams. other half is in darkness, experiencing night. a. Seasonsd. What is the angle of inclination of the Earth’s Refer to the diagram given on page 132 of the axis? textbook. The angle of inclination of the earth’s axis b. Day and Night is 23 1 . 2 Refer to the diagram given on page 130 of the2. Fill in the blanks: textbook. a. illumination b. equal c. South d. Summer Solstice THINGS TO DO3. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group form: Assessment; Tool – Project Rotation Revolution 1. Length of day in the following places• The spinning of the • The movement of the If you visit the following website: Earth on its axis is Earth around the Sun http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/ called rotation. is called revolution. astronomy.html?n=136, you will find the timings• Rotation leads to the • Revolution leads to for sunrise and sunset of different cities in the phenomenon of day the phenomenon of world and night. seasons. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment Dawn Dusk• The period of diffused • The period of diffused 2. Sun City in South Africa experiences summer in December. Hence, you will need the following light before sunrise is light after sunrise is things: called dawn. called dusk. • Summer wear such as cotton trousers, light shirts, Summer Solstice Winter Solstice tops • It occurs on June 21. • It occurs on December • Beach hat 22. • Sandals • Swimming trunks or swimsuit • The Tropic of Cancer • The Tropic of Capricorn • Sunscreen receives the direct receives the direct rays • Camera with batteries rays of the Sun. of the sun. • T h e N o r t h e r n • The Southern Summative Assessment 2 Hemisphere Hemisphere experiences longer days experiences longer days ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS and shorter nights. and shorter nights. I. Choose the correct answers • The North Pole has 6 • The South Pole has 1. The vertical rays fall at the Tropic of Capricorn months of daylight. 6 months of darkness. on
  • 110 TEACHER’S MANUAL a. 21st June b. 22nd December 2. Name the latitude where the vertical rays of the st c. 21 March rd d. 23 September sun fall on 22nd December.2. The earth completes one rotation on its axis in Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun a. 24 hours b. 10 hours on 22 December c. 24 hours 30 minutes d. 16 hours 3. In what positions do both the hemispheres faceII. Fill in the blanks: the sun?1. In the month of June, July, August it is summer On the 21st of March the sun is overhead at season in the northern hemisphere. the equator. The rays fall, vertically on the equator. Both the North and South Poles are2. The earth’s rotation on its axis causes the day and equidistant from the sun. At this time both the night. hemispheres are facing the sun and the days and3. The earth’s axis makes an angle of 66 ½ degrees nights are equal with its orbital plane.4. In the month of March, April and May it is spring season in the Northern Hemisphere.III. Give short answers1. When is the winter season in the northern hemisphere? The Northern Hemisphere experiences the winter for three months namely December, January, and February
  • 16 Reading Maps EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To develop basic skills of map readingTextbook: Refer to pages Plain – An extensive flat area of landTime required: 10 periods Scale – A large area of earth reduced to something smaller based on a particular value Architect – A person who designs and supervises theVOCABULARY construction of buildingsFlemish main language of northern Belgium Habitat – The area or environment where an organismGrid net is foundFlat plane TEACHING POINTSCrease foldDistortion deformation A. Pre-Instructional ActivityDeduction reasoning (a) Tell students the Greek mythological tale ofSurvey study Atlas.Express communicate Assessment – 1Split divided Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupIntermediate in-between Assessment; Tool – Story Telling and Oral AssessmentConsidered thought of You’ve probably seen an atlas. It’s a book of maps.Vertical perpendicular But the word atlas also has a different meaning. ItTraveller explorer was someone’s name. Here’s the story of the firstSymbols signs Atlas.Construct make The ancient Greeks told tales about giant beingsConventional usual called Titans. One Titan was named Atlas. The Titans once fought with the Greek gods and lost. So, theDEFINITIONS gods punished the Titans. Atlas’ punishment was to hold the sky up on his shoulders. He held the skyMountain – A high landform with steep sides and up for years and years. a peak Once Atlas almost got free. A hero named HerculesPlateau – An elevated land form flat on the top came to see him. Hercules needed to find someRiver – A natural stream of water that empties into golden apples. Only Atlas knew where they grew. an ocean or other water body
  • 112 TEACHER’S MANUALAtlas said, “I’ll get the apples if you hold up the sky on the A4 size paper. They will not be able to do so.while I’m gone.” Why? What are the conclusions one can draw fromHercules was almost as strong as a Titan. He could this activity?hold the sky up while Atlas went for the apples. But Hintsit was hard work. • When students drew an outline of their pencilSoon, Atlas came back. He saw Hercules with the box, they mapped the actual size of their box. Butsky on his shoulders. The weight of the sky made when asked to do so for all the items on their desk,Hercules sweat and groan. Who would want to take they were unable to represent the actual size ofback a job like that? Atlas thought, “I could leave the various items.Hercules here and walk away. Then I would be free • A map is a two dimensional representation of anforever.” area.Hercules realized what Atlas had in mind. So • Various features of an area are represented in a much smaller sizeHercules thought of a trick. “This sky is so Ask students to represent the items on their desk inuncomfortable!” he said. “Hold it up for a minute a smaller size. They can also use symbols to depictwhile I put a pad on my shoulders. Then I’ll hold it various items. What they have actually done is toup again.” So Atlas took the sky from Hercules. map an extremely small area. Now ask them toBut the minute Hercules was free, he ran away. So, imagine how a map of a country, continent or worldAtlas had to keep holding up the sky forever. In is represented on a sheet of paper!time, he turned into stone mountains — the AtlasMountains in northwestern Africa. Even now, Atlas C. Types of Mapsstill seems to carry the sky up on his shoulders. (a) Explain the different types of maps with the helpAbout 500 years ago, Geradus Mercator made a of wall maps.book of maps. In the book, he told the story of Atlas. • Physical maps: These maps show landforms suchEver since then, a book of maps has been called an as mountains, plateaus etc.atlas. • Political maps: These maps show countries, cities(Source: http://accelerateu.org/assessments and towns./2005ELA4/StoryOfAtlas2.htm) • Thematic maps: These maps provide specific information such as rainfall, crop distribution,B. Introduction industrial locations etc.(a) Get students to start thinking about maps as a two dimensional representation of a flat surface by D. Features of a map performing the following activity. (a) Recall the introductory activity completed by students. Explain to students that an essentialAssessment – 2 feature of all maps is the distance representationPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual through scale. This is important as no map canAssessment; Tool – Hands-on Activity represent the actual size of any area.You will need the following materials: (b) With the help of a wall map, explain howPencil cartographers use a particular scale, for exampleA4 size Paper ‘1cm = 10km’.Pencil Box (c) Show students the second essential feature of aBooks and other stationery items map which is the direction symbol. NorthAsk students to draw an outline of their pencil box Explain the four cardinal directions –as placed on their desk. Now, ask them to place their north, south, east and west – and howbooks and stationery on their desk and try and fit it this is depicted in a map. Use a wall map to point this out.
  • 113 TEACHER’S MANUAL(d) With the help of wall maps, also explain the Summative Assessment 1 conventional symbols used in maps.• Use of colours in physical maps – green for KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES plains, yellow for deserts, brown for highlands etc. 1. Answer in one or two sentences:• Use of conventional symbols to denote roads, a. How far are two places A and B marked on a map railway lines, river banks if they are 500 km apart on the ground and the scale of the map is 1 cm represents 100km?(e) Complete the activity given on page 138. A and B are 5cm apart.Assessment – 3 b. What is a map?Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; A map is a true representation of any area of theTool – Project (Map Making) earth, big or small, on a flat surface.Fun with Geography! c. What are cardinal points?Divide students into groups. Ask each group tomake a map of one section of the school – such as The four main directions – north, south, east andthe academic block, sports areas, auditorium, science west are known as cardinal points.centre etc. d. Describe the different types of maps.Have the groups to exchange the maps and fill in the The three types of maps are:directions for each section of the map. • Physical maps: These maps show landforms such as mountains, plateaus etc.E. Sketches • Political maps: These maps show countries, cities(a) Ask students to make a sketch of the route from and towns. home to school.(b) Explain to students the difference between a sketch • Thematic maps: These maps provide specific and a map. information such as rainfall, crop distribution, industrial locations, details of roads etc.• A map is an accurate representation of a particular area in a scaled down size whereas a sketch is a e. What is the difference between a plan and rough drawing to show the location of a particular a sketch? area. A sketch is a rough drawing to locate or show a place where we need to go. A sketch is not drawnF. Plans to scale. A plan, on the other hand, shows us a(a) Make a plan of the classroom along the lines of the complete layout inside a building. It is drawn to diagram shown on Page 139. scale.(b) Explain the main features of a plan. 2. Choose the correct answer:• A plan shows the layout of an interior of a a. sketch b. small c. map building.• It shows the actual sizes of rooms, doors etc (using d. globe e. Large-scale a scale) 3. Give one word for the following:Recapitulation and Summary a. A book containing maps• A map is a true representation of a flat area of the Atlas earth’s surface. b. Maps showing countries, towns and cities• There are three types of maps – political maps, Political map physical maps and thematic maps.• The essential features of every map are scale, c. The art of drawing maps direction and conventional symbols. Cartography
  • 114 TEACHER’S MANUALd. The true shape of the Earth In the above diagram, there are two places – X and Globe Y. To find the direction of village X from village Y, we first join the two places with a straight line. Thene. The ratio between distances on the ground and on a map we draw a horizontal and vertical line at village X to indicate the cardinal points. We now see that Scale village Y lies to the south east of village X.4. Mark True or False against the following b. Conventional symbols statements: Maps use a variety of signs and symbols whicha. A large-scale map shows a large area – True any traveller of the world can understand. Thisb. Conventional symbols can be understood by means that there is an international understanding people all over the world – True for using the same symbols to show certainc. The direction to the right of the north line is specific features in the same manner. These are west – False called conventional symbols. Some commond. Globes are more useful than maps – True conventional symbols are shown in the boxe. Green colour on maps show highlands – False below.5. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular Cart Track form: Maps Globe Unmetalled road•A map is a • A globe shows the true Lined well representation of any shape of the earth. A • area on the earth on a map shows smaller Summative Assessment 2 flat surface. It does not details such as plateaus, show the shape of the roads etc. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS earth in its true shape. 1. What is cartography?• A map shows smaller • A globe cannot show details such as plateaus, smaller details of the Cartography is the art of preparing maps. roads etc. earth. 2. What is an atlas? An atlas is a book made from a collection of Plan Sketch maps• A plan shows us a • A sketch is a rough complete layout inside a drawing to locate or 3. What are the advantages of using maps? building. show a place where we There are many advantages of using maps. Some need to go. of them are –• A plan is drawn to • A sketch is not drawn • They can show accurate information of a small scale with an accurate to scale. area representation of doors, • They can be carried with great ease windows etc. • Different types of maps – political, physical and6. Explain with diagrams. weather maps can be chosen to show various typesa. The direction of one place from another of information • Maps can be used to make comparisons or deductions. For example, a weather map can be X placed on top of a physical map to find the details of the weather in a particular area. Y N 4. What are the basic features of a map? The basic features of any map are
  • 115 TEACHER’S MANUAL• Distance or scale 8. How can we measure the road distance between• Directions or cardinal points two places on a map when the road route twists and turns?• Symbols or conventional signs We can measure the distance by using a piece5. What is the main difference between large-scale of string and laying it along the route and then and small-scale maps? measuring it. The main difference between large-scale and 9. How can you find out the north if a map does small-scale maps is that large scale maps show not have a north line? more details than the small scale maps. The top of the map is considered to be the north6. What is the north line? when there is no north line printed on the map. Every map has a vertical line at the top right or left 10. Fill in the blanks: corner of the map where ‘N’ is marked to indicate a. Scale is used to measure the distance between two the north. This line is called the north line. points on a map.7. What do we need to fix the position of one point b. Political maps show countries, cities and towns. from another on a map? c. Imaginary lines called latitude and longitude We need both distance as well as direction form a grid on the surface of the earth. to fix the position of one point from another on a map. d. Conventional symbols are used to represent specific features on a map.
  • The Realms of the17 Earth EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the interrelationship between the realms of the EarthTextbook: Refer to pages Herding – Animals moving together in groupsTime required: 12 periods Mineral – Component of the Earth’s crust Orchard – An area used for the cultivation of fruit or nut treesVOCABULARY Vineyards – An area used for the cultivation ofUniverse cosmos grapesHospitable liveable Plantations – A large area used for the cultivation ofRealms areas plants such as tea or riceGenerations children of children Irrigation – The process of watering cropsBreakthrough advance Glaciers – Large masses of ice over land Water Cycle – Movement of water through theComponents parts different spheres of the earthLife-bearing allows life Habitat – Area suitable for livingCoastline seashore Sustainable – Something that can be maintained forHemisphere half sphere a long timeLandmass piece of landDistinguished separate TEACHING POINTSSteep vertical A. IntroductionPeaks tipsFertile productive Assessment – 1Envelope cover Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentDEFINITIONS (a) Introduce the topic by asking students the following questions:Lithosphere – Surface of the earth made up of land • Why is earth the only planet that sustains life?Hydrosphere – Water covering the earth’s surface (Get students to move to the expected answer:Atmosphere – Air that covers the earth because it sustains life through air and water)Crust – Solid uppermost layer of the lithosphere • What are the essential components that enableAlluvial – Soil brought down by rivers into the us to live? plains (Air, water and food)
  • 117 TEACHER’S MANUAL(b) Introduce the four main components that make up • The continuous transference of water vapour the realms of the earth. into the atmosphere through evaporation and • Lithosphere (Land) its condensation as rain is known as the water • Hydrosphere (Water) cycle. • Atmosphere (Air) Importance of Oceans • Biosphere (Life) • Makes climate moderate • Provide transportB. Lithosphere • Supports marine lifeAssessment – 2 • Storehouse of mineralsPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment – 4Assessment; Tool – Simulation Activity & Oral Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment Assessment; Tool – Audio-Visual Videos & Oral(a) Show an apple to students. Explain that the Assessment lithosphere is like an apple. It contains a thin outer Fun with Geography! layer called the crust, an inner layer called the Visit the website www.ocean.com for a treasure of mantle and a deeper third layer called the core. videos on oceans and its riches!(b) U s e t h e l i n k : h t t p : / / w w w . l e a r n e r . o r g / interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html to D. Atmosphere access an animated simulation on the structure of (a) Ask students if they can see the air around them. the earth. (They should say ‘No’!).(c) While showing students this animation, explain (b) Explain the main components of the atmosphere. the main aspects of the lithosphere. • Nitrogen – 78% • The word lithos means rock • Oxygen – 21% • The solid upper part of the lithosphere is also • Argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour and other called the crust (show in animation) gases – 1% • The crust consists of Sial (silica and aluminum) • The atmosphere contains another important gas and Sima (silica and magnesium) called ozone which forms a protective shield • The lithosphere comprises the seven main against the harmful rays of the sun. continents over which are found many landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains etc. (c) Ask students why mountaineers carry oxygen cylinder when they climb mountains.Assessment – 3 Explain that as height increases, pressure decreasesPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group and there is less oxygen in the atmosphere. Hence,Assessment; Tool – Audio-Visual Videos & Oral in warmer regions, there is low pressure becauseAssessment the air gets hot and rises.Fun with Geography!Visit the website http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/ Assessment – 5main_frames.html for some excellent multimedia Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Groupvideos on the structure of the Earth.lms of the Assessment; Tool – ProjectEarth Make Your Own Barometer! You will need the following materials:C. Hydrosphere • Balloon(a) Conduct the activity given on page 143 of the •A Glass Bottle or Jar textbook. •A Straw(b) Use this as the basis of explaining the water cycle •A Rubber Band and importance of oceans. •Chart Paper
  • 118 TEACHER’S MANUALCut off the stem of the balloon and wrap it around Africa, Europe, North America, South America,the mouth of the bottle. Tie the rubber band around Antarctica and Australia.the neck of the jar to hold the balloon in place. Stick c. What percentage of total air is found near thethe straw to the centre of the balloon. Fold the chart surface of the Earth?paper to make a column and use the straw as a sort 97% of the total air is found near the surface ofof marker. the earth.Observe how atmospheric pressure changes d. What do you understand by the term ‘physicaldepending on the weather. government?E. Biosphere The habitat that comprises non-living elements such as air, land and water is known as theAssessment – 6 physical environment. It creates the actual realmPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group for living being.Assessment; Tool – Audio-Visual Videos & Oral e. Which gases comprise the atmosphere?Assessment The gases that form the atmosphere are nitrogen,(a) This section can be taught by asking students oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, oxygen and other to look outside the window and explain the noble gases. interdependence of all three realms which leads 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: to the fourth realm – the biosphere. a. Biosphere b. Wind c. Asia and Australia(b) To explain the importance of conservation and protection of the environment, visit the website d. Mountains e. High http://www.greenpeace.org/international/. 3. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular You will get many interactive videos and form: information. a. Physical Environment Biological EnvironmentRecapitulation and Summary • It is formed of non- • It consists of living• There are four realms of the earth. living elements such as e l e m e n t s s u c h a s• These are the Lithosphere (land), Hydrosphere air, land and water. plants,animals and (water), Atmosphere (air) and Biosphere (life). human beings.• All the four realms of the earth are interconnected and interdependent. b. Lithosphere Hydrosphere• It is very important to conserve the environment and avoid destroying the habitat through • The surface of the • T h e r e a l m o f t h e pollution and reckless damage. earth which is made Earth that is made up u p o f l a n d , r o c k of water is called theSummative Assessment 1 and soil is called the hydrosphere. lithosphere.KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES • The lithosphere • The hydrosphere1. Answer in one or two sentences: consists of continents, consists of oceans,a. Which are the two layers that form the crust of mountains, plateaus seas, rivers and lakes. etc. the Earth? The two layers that form the crust of the earth • The lithosphere makes • The hydrosphere makes up 29% of the earth up 71% of the earth. are sial and sima. While sial is made up of silica and aluminum, sima is made up of silica and 4. Mark True or False against the following magnesium. statements:b. How many continents does the Earth have? a. Wind moves from high – pressure areas to low – The Earth has seven continents. They are Asia, pressure areas – True
  • 119 TEACHER’S MANUALb. Ozone protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays 5. What are sial and sima? – True Sial and sima are the layers of the earth’s crust. Sialc. The crust of the Earth is of uniform thickness stands for silica Aluminium which are its main – False elements while sima stands for Silica Magnesium.5. Give reasons for the following: The continents have both sial as well as sima layersa. We must protect the Earth. whereas the layer under the oceans is only sial. • All the four realms of the earth are inter-dependent 6. Why is the northern hemisphere called the land and result in a balanced life. hemisphere? • Due to the recklessness and greed of humans, the This is because the largest part of the earth’s environment has been ruthless exploited leading landmass lies in the northern hemisphere. to an unnatural rise in global temperatures called 7. What is the water hemisphere? global warming. The southern part of the earth is made up mostly • Unless the causes of this are addressed, the future of water therefore it is known as the water of the earth lies in great danger. hemishphere.b. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height. 8. Why are plains more important for human • Atmospheric pressure changes due to two factors beings? – temperature and height. Agriculture flourishes on the plains but does not • As one goes higher, the column of air in the do so well on the rocky slopes of the mountains. atmosphere gets thinner and thus air pressure Therefore, plains are far more important for drops. agriculture and also for human settlement in thec. Oxygen is essential for life. form of large cities. • Oxygen helps us breathe and sustains animals and 9. Distinguish between the three main landforms humans. on the earth’s surface. • Humans will die without oxygen. The thrre main landforms on the earth’s surface are mainly distinguished by their height.Summative Assessment 2 Mountains – are the highest in elevation and someADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS of them have steep slopes and high peaks. Most of them are found in ranges. For example, Himalayas 1. What makes life possible on Earth? in India, Rockies in America and Alps in Europe There is life on Earth because the environment Plateaus – are high tablelands that have broad suitable for life is formed by an interaction between and flat tops. The plateau of Tibet belongs to this the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere. category. Plateaus may vary in height from a few 2. Name the seven major continents of the world. hundred metres to several thousand metres above The seven major continents of the world are – Asia, the sea level. Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Plains – are the lowest landforms and are flat and Australia and Antarctica level regions. Most plains have been formed by 3. Name the highest mountain on the surface of the alluvial soil brought by rivers and are very fertile. Earth. The plain formed by the river Ganga in India is an example of plains. Mount Everest is the highest mountain at a height of 8848 metres. 10. How do the oceans influence the world? 4. Name the deepest part of the earth’s surface. The oceans influence the world in the following The deepest part of the earth’s surface is in the ways: Mariana Trench near the Philippines in the • They make the climate moderate. Pacific Ocean at a depth of 11034 metres below • They provide transport ways for ships and sea level boats.
  • 120 TEACHER’S MANUAL • They provide a habitat for marine organisms to 14. What is a habitat? give us seafood. Each living organism has its own range of • They are a storehouse of many minerals like requirements for a suitable environment to natural oil and salt. survive and exist comfortably. This environment • They provide water for the rains and allow the is known as the habitat for that organism. water cycle to run. 15. Fill in the blanks:11. What is groundwater? a. An unnatural rise in global temperature due to rise Water found below the surface of the earth which sometimes comes to the surface in the form of in carbon-di-oxide levels is also known as global springs and wells is known as ground water. warming.12. What is the atmosphere? b. Nitrogen gas is required for maintaining soil fertility and plant and animal growth. Atmosphere is the envelope of air that surrounds the earth like a blanket. This air is made up of a c. 71 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by mixture of different gasses. water.13. How does wind form? d. The Earth’s crust is thicker under the continents than under the oceans. When the air heats up it rises, creating a low pressure area. Air from high pressure cooler areas rush to fill this low pressure area causing a wind.
  • 18 Continents and Oceans EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the interrelationship of the realms of the earthTextbook: Refer to pages in the middle of Atlantic ocean with peaks thatTime required: 6 periods form islands. Isthmus – It is a small land mass which separates twoVOCABULARY larger water bodies from each other, e.g. PanamaStructure anything that has been formed of parts TEACHING POINTSUniform the sameEvolution process of opening out or developing A. IntroductionTowering rise to or reach a greater heightCrags a steep or rugged rock face Assessment – 1 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupInky as dark as ink Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentLandforms natural feature of earth surfaceRealms a field of activity (a) Recall the seven continents of the earth. Point outWorn down exhausted the continents on a world political map.Barren a land, too poor to produce vegetation (Asia, Africa, North America, South America,Numerous many Europe, Oceania and Antarctica).Bleak bare and exposed to weather (b) Use the link:http://www.wwnorton.com/ college/geo/egeo/animations/ch2.htmDEFINITIONS To explain the formation of continents.Trenches – It is the deep depression of the ocean B. Continents floor.Peninsula – It is a landmass covered with water on Assessment – 2 three sides. Purpose – Formative; Type – IndividualFold mountains – These are the mountains formed by Assessment; Tool – Map Work the process of shifting the two major plates towards (a) Discuss the main features of each continent. each other causing folds. These are relatively young (b) Use a world physical map (let students use their in nature. atlas simultaneously) to point out the mainFiery Ring of the Pacific – A great volcanic and landforms and physical features. earthquake belt that runs around the rim of the Pacific ocean. AsiaMid–Atlantic Ridge – A submerged mountain range • Largest continent
  • 122 TEACHER’S MANUAL• Separated from Europe by the Caspian Sea Assessment – 3• It is a continent of climatic contrasts Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual• China and India which are found in Asia are the Assessment; Tool – Map Work two most populated countries (a) Use a world physical map to point out the mainAfrica oceans of the world and to discuss their features.• Second largest continent (b) You can use the video found on the link• Separated from Europe in the north by the http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/23893- Mediterranean Sea charting-the-vast-oceans-ocean-floor-geology-• Equator cuts the continent in the middle video.htm to show students ridges found on the• Largest desert in the world – the Sahara Desert - is ocean floor. found in this continent (c) Explain the features of the five oceans of the• Also known as the Dark Continent world.North America Indian Ocean• Third largest continent • It is triangular in shape• Discovered by Christopher Columbus • India is located at the head of this ocean• Separated from South America by the Isthmus of • It also consists of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Panama BengalSouth America Atlantic Ocean • It is shaped like the letter ‘S’• The largest river in this continent is the Amazon • It is the busiest ocean in the world in terms of• The Amazon Basin has the thickest forests in trade and transportation the world - it has many varieties of plants and • It has a submerged mountain range in the middle animals called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Pacific OceanEurope • It is the largest ocean in the world• It is a small continent but has some of the most • It is bordered by volcanic mountains around its developed countries of the world edges called the Fiery Ring of the Pacific• It has an indented coastline Arctic Ocean• It has a mild climate and no great contrasts • Northernmost ocean • Located inside the Arctic Circle and hence isOceania frozen for most part of the year• It is divided into four parts – Australasia ( Australia Antarctic Ocean and New Zealand ), Melanesia, Micronesia and • Also known as the Southern Ocean Polynesia • It is formed by the merging of the Pacific, Atlantic• Australia is also known as the Dark Continent and Indian Ocean and looks like an independent continent (d) Visit the website www.ocean.com for videos andAntarctica information about the oceans of the world.• It is a large frozen landmass around the South Pole Summative Assessment 1• It is uninhabited except for wildlife like penguins KEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES and seals. 1. Answer in one or two sentences:(c) Visit the following link for additional facts, photos and maps on the continents. a. Which Ocean in the World is the busiest ocean and why?• http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/ continents/index.html Atlantic Ocean is the busiest Ocean because it has a long coastline. It is bordered by Europe andC. OCEANS Africa on the east and North America and South
  • 123 TEACHER’S MANUAL America on the west. Hence, it receives a lot of 4. Mark True or False against the following traffic throughout the year in terms of trade and statements: transportation. a. Antarctica is completely lifeless – Falseb. What do you understand by the ‘Fiery Ring of b. The Arctic Ocean is known as the Southern Sea the Pacific’? – False The Fiery Ring of the Pacific refers to the new fold c. India and China are thinly populated countries mountains that are found on the edge of the Pacific of the world – False Ocean. These mountains have the maximum d. South American is known as Down Under concentration of active volcanoes. – Falsec. Europeans have always been masters of sea. e. The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean – False Can you state some geographical factors which support this development? 5. Explain with diagrams: Europe has an indented coastline. This gives it a a. Ocean floor natural advantage of a number of seaports and the finest harbours in the world. Hence, Europeans quite naturally have been masters of the sea.d. Why is Mauna Kea called a ‘submarine (http://us.fotolibra.com/images/ mountain’? previews/49770-ocean-floor-diagram Mauna Kea is found at the bottom of the ocean illustration.jpeg) floor. It is the mountain range of ocean floor which The bottom of the ocean floor is a flat sandy plain. rises above the surface to a height of 8900 metres, But there are also mountains and deep valleys making it a submarine mountain. found at the bottom of the ocean. Some of these2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: mountains, such as Mount Kea in Hawaii, are so high that they rise to the surface of the ocean as a. Atlantic b. Mid-Atlantic c. Uninhabited islands. The ocean floor also has deep trenches. d. Australia e. Pacific b. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge3. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular form:a. Africa and South America Africa South America• It lies in the northern • Most of the continent hemisphere. lies in the southern hemisphere. (http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/pltec/• It is the second largest • It is the third largest noaaMidAtlanticRidgeL.jpg) continent in the continent in the In the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is a submerged world. world. mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.b. Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean It has several high peaks that form islands in the middle of the water. These islands are also Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean volcanic in nature.• It is half the size of the • It is the largest ocean in Pacific Ocean. the world. Summative Assessment 2• It is the busiest ocean • It is not as busy as the ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS in terms of trade and Atlantic Ocean. transportation. 1. What are Continents?• It is shaped like the • It is circular in shape. Continents are the main land masses of the world letter S. which are surrounded on all sides by water.
  • 124 TEACHER’S MANUAL2. Write a short note on Asia. 8. Where will you find the deepest part of the Asia is the largest continent of the world and most earth’s crust ? of it lies in the northern and eastern hemisphere. The deepest part of the earth’s crust lies in the It occupies one third of the total land area of the Pacific Ocean near the Phillipines. earth. It extends from 800 North to 100 South and 9. What do you understand by the ‘southern from 280 East to 1700 West. On the West side, it ocean’? is separated from Europe by the Ural mountain ranges, Black Sea and Caspian Sea. It has the Arctic The Antarctic ocean is also known as the southern Ocean in the North, Pacific Ocean on the East and ocean because it lies at the extreme south of the Indian Ocean on its South. earth. This ocean is formed by the merging of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans.3. What do you mean by the term ‘Indian Subcontinent’? 10. Why Australia is called Down Under? India and its neighbouring countries are collectively The position of Australia is such that it is south of called the Indian Subcontinent because even the mainland and is considered to be a continent though they are a part of Asia, this region is of its own right. different from the rest of Asia. 11. Name the following:4. Why did several historians call Africa as the a. Which is the continent having coldest and hottest ‘Dark Continent’? places of the earth – Asia Africa was called the ‘Dark Continent’ because b. Which ocean is called as Southern Ocean it was densely forested and large parts of it – Antarctic remained cut off from the rest of the world, for a c. Which is the largest desert of the world very long time. – Sahara5. Fill in the blanks: d. Which is the thickest forest of the worlda. The Amazon basin has the thickest forests in the – Amazon world. e. North and South America is separated by ab. Climatically Asia is a continent of contrasts. narrow stretch of land – Isthmus of Panamac. The Sahara desert is the world’s largest desert. 12. a. Name the four divisions of Oceaniad. Australia can be called the island continent – Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia ande. The Atlantic ocean is the busiest ocean in the Polynesia world in terms of trade and transportation. b. Name the shapes of the following:f. The Antarctic ocean is formed by the merging of i. Atlantic Ocean – ‘S’ type the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. ii. Pacific Ocean – Circularg. Continents cover 29 percent of earth’s surface. iii. Indian Ocean – Triangularh. The average thickness of continent is about iv. South America – Inverted Triangle 60 km 1 c. Tick the correct answeri. Asia occupies 3 of the land areaj. Urals, Black Sea and Caspian Sea separate the i. The boundary between the continental two continents. shelf and ocean floor is always marked by6. What do you understand by the term ‘water a. Continental Slope b. Abyssal Plain hemisphere’? c. Trench d. Seamount The southern hemisphere of the earth has more ii. The best fishing grounds in the world are water than land so it is termed as the ‘water located in hemisphere’. a. Continental Shelves b. Abyssal Plain7. How did the Indian Ocean get its name? c. Submarine Trenches d. Ocean Deeps India is located at the head of this ocean, which is why it has been named after this country.
  • Major Relief Features19 of the World EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the major landforms of the earthTextbook: Refer to pages Caldera – It is a large crater formed by volcanicTime required: 10 periods explosion. TEACHING POINTSVOCABULARYElevation height A. IntroductionDistinctive making distinct Assessment – 1Displacement being displaced, the difference Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; between the initial position of Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral Assessment something ( as a body or geometric (a) Explain the formation of mountains with the help figure ) and any later position of the following activity.Arid dry and dusty; without water You will need the following materials: • 1 sheet of chart paperDEFINITIONS • A desk pushed against the wallPeak – The highest point of land. Explain that shifts in the tectonic plates on the earth’sSlope – The incline on two sides of a peak surface lead to the uplift and depression of the earth. Demonstrate this by slowly pushing the chart paperRift Valley – A long, narrow, flat floored valley against the wall. caused by the collapse of earth’s crust between two faults. Notice how the papers fold successively as more pressure is applied.Alluvial Plain – Plains formed by accumulation of silt. Discuss (Page 153) What is the difference between a mountain andGeorge – A deep narrow trench in an upland area. a hill?Vent – The opening through which lava and other A hill is generally somewhat lower and less steep materials come out of the volcano. than a mountain. A mountain is generally higherCrater – The funnel shaped depression at the top of and steeper than a hill. volcano.
  • 126 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 2 • A plateau is a large elevated flat land caused byPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group tectonic or volcanic actionAssessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral • Also known as table land because it is shaped likeAssessment a table(b) Discuss the various types of forces such as folds • Examples of plateaus – Chhotanagpur Plateau, and faults with the help of an animation found at Deccan Plateau in India the following link: (b) Visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plateau for• http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_ images of plateaus. science/terc/content/visualizations/es1103/e s1103page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization C. Plains• Fold Mountains – upfolds (anticlines) and Assessment – 4 downfolds (synclines) Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• Himalayas, Rockies and Andes are examples of Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment young fold mountains• When young fold mountains get older over time, Discuss (Page 156) they become old fold mountains (a) Ask students why most of the civilizations of the• Urals and Aravallis are examples of old fold world have come up near river banks. Guide the mountains discussion to the fact that plains have fertile soil that facilitated the growth of agriculture and hence(c) Point out the above-mentioned mountains in a settled life. world physical map. Ask students to mark these places in an outline world map, while consulting (b) Explain the main features of plains that make it their atlas. one of the most populated regions in the world. • Plains contain alluvium and silt which are veryAssessment – 3 fertile.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • They are used for agriculture.Assessment; Tool – Simulation Exercise & Oral • Some examples of plains are the Indo-GangeticAssessment plain, Nile basin and Yangtze plain(d) Explain the formation of block mountains by accessing the following link: D. Relief Features and Lifestyle• http://www.uky.edu/AS/Geology/howell/ (a) Discuss with students how each relief feature goodies/elearning/module10swf.swf results in a different kind of lifestyle. Use a mind• Uplifted blocks are called horsts map to put up ideas.• Dropped blocks are called graben Mountains• Intervening blocks form rift valleys Mining of precious(e) View the video found at the following link to metals, wool, orchards understand the formation of volcanic mountains.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfziy_860 Relief GU&feature=related Lifestyles Plateaus• When hot molten magma erupts from the earth, Plains Mining of metals it is known as a volcano. Agriculture, and precious Settlements• Such mountains where volcanoes occur are called stones volcanic mountains.• Examples of volcanic mountains are Mt. Etna and Recapitulation and Summary Mt. Vesuvius • Landforms may be of different types such asB. Plateaus mountains, plateaus and plains. • The three main types of mountains are Fold(a) Explain the main features of plateaus.
  • 127 TEACHER’S MANUAL Mountains, Block Mountains and Volcanic • It is formed by tectonic • It is formed by the mountains. or volcanic action. accumulation of• An elevated flat land is known as a plateau. materials washed• Low lying, flat lands are known as plains. down by mountains• Different landforms result in different lifestyles. and plateaus.Summative Assessment 1 b. Y o u n g f o l d m o u n t a i n s a n d O l d f o l d mountainsKEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES Young Fold Mountains Old Fold Mountains1. Answer in one or two sentences: • High mountains with • W h e n Y o u n g f o l da. What is the difference between a fold mountain sharp peaks and steep mountains get lower and a block mountain? slopes are known as and smoother over time Fold Mountains are caused by a collision between Young fold mountains. as a result of weathering plates that causes great pressure leading to the action, it is known as folding and uplifting of large areas. On the other Old fold mountains. hand, Block Mountains are created when large c. Volcanic mountains and block mountain areas are widely cracked or broken up by faults Volcanic Mountains Block Mountains and displaced vertically. • Volcanic mountains are • Block Mountains areb. What is a hot spot? formed by the eruption created when large Places that experience a lot of volcanic activity of volcanic rock on the areas are widely are known as hot spots. There are many hot spots surface of the earth. cracked or broken up around the Pacific Ring of Fire. by faults and displaced c. What is a plain? vertically. Plains are flat, low-lying regions with gentle 4. Mark True or False against the following slopes. Many plains have been formed by the statements: accumulation of materials washed down from a. New Fold Mountains are prone to earthquakes mountains and plateaus. and volcanic eruptions – Trued. What are the principal features of a plateau? b. The Andes are found in Europe – False A plateau is a large, elevated flat land, caused c. Fold mountains display synclines and anticlines by tectonic or volcanic action. They are rich in – True minerals such as iron, gold and copper. d. Minerals are mostly found in plains – Falsee. Which is the highest plateau in the world? e. Glaciers are often found on top of plateaus The Chang Plateau of Tibet is the highest – False plateau in the world. It is also called the ‘roof of 5. Explain with diagrams: the world’.2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: a. Landforms a. young-fold b. Indo-Gangetic c. caldera d. alluvial3. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular form:a. Plateau and plains (Source: www.fas.org) The earth’s surface is not smooth at all places. It is Plateaus Plains elevated in certain places and low lying in others.• It is a large, elevated • It is a flat, low-lying The main types of landforms are mountains, flat land. region. volcanoes, plateaus and plains.
  • 128 TEACHER’S MANUAL Mountains may be formed by folding, faulting or a. Anticlines are upfolds and Syncline are downfolds by the eruption of volcanic rock on the surface of of fold mountain. the earth. b. The intervening dropped blocks forms rift valley A plateau is a large, elevated flat land, caused by system. tectonic or volcanic action. Plateaus are rich in c. The term volcano is derived from Greek God minerals such as iron, gold and copper. called Vulcan meaning God of Fire. Plains are flat, low-lying regions with gentle d. The mountains are formed by folding, faulting or slopes. Many plains have been formed by the by the eruption of volcanic rocks on the surface accumulation of materials washed down from of the earth. mountains and plateaus. Plains are densely 2. Answer the following: populated regions.b. Volcano a. Name the three major landforms found on the earth’s surface. i. Mountain ii. Plateau and iii. Plains b. State the types of mountain: i. The Black Forest – Block Mountain ii. The Nilgiris - Residual Mountain (Source: www.kidscosmos.org) iii. The Fuji Yama – Volcanic Mountain The core of the earth is made up of very hot molten iv. The Andes – Fold Mountain rock. When this material is forced to the surface 3. Complete the following table: of the earth due to intense pressure, it is called a volcano. The opening through which the lava and Name of the Highest Place Height in hot materials come out is known as a vent. The Continent Metres funnel like depression at the top is called a crater. Africa Mt. Kilimanjaro 5895 A caldera is a large crater formed by volcanic Antarctica Mt. Markham 4602 explosion. Asia Mt. Everest 8848 Australia Mt. Kosciusko 2230THINGS TO DO SECTION Europe Mt. Elbrus 5633Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group North America Mt. McKinley 6194Assessment; Tool – Project South America Mt. Aconcagua 7022• To complete tasks 1 and 2, students can refer to 4. Write a short paragraph on Mountains. the following websites for information, pictures and photos: Mountains are formed by folding, faulting or by• www.nationalgeographic.com the eruption of volcanic rocks. They are of two• www.wikipedia.org types block and fold mountains. The glaciers on the• www.encarta.com mountain are sources of water. Various birds and animals have found their habitat in this region.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Livestock is a major activity in the region.Assessment; Tool – Case Study However, in many cases agriculture and fruit3. A complete article on the Chipko Movement can orchids are another activities. Presence of scenic be found at the following link: beauty, pollution free environment and snow• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chipko_ peaks attracts many tourist to this region. movement Besides mountaineering, trekking, skiing, para gliding, rafting are the other adventure sportsSummative Assessment 2 associated with mountain. The mountains act as the natural boundary for countries and control theADDITIONAL QUESTIONS climatic conditions. For example, in case of India,1. Fill in the blanks: Himalayas act as a natural barrier.
  • India—Physical20 Features EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To comprehend broad physiographic divisions of IndiaTextbook: Refer to pages TEACHING POINTSTime required: 3 periods To teach this lesson, ensure that a wall map of the physical map of India is displayed at all times.VOCABULARYUnravel solve A. Location and SizeMystery something that is difficult to understand or explain Assessment – 1 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupUnique special, different from others Assessment; Tool – Map Work & Oral AssessmentMountainous hilly or rugged topographyCo exist exist at the same time or in the same (a) Using the physical map, point out India’s location place at the head of the Indian Ocean.Secular non religious (b) Explain why India is referred to as theGovernance the action or manner of governing subcontinent. • India, along with Pakistan, Bangladesh, NepalDEFINITIONS and Bhutan, forms a single entity.Indian Standard Time – Local time along the standard (c) Discuss the main features of India’s location. 1 meridian of India – 82 2 ºE which cuts through • India stretches between 8º4’N and 37º6’N latitude Allahabad. and between 68º7’E and 97º25’E.Lagoon – A shallow area of salt water separated by the sea by sandbar. • India’s neighbouring countries are Pakistan andBackwaters – A long stretch of water which is wider Afghanistan to the west. than the lagoon. • Nepal, China and Bhutan are her neighbours inEstuary – Formation of a fertile land at the mouth of the north. river where the rich alluvial deposit carried by the • Bangladesh and Myanmar are found on her river is deposited. The river channel bifurcates into east. a number of narrow streams. • India spans an area of 3,200,000 squareSand Dunes – Formation of sand in inverted C shape kilometers. called as Barkhans locally. It is due to wind action • The southernmost tip on the Indian mainland is in desert. These dunes often shift from one place Cape Comorin or Kanyakumari. to other.
  • 130 TEACHER’S MANUALB. Physical Divisions E. The Great Indian DesertAssessment – 2 Assessment – 4Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Map Work & Oral Assessment Assessment; Tool – Map Work & Oral Assessment(a) Using the physical map, list out the main (a) Point out the Thar Desert in the map of India. physiographic divisions of India. (b) Explain the main features of the Thar Desert.• Northern Mountain Wall • It is an extremely dry region.• Northern Plains • Since, there is little water; there are few towns in• Great Indian Desert this region.• Peninsular Plateau • There are many sand dunes found in the Thar• Coastal Plains and Islands Desert.C. Northern Mountain Wall (c) Access the link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(a) Point out the main mountain ranges that make up Thar_Desert for images and more information on the northern mountain wall. Ask students to locate the Thar Desert. and mark these on an outline map of India. Discuss (Page 163)• Karakoram Mountains Find out about the phenomena of the shifting dunes• Mt Godwin Austen or K2 and the singing dunes and share it in class.• Himadri or Greater Himalayas• Himachal or Lesser Himalayas F. The Peninsular Plateau• Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas (a) Point out the Peninsular Plateau on the physical• Purvanchal Mountains map. Locate the Narmada river which divides the plateau into two parts – the Malwa Plateau in theD. The Northern Plains north and the Deccan Plateau in the south.Assessment – 3 (b) Discuss the main features of the Malwa PlateauPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group and the Deccan Plateau.Assessment; Tool – Map Work & Oral Assessment Malwa Plateau(a) Point out the rivers Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra on the map of India. Make students mark these • It is bound by the Aravallis in the north-west and rivers in a rivers map of India. the Vindhyas in the south. • In the east, it is known as Bundelkhand and(b) Explain to students that the basin of these three Baghelkhand. rivers form one of the most fertile plains in the • In south Bihar, it is called the Chhotanagpur world. Plateau.(c) Ask students to locate and mark the river Indus Deccan Plateau and its five main tributaries– the Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum. • It is broad in the north and tapers towards the south.(d) Similarly, ask students to locate and mark Ganga • In the northern edge, it is given different names and its tributaries – Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gomti, such as the Mahadeo Hills, Kaimur Hills and the Gandak, Kosi and Tista. Maikala Hills.(e) Have students locate and mark the Brahmaputra. • The two edges of the Deccan Plateau form hill Explain that the river Brahmaputra is known as regions called the Eastern Ghats and the Western Tsangpo in Tibet. Ghats.
  • 131 TEACHER’S MANUALG. The Coastal Plains and Islands d. Which is the driest part of India? The driest part of India is the Thar Desert.Assessment – 5 e. How are the eastern coastal plains different fromPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group the western coastal plains?Assessment; Tool – Map Work & Oral Assessment The eastern coastal plains are broader due to(a) Point out the Konkan Coast and the Malabar Coast the formation of deltas by the four east flowing on the Indian map. rivers, while the western coastal plains are(b) Discuss the main features of the Andaman and narrower where the Narmada and the Tapi form Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands. estuaries.Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:• There are 550 islands and they are volcanic in a. 28 states and 6 Union Territories origin. b. 8848 metres• The islands are separated by a channel called the Ten Degree Channel. c. Lake MansarovarLakshadweep Islands d. Ten Degree Channel • They are formed by the growth of coral islands. e. Backwaters • The islands are inhabited by tribals who have their 3. Mark True or False against the following own distinct lifestyles. statements • Many of the islands are uninhabited. a. The river Mahanadi flows into the Arabian Sea(c) Visit the official websites of the Andaman and – False Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands. b. Bihar doesn’t have a coastline – True • tourism.andaman.nic.in c. The Nilgiris are also called the Blue Mountains – • http://lakshadweep.nic.in TrueRecapitulation and Summary d. Kanyakumari is the southernmost tip of India – • There are five main physiographic divisions of False India. 4. Distinguish between the following. • These physical divisions are geographically a. The Western and Eastern Ghats interdependent on each other. Eastern Ghats Western GhatsSummative Assessment 1 • These Ghats are found • These Ghats are found along the eastern side along the western sideKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES of the Deccan Plateau. of the Deccan Plateau.1. Answer in one or two sentences: • The Ghats are low • The Ghats are high anda. Which meridian has been chosen as the central a n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s continuous mountain mountain ranges. ranges. meridian to give Indian Standard Time? 1 The longitude 822 ºE is chosen as the central b. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the meridian to give Indian Standard Time. Lakshadweep Islandsb. Name the only active volcano in India. Andaman and Nicobar Lakshadweep Islands Barren Island is the only active volcano in India. Islandsc. How many distinct mountain ranges do you find • The islands are of • The islands have been in the Himalayas? volcanic origin. formed through the growth of corals. There are three distinct mountain ranges in the Himalayas • There are a total of 550 • There are a total of 36 a. Himadri b. Himachal and c. Shiwaliks islands. islands.
  • 132 TEACHER’S MANUALc. Himadri and Himachal • Their main occupations are shifting agriculture Himadri Himachal and hunting – they also practice minor crafts• The Greater Himalayas • The lesser Himalayas Read the article found at the following link: are known as Himadri. are known as Himachal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thar_desert for complete information• These mountain ranges • They are about 1500- are about 6000 metres 3000 metres above sea Summative Assessment 2 above sea level. level.5. Name the following: ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS a. Mt. Godwin Austen or K2 1. Name the following: b. Sundarbans a. Neighbouring Countries of India – Pakistan, c. Thar Desert Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Mynmar, Sri d. Pakistan Lanka. b. Seas around India – Arabian Sea, The Bay ofTHINGS TO DO SECTION Bengal and Indian Ocean c. Ancient civilization – Indus valley civilizationPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual d. Area of the country – 3,200,000 sq.kmAssessment; Tool – Projcet e. Land frontier of India – 15,200 km 1. To complete task 1, students can refer to the f. Coastline of India – 7500 km following websites for additional information g. Highest peak of India – Mt. Kanchenjunga and images: h. Hills stations of India – Shimla, Mussoorie, • www.wikipedia.org Darjeeling and Nainital • www.encarta.com i. Five major rivers of Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir – Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab andPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual JhelumAssessment; Tool – Case Study j. Tributaries of Ganga – Yamuna, Ghaghara, 2. Learn more about the Thar Desert. Gomti, Gandak, Kosi and Tista Hints k. Five main physical divisions of India: How was it formed? i. The Northern Mountain Wall ii. The Northern • Scholars say that the Thar turned into a desert Plains iii. The Great Indian Desert iv. The around 2000-1500 BCE – the river Ghaghara that Peninsular Plateau v. The Coastal Plains and once flowed through it changed its course. Islands. What kind of flora and fauna can be found l. The marshy regions at the base of Shiwaliks – there? Terai m. Hill ranges of Purvanchal – Patkai Bum, Naga, • Great biodiversity can be seen – wildlife like the Mizo, Lushai, Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills. Great Indian Bustard, gazelles and blackbucks – birds such as falcons, eagles and harriers – flora 2. Distinguish between Western coastal plains and relating to scrub and thorn vegetation Eastern coastal plains. What is the major occupation of the people? Western Coastal Plains Eastern Coastal Plains • Agro forestry and eco tourism are the main • Narrow in nature • Broad in nature occupations of the people • Only two west flowing • Formation of delta of Names of some important tribes. rivers with low narrow East flowing rivers like • Some of the important tribes are the Bhils, Minas, estuaries i.e. Narmada Mahanadi, Godavari, Lohars and Sahariyas and Tapi Krishna and Kavery
  • 133 TEACHER’S MANUAL• Rice cultivation, fruit • Variety of crops are i. River Narmada divides peninsular plateau into farming and nature cultivated, subsistence two parts – the Malwa plateau and the Deccan based tourism are farming and religious plateau. important activities based tourism are major j. The Ten Degree Channel separates the Andaman activities and Nicobar Islands3. Fill in the blanks. 4. Explain the interdependence of the physicala. India lies midway between Far East (China and divisions of India. Japan) and the West Asian Countries (Israel and India has five major physical divisions. There Turkey) is a geographical interdependence between allb. The north-south stretch of India is 3200 Km while these divisions. The mountain ranges control the east-west stretch is 2900 km. climatic conditions of the Indian subcontinent and prevent the colder winds from Plateau ofc. India is separated from Sri Lanka by Palk Strait Tibet. They also act as a natural frontier and its and the Gulf of Mannar. steep slopes and deep valleys are not easy tod. The southernmost point of the Indian mainland cross for the enemies. The northern plains are is Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin while the excellent for agriculture and provide food for southernmost tip of India is Indira Point of the population. The peninsular plateau regions Nicobar group of islands are rich in minerals and provide industrial rawe. The river Indus rises beyond Himalaya near Lake material for metallurgical industries like iron Mansarovar. and steel, locomotives, besides industries likef. The tributaries joining the Ganga from the South cement, chemicals also flourish in this region. are Chambal, Betwa, Son and Damodar The coastal plains are thickly populated areasg. The Indira Gandhi Canal carries water from river where agriculture, industries and tourism are the Sutlej and irrigates northern part of the desert. major activities. The coastal plains attract many international tourists every year and our countryh. River Godavari is called The Ganga of the earns foreign exchange. In spite of the diversity of South. physical regions, these regions promote cultural unity of the country.
  • 21 India’s Climate EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To describe the influence of land, climate, vegetation and wildlife on human lifeTextbook: Refer to pages Assessment – 1Time required: 3 periods Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentVOCABULARY (a) Introduce the lesson by asking students the following questions:Oppressive hot and airless • If you want to visit a cold place in summer inVaried involving a number of different types India, where would you go? or elements (Suggested answers: Shimla, Kulu Manali, Ooty,Distinct noticeable difference Kodaikanal etc.) • If you want to visit a warm place in winter in India, where would you go?DEFINITIONS (Suggested answers: Chennai, ThiruvanthapuramTropical Monsoon – The hot and wet climate etc.) experienced in India. (b) Discuss with students why these places experienceMonsoons – The seasonal winds blowing across the variation in climate by explaining the factors that Indian subcontinent. influence climate. Latitude –Western disturbances – Cyclone arriving from the places further from north west. the equator are colder than those closer toLoo – Local, hot and dusty winds blowing over the equator northern India.Kalbaisakhi – Local thunderstorm in West Bengal Prevailing Distance from and Assam in the month of April. winds – if a place the sea – the further receives cool winds, that one moves awayMango showers – Local showers in Kerala which Factors from the sea, the climate it tends to be influencing becomes more helps in ripening of mangoes. cooler Climate extreme DirectionTEACHING POINTS of mountains – if a Altitude – the mountain slope faces higher the altitude of the rain bearing winds, a place – the colder theA. Introduction it receives more temperature rain
  • 135 TEACHER’S MANUALB. Seasons in India make a presentation regarding a festival based on a certain season.Assessment – 2 Visit the website http://www.festivalsofindia.in/Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; for ideas and information.Tool – Group Discussion Students can then go on to make a festival(a) Start a discussion on the different seasons in India calendar! by outlining the four main seasons and their main features. Recapitulation and SummarySeason – Winter • Factors influencing climate – latitude, altitude, distance from the sea and direction ofMonths – December to February mountains.Features – • Temperatures become colder as the • Main seasons of India – winter, summer, monsoonsun’s rays fall on the Tropic of Capricorn in the and retreating monsoonsouthern hemisphere • Rainfall is moderate to scanty• Places in the North like Delhi and Chandigarh Summative Assessment 1become extremely coldTemperature – 10º – 25º C KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISESSeason – Summer 1. Answer in one or two sentences:Months – March to May a. Which winds bring most of the rain to India?Features – • Temperatures start to rise with the The Monsoon winds bring most of the rain tosun’s rays falling on the northern hemisphere India.• Hot winds like the loo blow in Rajasthan • Mango b. Name two places that experience maximumshowers in Kerala rainfall in IndiaTemperature – 30º – 42º C Mumbai and Kolkata experience the maximumSeason – Monsoon rainfall in India.Months – June to September c. Why do the monsoons break into twoFeatures – • A low pressure belt is formed in north branches?and north west India during April due to the great Due to the shape of the peninsula, the monsoonheat • The south east trade winds get deflected and breaks into two branches – the Arabian Sea branchbrings rainfall to the country • Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.brings rain in Kerala, Maharashtra, Karnataka etc.• Bay of Bengal branch brings rain in north and d. Why has Rajasthan become a desert?north east branch. According to scientists, Rajasthan became a desertTemperature – 25º to 35º C due to the diversion of the river Ghaghara atSeason – Retreating Monsoon around 2000-1500 BCE. Hence, it is a region that receives very little rainfall.Months – October to NovemberFeatures – • In September, the sun moves away from e. Describe two factors that influence climate.the Tropic of Cancer and the temperature cools down. Two factors that influence climate are latitude• Monsoon winds leave the Indian subcontinent and and altitude. The further a place is away from thethe temperature comes down again. equator, the colder is its climate. Hence, placesTemperature – 20º to 25ºC like Shimla are colder than Chennai. Altitude also affects the climate of a place. As one goes higher,Assessment – 3 the temperature of the place falls.Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:Tool – Project a. Konkan, Coromandel b. JulyFun with Geography! c. Transitional d. 32ºCDivide the class into groups. Ask each group to e. Kalbaisakhi and mango showers
  • 136 TEACHER’S MANUAL3. Mark True or False against the following (Source: http://wmmbb.files.wordpresscom/ statements: 2007/08/monsoon-tracks.gif)a. Tamil Nadu gets most of its rain in winter The heat in India becomes very intense by the – True months of April and May. This leads to a lowb. Delhi gets more rain than Kolkata – False pressure belt in the north and north westernc. There is no mountain barrier in Rajasthan against part of India. The south east trade winds of the which the monsoons may strike – True southern hemisphere get deflected to the Indian peninsula in the south west direction. Due to thed. Jammu and Kashmir gets a lot of rain from the shape of the peninsula, they get deflected in two monsoons – False branches – the Bay of Bengal (eastern arm) ande. High pressure over the Indian land mass in the Arabian Sea (western arm) branch. summers attract the monsoons – False b. Annual movement of the sun4. Distinguish between the following. Use a tabular form: (Refer to the diagram given on page 168 of the textbook)a. South-west and north-east monsoons South west monsoons North east monsoons• They bring rain in • They bring rain in the the period from June to period from December September. to January.• They get deflected • They hit the Coromandel from the south east to coast from the north Winter starts in December when the sun’s rays the south west and east direction. fall directly on the Tropic of Capricorn in the divide into two branches southern hemisphere. India, being in the northern – the Arabian Sea branch hemisphere, begins to lose heat and temperatures and the Bay of Bengal fall. The winter season lasts from December to branch. February.b. Loo and mango showers As the sun’s rays fall on the equator in the third week of March, heat begins to reach the northern Loo Mango Showers hemisphere. The direct rays move north of the• The hot dusty winds in • The local showers in equator and the Indian landmass begins to warm Rajasthan that take place Kerala that help in the up. Summer lasts from March to May. in summer are known ripening of mangoes The heat in India becomes very intense by the as loo. are known as the mango months of April and May. This leads to a low showers. pressure belt in the north and north western5. Choose the correct options: part of India. The south east trade winds of the southern hemisphere get deflected to the Indian a. less than b. south-west peninsula in the south west direction. Due to the c. Arabian Sea d. Himalayas shape of the peninsula, they get deflected in two6. Explain with diagrams branches – the Bay of Bengal (eastern arm) and thea. Monsoon winds in India Arabian Sea (western arm) branch. The monsoons bring heavy rain from June to September. By the end of September, the sun’s rays are once again directly over the equator. The months of October and November are transitional months and are initially hot before beginning to cool down. The retreating monsoon lasts from October to November.
  • 137 TEACHER’S MANUAL The cycle of the sun’s movement begins again in •It is unpredictable •I t i s m o r e o r l e s s December. permanentSummative Assessment 2 •It is experienced over •It is experienced over small areas of a country large area of the continentADDITIONAL QUESTIONS •A place can experience •A place can experience different types of weather only one type of climate1. Fill in the blanks: conditions in a yeara. The four major seasons of India are winter, d. Complete the following table: summer, monsoon and retreating monsoons.b. India is located within the tropical and subtropical Sr.No. – 1 latitudes. Region with – Very heavy rainfallc. Indian climate is also called as tropical monsoon Rainfall – More than 200 cm climate. Areas – Western Ghats, Western coastal plains,2. Answer the following in brief: Purvanchal and NE hillsa. What are the factors which influence the climate Sr.No. – 2 of India? Region with – Heavy rainfall High mountains in the north and seas around Rainfall – 100-200 cm Indian peninsula are the two major factors which Areas – Parts of Eastern India including Orissa and influence the climate. Besides latitude, altitude, Madhya Pradesh, Ganga plain of Eastern UP,Bihar distance from the sea, direction of mountain and and West Bengal, Sub-Himalaya Punjab, parts of prevailing winds are other factors which influence Western Himalaya, Coromandel coast, East coast the climate. However, the impact of these factors of Tamilnadu varies from place to place. In other words, impact of these factors are on local climate. Sr.No. – 3b. What is October heat? Region with – Moderate rainfall In the last week of September, the sun starts moving Rainfall – 50-100 cm away from the Tropic of Cancer to the Equator Areas – Interior part of Ganga plain (UP, Haryana where the sky remains clear but the ground is and Punjab), most of the Deccan plateau, Gujarat still moist. This creates an uncomfortable weather and Rajasthan condition which is called as October heat. Sr.No. – 4c. Distinguish between Weather and Climate Region with – Low rainfall Weather Climate Rainfall – Less than 50 cm•I t i s t h e s t u d y o f •It is the study of the Areas – Thar desert and Kachchh, Northernatmospheric conditions average weather conditions Himalaya- Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, Lahaulfor a short duration i.e. over a long period of time and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, Southern Haryanafor a day or for a week and South west Punjab•It is influenced by any •It is the collective effect ofone of its predominant all its elementselements like temperatureor humidity
  • Natural Vegetation22 and Wildlife EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To appreciate the need for conserving natural vegetation and wildlifeTextbook: Refer to pages Vegetation zone – It is a natural division of the forestTime required: 3 periods where common species are found. It is mainly influenced by the climatic conditions.VOCABULARY Forest Research Institute – It is at Dehra Dun in Uttarakhand where they do research on naturalGreed strong wish to get something more, especially food or money vegetation and train people to take care of forest. Amphibians – Cold blooded animals which can liveRainforest thick forests growing in areas with heavy rainfall both on land and water.Deciduous Trees hardwood trees Mammals – A warm blooded animal that has hairConiferous Trees softwood trees or fur.Alpine Meadows pastures in high mountainous region TEACHING POINTSDestruction the action of destroyingPreserve keep in its original state Pre-Instructional ActivityRestore return to a previous condition Assessment – 1DEFINITIONS Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupTreeline – The altitude above which trees cannot Assessment; Tool – Presentation and Oral grow AssessmentSnowline – The altitude beyond which snow never (a) You will find a lot of pictures of India’s fauna at melts the following link:Tidal Forest – It is a forest along the delta of rivers • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fauna_of_India due to mixing of fresh water from rivers and salt water from sea. (b) Use the search engine in the website www.Project Tiger – A project to conserve and protect tigers wikipedia.org to find pictures of India’s in their natural surrounding. vegetation.Project Rhino – A project to conserve and protect (c) Make a slideshow of these pictures which you can rhinos in their natural surrounding. use while explaining the lesson in class.Biosphere Reserves – An area where forests and wildlife are protected in their natural (d) Have a physical map of India displayed at all times surrounding. to point out the regions of India’s vegetation.
  • 139 TEACHER’S MANUALA. Introduction(a) List the main types of natural vegetation found in India.• Tropical Evergreen Forests • Tropical Deciduous Forests • Thorn and Scrub Forests• Tidal Forests • Mountain vegetationB. Features of the Natural Vegetation(a) Use a tabular format to explain the main features of each type of vegetation Vegetation Type Rainfall Areas Trees Mahogany, Ebony Tropical Evergreen More than 200 cm Western Ghats and Rosewood Forests (Rainforests) (Find pictures in Ganga Plain Shiwalik Range Teak, sal, Tropical Deciduous Eastern slopes of Western 150 to 200 cm sandalwood, Forest (Monsoon Forests) Ghats Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, bamboo Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand Punjab Plains Gujarat and Thorn and Scrub Forests Less than 50 cm Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Kikar, babul, cacti Dry parts of Deccan Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta, Tidal Forests 100 cm Delta of Mahanadi, Godavari, Sundari Tree Krishna and Kaveri Pine, silver fir, Mountain Vegetation – Himalayan Ranges deodar and spruceC. Wildlife in India Tiger at http://projecttiger.nic.in/kidslogin.asp.(a) Show the slideshow of wildlife in India. They can read stories, become members and learn(b) Discuss the various species of wildlife found in more about the campaign. India. • Start a nature club in your school. Learn more at(c) Discuss the importance of preserving wildlife in the following link: India. http://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/what_ we_do/education/n_c/• Construction of biosphere reserves, national parks • Celebrate Wildlife week with awareness and sanctuaries in India.• Project Tiger and Project Rhino to protect programmes, campaigns, poster making endangered species. competitions etc.• The first week of October every year is celebrated Recapitulation and Summary as Wildlife Week. • India is a land of great biodiversity.Assessment – 2 • There are five main types of natural vegetation inPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group India.Assessment; Tool – Thematic Project • India also has a wide variety of fauna.Fun with Geography! • The protection of biodiversity is very important.• Ask students to visit the kids section of Project
  • 140 TEACHER’S MANUALSummative Assessment 1 4. Match the following: Column A Column BKEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES Tiger reserves 271. Answer in one or two sentences : Species of mammals 372a. Which is the main factor that affects the nature Gir Forest Lion of natural vegetation in the Himalayas? Bengal Tiger Sunderbans The main factor that influences the vegetation in the Himalayas is altitude. As one goes higher, the 5. Distinguish between the following. Use temperature falls, and so the plants and type of a tabular form vegetation also changes. a) Snowline and Treelineb. Name two areas where tropical rainforest Snowline Treeline grow. It is found at a eight It is found at a eight Tropical rainforests are found in the Western of 4400 metres. of 3500 metres. Ghats and the North eastern hills. At the snowline, At the treeline, treesc. Which is the largest area of tidal forest in now never melts. are not able to grow. India? The Sunderbans is the largest area of tidal forests in India. b) Coniferous and Deciduous vegetationd. How much rainfall is experienced in regions of Coniferous Vegetation thorn and scrub forests? Snowline Treeline Scrub and thorn forests receive less than 50 cm of This vegetation is This vegetation is rainfall. found at an altitude found at an altitudee. What are the uses of forests? of 1800 to 3500 of 1000 metres. Forests have many uses: metres.• They provide timber and other forest products The main trees The main trees found such as resin, honey, gums etc found are pine, are sal, bamboo and• They attract rain silver fir and teak.• They conserve soil and control floods deodar.• They provide a habitat for wildlife It is difficult to cut It is easy to cut down f. What efforts has the government made to protect down these trees these trees because wildlife in India? because they are they are found at found at great lower slopes. The Government of India has banned hunting of heights. wildlife. In addition, they have also set up wildlife sanctuaries, bio reserves and national parks, all over the country. Project Tiger and Project Rhino Summative Assessment 2 have been undertaken.2. Mark True or False against the following ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS statements: 1. Fill in the blanks: a. True b. False c. False d. True e. False a. The Forest Research Institute is located in Dehra3. Fill in the blanks with suitable words : Dun. a. Chiru Goat b. Peacock c. Chestnut and Oak b. The Sundarbans is famous for Royal Bengal d. Rainforest e. boat making Tiger.
  • 141 TEACHER’S MANUALc. The snow leopard is found in extreme height of b. What are the major categories of Natural Himalayas. Vegetation in India?d. The Gir National Park is a home for Asiatic i. The Tropical Evergreen Lion. ii. The Deciduous Foreste. Elephants are found in Assam and Nilgiris while iii. Thorn and scrubs forest Rhinoceros are found only in Assam. iv. Tidal forest andf. India has 372 species of mammals, 1278 species v. Mountain vegetation of birds, 446 species of reptiles and 204 species of c. What is tidal forest? amphibians This type of forest is common in the deltas of2. Answer the following: all major Indian rivers. The fresh water of the a. What is natural vegetation? river and the salty water of the sea mixed during It is the natural growth of plants without any the high tide. This creates a swampy condition interference or help from human activity. suitable for growth of such forest. Sundarbans is the largest tidal forest where Sundari tree is a typical variety.3. Complete the following table: Natural VegetationSr.No. Type of Forest Rainfall Areas where it is found Species1. Tropical Evergreen More than 200 Western Ghats, North eastern Hills Mahogany, Ebony, cm and Andaman & Nicobar Islands Rosewood2. Tropical Deciduous 100 -200 cm Most of Ganga Plain, Shiwalik Range, Teak, Sal, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Sandalwood, Parts of Orrisa, Madhya Pradesh, Bamboo Chattisgarh and Jharkhand3. Thorn and scrub Less than 50 The plains of Punjab, Parts of Gujarat Kikar or babul cm and Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and drier part of Deccan4. Tidal forest Average Delta regions of all main Indian rivers Sundari is the well such as Ganga-Bramhaputra delta, known species of Mahanadi, Godavari Krishna and Sundarbans Kaveri Delta Mountain VegetationSr.No. Type of Forest Height Species1. Tropical deciduous forests 1000 metres Bamboo and Sal2. Subtropical mixed deciduous 1800 metres Chestnut and Oak and coniferous forests3. Coniferous forests Between 1800 to 3500 metres Pine, Silver fir, Deodar and Spruce4. Alpine meadows Beyond 3500 metres but Variety of scrubs and bushes upto 4400 metres along with grassland
  • Understanding23 Diversity LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To enable students to understand and appreciate various forms of diversity in their everyday environments • To develop a sensitivity towards pluralism and interdependence • To understand how prejudice can lead to discrimination • To understand the difference between diversity and inequality • To recognize that there are multiple identities within ourselves that we use in different contexts and that these can come into conflict with each other • To understand that the constitution compels us to respect diversityTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned A point or respect in which things differ.Time required: 5 periods 2. Variety or Multiformity – „Charles Darwin saw in the diversity of species the principles of evolution thatVOCABULARY operated to generate the species: variation, competition and selection‰ (Scientific American)Diversity variationCustom tradition a. Economic factors – The basic elements affectingBelief principle financial matters such as labour, interest rates,Bid say government policy, management and taxation.Delicious tasty b. Caste system – The Indian caste system describesFactors features the social stratification and social restrictions inIntermingling mixing the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes areDisaster catastrophe defined by thousands of endogamous hereditaryFeature quality groups, often termed as jatis or castes.Remarkable noteworthyUnited together c. Gender – Gender comprises a range of differencesBrief short between men and women, extending from the biological to the socialDEFINITIONS d. Heritage – Something that is passed down fromDiversity – The fact or quality of being diverse; preceding generations; a tradition. different
  • 143 TEACHER’S MANUALTEACHING POINTS Assessment – 3 Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment;Assessment – 1 Tool – Group DiscussionPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Discuss (Page 179)Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment a) Sukhpreet is a bold girl, she is an extrovert. SheWhat is diversity? is not intimidated by the new environment. AsahDiversity exists in our everyday environment. The is quiet, shy and calm. Zainab, however, is ateacher could use a few pictures of pampered child, used to having her own way. Probably, she throws tantrums to manipulate a) Diverse peoples her parents. b) Scenes from rural and urban life b) Sukhpreet has dimple and long hair which was c) Flora and fauna found in the northern regions neatly tied into a plait. Asah has short, straight and southern regions of India etc. Anything black hair, a pale face, narrow eyes and a lovely to enable students to point out that there smile. are DIFFERENECES between/among the c) The children wore identical clothes—the school pictures. These differences are an indication of uniform, parents wore different types of attire. DIVERSITY, which is the key word. d) Sukhpreet’s father wore a turban indicatingAssessment – 2 he was a Sikh. Asah’s description enables youPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group to realize that she is from the north-east “SheAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment looked very different from the others.” She hadIdentifying diversity ‘narrow eyes’. Zainab addresses her mother as ammi. She is a Muslim.The exercises in the yellow box could be undertakenin class. Economic and Social differencesThe students should be able to identify the facts You could point out to the students how, in a schoolthat situation, the group formed are reflection of diversity.a) No two students are the same. Students could for a change sit with their friends. Ab) Yardsticks to classify people are not the same few probing questions would enable students not onlyc) Each, as an individual, has multiple identities on to recognize but also to verbalize these differences. the basis of the yardsticks used to classify themd) Realize the inevitable fact that, no matter how Assessment – 4 different, each depend on the other Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; Tool – Group Discussione) Variety lead to the richness of the class character 1. Name your friends. 2. Find out the states to which they belong.The students too, would be able to derive conclusions,besides realizing the fact that it is difficult to divide 3. Which religion do they follow? What is the namestudents into water-tight compartments of study. The of their place of worship?motive is to encourage the thought process. There is 4. Which language is spoken at home?great diversity among people.A reading of the recollections should strike a chord. 5. Is the food that they eat, different from yours inStudents could be encouraged to recount a similar any way?experience. The motive of the extract is to help the 6. Do they celebrate any festival distinct fromstudents to identify the various differences that exist yours?in all likelihood among children at this age.
  • 144 TEACHER’S MANUALThe responses may be varied depending upon e) This division created a ranking system ofthe social composition of the class. Yet, these are people, So that some enjoyed a high positiondifferences that children do not take note of. Since and some a low one.these constitute the very cause for discord and conflict 2. Society had built a division between men andin society, it is essential to analyze diversity even women by deciding their status and role. This ledfurther. to gender differences e.g. the man would earn,Question : Are you different?/Are you the woman would stay at home and look after similar? the children, the old and the sick. The men wouldThe response : “Yes” / No enjoy, naturally a higher position, and woman anQuestion : Did this difference come in the way inferior one. of your relationship?/ Did they 3. The students have the knowledge that social prevent you from getting closer? differences exist among people. But this leads toThe response : “No” a further division — a more harmful one. PeopleQuestion : Are there any differences you who enjoy a low position cannot enjoy all the have observed that make you feel facilities the state gives to the people. They are that differences did not create poor because they cannot get equal control of the closeness among people?/presented wealth of society. Women do not work because closeness among people? society does not favour.Responses : Rich look down upon the poor… Hence, social differences lead to economic may be “teachers favouring intelligent differences which deny some people, the students.” etc. The student here has opportunity to develop at par with the others. to be familiarized with the caste system and gender differences about Assessment – 5 which students at this age are not Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; exactly familiar. Tool – Group DiscussionThe teacher could, in brief, narrate Dr B.R. Ambedkar’s The wealth of societychildhood experience given on page 188. The students can be asked to visualize wealth asHe/She could give students time to reflect. money that belong to the society. They can be askedA popular serial on television based on social issues, a few questions.for example ‘Balika Vadhu’ could be used to highlight a) Who do you think owns this money – men orthe issue of gender bias. (Note: the difference in women?treatment of Anandi, the main protagonist, and her Ans: Men dohusband Jadhishia) b) Why?They i.e. the students could be asked to comment on Ans: Because they workboth.Thus they should know: c) Do all men own the money?1.a) The caste system as a practice prevalent only Ans: Poor men do not own money. in India. d) Why? b) It led to a division of people into groups. Ans: Some do not work. Some do work which is not c) These groups were organized in a hierarchy on considered good. the basis of a job done by them. In this way they The consequence is a difference among people on all depended upon each other. the basis of economic factors. Opportunities of access d) This system was dictated by birth. A person’s to health, wealth, education and power are deiced choice of job was determined by the family he/ to them. she was born into.
  • 145 TEACHER’S MANUALReasons for diversity in India i) Wide expanse and diverse geography impactMain points: flora, fauna, people, livelihood, food habits, dress habits, etc.• Geography – gave rise to a unique culture. ii) Invasions in the past leading to a rich blend of• Natural wars and disasters exposed people to various cultures, traditions and languages. external influences. iii) Multiple religions co-exist in India.Effect of diversity Knowledge from history and geography could help students identify distinctive facts about India,Main points: that it is a Kaleidoscope of colours, not uniform• It enriched our way of life or monotonous.• It showed peoples’ capacity to adapt and adopt b) Songs associated with the freedom struggle In Text Question (Page 181) Students sing several such songs at the time of assembly.Assessment – 6Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group 1. Bande MataramAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment 2. Mohe rang de basanti cholaCan you name any three famous classical dance 3. Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hain –forms found in India? Where did they originate? Ramprasad Bismil 4. Odi lla yaad papa – Subrahmaniam BharatiThree classical dance forms 5. Kadam-Kadam milayija – Netaji (INA) • Kathak – North India • Bharatanatyam – South India (esp Tamil c) Origin of the Indian National Flag and the Nadu) Indian National Anthem. • Manipuri – North east India The National Flag of India was adopted in itsIn Text Questions (Page 181) present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947,All of you must have seen a picture of the Taj Mahal. twenty-four days before India’s independenceCan you identify the different styles used in it ? Where from the British on 15 August 1947. The nationaldid those features come from ? flag, adopted in 1947, is based on the flag of the • Taj Mahal – it is an amalgamation of many Indian National Congress, designed by Pingali influences. Venkayya. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of • Indo – Islamic, Persian and Turkish influences. “deep saffron” at the top, white in the middle, Identify one language spoken in India which and green at the bottom. Jana Gana Mana grew as a result of foreign influence. (Bengali: ÊÚ ·Ì ˜Ú Jôno Gôno Mono) is the national • Urdu anthem of India. Written in highly SanskritizedOur struggle for freedom Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo • Our struggle formed the basis for unity hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate • People fought against unjust British rule to create Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the a new India. Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress • Songs and symbols united the people on 27 December 1911. The song was adopted as the school song by the Doon School in 1935. Jana GanaSummative Assessment 1 Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem onKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES January 24, 1950.[1]the bottom.1. Answer the following questions: d) India is a land of unity in diversity.a) ‘The diversity in India enriches life.’ People speaking different languages, following Discussion points. different religions, belonging to different regions,
  • 146 TEACHER’S MANUAL eating different food – no matter how different Q 2. Write a note on the festivals of the Buddhists. they are, people in India are one. Buddhists have festivals centered on Buddha e) Heritage is something I have inherited from my and the Bodhisattvas. It is said that most of ancestors. I have an individuality. My personality the festivals were started by Buddha himself. is shaped by several influences that make me what However, in India, one doesn’t see much of I am. The religion I follow, the language I speak, the hype centered on these festivals as in other the region to which I belong, my caste group… religions. Festivals are more religious and each of these determine my character. spiritual than social in nature. The festivals are2. Fill in the blanks: a way of reminding themselves of the righteous path they need to follow. a) diversity b) geographical Festivals c) inequality d) classroom • Buddha Purnima • Hemis Gompa e) transport and communication • Losar • Ullambana3. Try this activity: Q 3. Write a note on the festivals of the Sikhs.Summative Assessment 2 The Sikhs celebrate their festivals in their own individual ways along with some of the majorADDITIONAL QUESTIONS festivals of the Hindus like Holi, Dusshera and Diwali. The festivals unique to the Sikhs haveESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS little to do with worship of God. Instead, theQ 1. Draw up a list of the different festivals events celebrate the achievements in the lives celebrated in your locality. Which of these of the 10 Sikh gurus and their teachings who celebrations are shared by members of different is the most important person in Sikhism. The regional and religious communities? birthdays of the first and the last gurus, Guru RELIGION WISE LIST Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh, are celebrated Hindu Festivals with all the pomp of festivals. • Holi • Makar Sankranti Bhakti is central to the religion and therefore • Lohri • Pongal most of their festivities are accompanied by lot of music and song. Its festivals are marked by the • Maha Shivratri • Vasant Panchami singing of gurbani or holy songs, and readings • Ram Navami • Guru Purnima from the holy book. • Rath Yatra • Ganesh Chaturthi Festivals: • Onam • Janmashtami • Guru Nanak Jayanti • Guru Purab • Raksha Bandhan • Navratra • Holla Mohalla • Lohri • Dusshera • Karva Chauth Q 4. Write a note on the festivals of Sindhis. • Diwali • Bhai Dooj • Govardhan Puja • Name of the festival: Chaliho Christian Festivals Place and community: Chailo or Chailo Sahib is a festival of the Sindhi Community. • Christmas • Easter Month: Chailo Sahib is a forty day fast observed • Good Friday by the Sindhis in the months of July-August. Muslim Festivals They pray to Lord Jhulelal for forty days and • Muharram • Id-ul-Zuha (Bakri-id) after the fast is over they celebrate the occasion • Shab-I-Barat • Id-ul-Fitr (Ramzan Id) as Thanks Giving Day with lots of gusto and festivities. • Milad-Un-Nabi • Barawafat Background: Mirkshah Badshah, a Muslim • Giaravahin Sharif invader of Sindh was a tyrant and a religious
  • 147 TEACHER’S MANUAL fanatic. He troubled the people of Thatta and Year which falls on the same day as that of wanted them to convert to Islam. The Hindus Gudi Padwa which is the New Year day in prayed to Varun Devta or the God of Water by Maharashtra and Ugadi in Karnataka and observing penance on the banks of the river for Andhra Pradesh. Cheti Chand is celebrated in forty days. On the fortieth day, Varun Devta honor of the birth of Jhulelal, the patron saint heard their prayers and promised them to save of the Sindhis. It is celebrated with pomp and them from the tyrant. The answer to the prayers gaiety by the Sindhi Community. Many people of the Hindus was Jhulelal. Since majority of the take Baharana Sahib consisiting of Jyot, Misiri, population of Thatta was of Sindhi Community, Phota, Fal, Akha to the nearby river. An idol of Chailo Sahib became a festival of the Sindhis. Jhulelal Devta is also carried along. • Activities: In order to thank God for rescuing On Sindhi New Year day if you want to wish a them from the hands of the tyrant, the Sindhis Sindhu a Happy New Year, you can say “Cheti observe Chailo Sahib even today with all Chand jyon Lakh Lakh Wadayun Athav”. In devotion and faith. During those forty days, the response the other person can wish you “Tohan following rules are followed by all Sindhis: khe bhi Cheti Chand jyon Lakh Lakh Wadayun Athav”. • No sleeping on bed, but on floor • Avoiding consumption of white items like Q 5. Write a note on the Festivals of the Jains. rice, curd or milk The Jains celebrate several festivals all round • No fried eatables the year. The festivals are connected with the • No shaving or cutting hair births and deaths of the Tirthankaras. The • Avoiding non-vegetarian food important festivals are Paryushana practised by • Wearing simple clothes the Svetambara sect of the Jains, Mahavir Jayanti • No use of soap or oil is celebrated as the birth anniversary of Mahavir • No wearing leather belts or shoes and Mahamastak Abhishek meaning ‘the • The fast begins by tying a sacred thread by the grand ceremonial head anointing of Bahubali’ Poojari. People lead a “brahmacharya” way of celebrated in the town of Shravanabelagola in life and every morning Akho ie. rice and sugar Karnataka. are offered during morning prayers. During the Festivals: evening devotees attend kirtan in the temples. • Mahavir Jayanti • Paryushana One can keep a fast for the first 10 days, 21 days • Mahamastak Abhishek • Deep Diwali or 40 days according to one’s capacity. After Q 6. Write a note on the Parsi Festivals. completion of forty days, on the forty-first day Parsi community is a relatively small community Bahirana Sahib is worshiped and a procession in India compared to Hindus, Parsis or Christians. is taken out. They mostly are concentrated in Gujarat and Sindhis always greet each other with “Jhulelal Mumbai. It is precisely because of its small Bera-Hee-Paar” signifying that with the blessings number that Parsi festivals are not visible. The of Lord Jhulelal the boat they will overcome all Zoroastrian religion is founded on the three challenges and hardships. tenets of ‘Good thoughts, good words and good • Name of the Festival: Cheti Chand deeds. ‘ The Zoroastrians are particular and careful about their religion and their festivals Place or Community: Cheti Chand is Sindhi are also structured to reflect the chief aims of New Year and celebrated by the Sindhis all Zoroastrianism. around the world. Festivals Month: Cheti Chand is observed on the first • Gahambars day of the month of Chaitra. Chaitra is known • Jamshed Navroz (Parsi New Year) as Cheti in Sindhi, hence Cheti Chand. • Khordad Sal Description: Cheti Chand is Sindhi New • Zarthost No Deeso
  • 148 TEACHER’S MANUALQ 7. Choose two regions in India and conduct a with bringing Christianity to India. Many Arab study of the historical and geographical factors traders also came and settled down here. Ibn that influence the diversity found there. Are Battuta, who travelled here a little less than these historical and geographical factors seven hundred years ago, wrote a travelogue in connected to each other? How? which he describes the lives of Muslims and says Let us try to understand what we mean when that they were a highly respected community. we say that historical and geographical factors The Portuguese discovered the sea route to India influence the diversity of a region. We can do from Europe whenVasco da Gama landed with this by reading about life in two different parts his ship here. Due to all these various historical of the country, Kerala and Ladakh. influences, people in Kerala practise different religions such as Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Ladakh is a desert in the mountains in the Hinduism and Buddhism. The fishing nets used eastern part of Jammu and Kashmir. Very little here look exactly like the Chinese fishing nets agriculture is possible here since this region does and are called cheena-vala. Even the utensil not receive any rain and is covered in snow for used for frying is called the cheenachatti, and a large part of the year. There are very few trees it is believed that the word ‘cheen’ could have that can grow in the region. For drinking water, come from China. The fertile land and climate people depend on the melting snow during the are suited to growing rice and a majority of summer months. People here keep sheep and people here eat rice, fish and vegetables. sheep in this region are special because they produce pashmina wool. This wool is prized Q 8. Find out which is the poem sung after the and pashmina shawls cost a lot of money. The Jallianwalla massacre, which according to you, people in Ladakh carefully collect the wool of reflects India’s essential unity. the sheep and sell this to traders from Kashmir. The poem is Pashmina shawls are chiefly woven in Kashmir. DonÊt forget the days of blood, O friend The people eat meat and milk products like In the midst of your happiness remember to shed a cheese and butter. Each family owns some goats, tear for us cows and dzos (yak-cows). The hunter has torn away every single flower Being a desert did not mean that Ladakh did not attract its share of traders. It was considered a Do plant a flower in the desert garden dear friend good trade route as it had many passes through Having fallen to bullets we slept in Jallianwalla which caravans travelled to what is today called Bagh Tibet. These caravans carried textiles and spices, Do light a lamp on this lonely grave O friend raw silk and carpets. The blood of Hindus and Muslims flows together Kerala is a state in the southwest corner of today India. It is surrounded by the sea on oneside Do soak your robe in this river of blood dear friend and hills on the other. A number of spices like Some rot in jails while others lie in their graves pepper,cloves and cardamoms are grown on the hills. It is spices that made this region an Do shed a few tears for them O friend. attractive place for traders. Jewish and Arab Q 9. Who coined the phrase, “unity in diversity” to traders were the first to come here. The Apostle describe the country? of Christ, St. Thomas is believed to have come Nehru, coined the phrase, “unity in diversity” here nearly 2000 years ago and he is credited to describe the country.
  • Diversity and24 Discrimination LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To enable students to understand development of stereotypes and prejudices. • To make students realize the negative effects of discrimination and inequality on the progress and development of a country • To enable students understand our struggle for freedom and our striving for equalityTextbook: Refer to pages Prejudice – Prejudice is an opinion about some orTime required: 5 periods something not based on reason or experience. Untouchability – It is a practice in which people are discriminated on the basis of their caste or socialVOCABULARY background.Diversity varietyConstitution instrument of government TEACHING POINTSPreamble prefaceIndignity humiliation Assessment – 1Squat sit on your heels Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentLiberty freedomFraternity brotherhood Main pointsEquality fairness The opening extract makes students aware of theJustice impartiality fact that stereotypes and prejudices play a very important role in their lives.Dalit outcasteInequality disparity Stereotypes and prejudicesDiscrimination bias • A stereotype is a fixed idea or image that manyBackward hesitant people have of a particular type of thing or personCaste social group but which is often not true. • We tend to judge people according to beliefsDEFINITIONS and patterns of behaviour with which we are familiar.Stereotype – Stereotype is a fixed idea that many people have of a particular type of thing or person • Disharmony is the result of discrimination which but which is often not true. arises because we look down upon others.
  • 150 TEACHER’S MANUALPrejudices Discrimination and inequality• It is an opinion about someone or something which • Prejudices and inequality lead to denial of is not based on reason or experiences. opportunities to people and their backwardness.• It leads to unfair behaviour. • The grounds for discrimination are religion, race,• All the statements given are incorrect. They are caste, sex and even wealth leads to discrimination based on prejudices. among people. • Discrimination is a denial of the essence ofSince, they are based on prejudices we must know democracy as it prevents brotherhood amongmore about the culture of other people. people.Creating stereotypes DiscriminationMake students read the extract and analyse thepictures that accompany it. Assessment – 3 Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment;Assessment – 2 Tool – Group DiscussionPurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; In Text Questions (Page 187)Tool – Group Discussion Why do you think all eyes are on the writer?In Text Questions (Page 186) • The girl is not like the rest.What made Zainab feel worthless and helpless after she Point out the words in the poem which show the attitudesaw the pictures? of other people. • Zainab did not like dolls. She wanted to become • ‘snickers, sheers and laughter, discrimination too a pilot. taunted from on after…’ There lines indicate theThe pictures tried to convey a particular message. What attitude of other people towards the girl.is it? Why do you think the others ignore the writer, even• The pictures depicted women in traditional roles. though she is not in pain? What is the pain she suffers Mother working in the kitchen implied that a from ? woman’s place is at home. Asha playing with • The fact that the girl is not like the rest makes dolls, conveyed the idea that she must play the them ignore her, even though she is in pain. role of a nurturer, like her mother. Her brother The pain of being different – She could be of a must emulate the behaviour of their father, as is different colour or country. did not from the game he plays. What is the question the writer asks at the end of theHad you illustrated the book, what changes would you poem ?have made? • If everybody belonged to one nation she wonders• Probably, not depicted men and women in why discrimination is being carried out against traditional roles. her.How have things changed now? Can discrimination be defended on any reasonable grounds ? • Women aim for professions now, which in the past were completely dominated by men. • No. • Women play hockey, cricket, football now. Assessment – 4 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupConclusion Assessment; Tool – Group Discussion and Written• Prejudices lead to backwardness of some groups Work and take away from them opportunities of growth. Sit in groups of four. Try to find out examples of discrimination around you. Identify the reasons for• In the absence of an opportunity, people are not discrimination. Write a short speech urging students not able to show their potentials. to discriminate against anyone
  • 151 TEACHER’S MANUAL • Among students the Our struggle for freedom and equality grounds for discrimination are Main points a) wealth • Our struggle was a united struggle to fight not b) colour only c) intelligence a) colonialism but also d) material possessionsAllow the students to write a speech in group in b) for equality.class. A leader of the group can then give the speech • Hopes of the people were enshrined in thein class. preamble • Democratic declarations do not lead to a democraticDiscrimination and the Caste system state. People too must be tolerant in their attitudes• Caste system was the division of people into and must value equality. groups on the basis of occupations.• This led to a hierarchy. Some were divided a Striving for equality place in the caste structure because they did work Main points which was polluting nature. Hence they were the • Equal rights and opportunities have been granted outcastes. They are today known as the scheduled to people. castes/dalits. • Untouchablity is an offence. People who practice• Dr BR Ambedkar was a prominent dalit leader. it will be punished. • Government jobs are open to all.Assessment – 5Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; • Government protects the marginalised.Tool – Group Discussion • Freedom of religion is given to all. India is a diverse country.In text Questions (p 188) • Inspite all these features, India has not been ableHow was Dr Ambedkar made to sit in class ? to exterminate inequality.• He was made to sit in a corner all by himself. • People must be tolerant and support governmentGive two instances from school to show that discrimination measures to uplift the backward.was carried out against him. • Change is possible only if we change ourselves1. The separate piece of gunny cloth on which he squatted was not touched even by the servant first. who cleaned the school. Assessment – 62. He could not touch the tap when he was thirsty. A touchable person had to open the tap. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – ProjectHow did you react when you read about these incidents ? • It should shock the students. Project Work (page 189)Give two examples of discrimination that Dr Ambedkar Do as instructed.faced at home.1. No washermen washed their clothes so his Summative Assessment 1 sisters washed them.2. His hair was also cut by his sister as no barber KEY TO TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS would cut his hair.How do you think these incidents influenced Dr 1. Answer the following questions:Ambedkar ? a. What is a prejudice? • Probably these incidents made him determined Prejudice is an opinion about some or something to prove that he had potentials surpassing a not based on reason or experience. touchable.
  • 152 TEACHER’S MANUALb. Give some negative consequences of prejudice. 1. Spreading awareness amongst people by mass The negative consequences of prejudices are: media 1. It may lead to conflict in society. 2. Giving equal treatment to all. 2. Fill in the blanks : 2. Destruction of peace 3. It may hamper growth and development. (a) Untouchability (b) Race, caste and genderc. How does prejudice lead to discrimination? (c) Prejudices and Stereotypes It is because of preconceived notions and misconceptions that people discriminate in a (d) Equality society. (e) Seculard. You may have come across other stereotypes in daily life. Recall them. You could especially try SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT 2 to analyze advertisements to find out how they use a stereotype to give a message. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS For example, discrimination on the basis of gender. 1. Which language is our national language ?e. Why does stereotyping lead to backwardness Our national language is Hindi. of certain groups? Support your answer with 2. What are communal riots ? examples from daily life. People killing each other in the name of religion, Due to preconceived notions and misconceptions is called communal riots. people deny equal opportunities to others and 3. Explain briefly the term ‘unity in diversity’. because of this deprivation some groups are marginalised and they become backward. For In spite of following different beliefs and lifestyles, example, dalits are denied equal opportunities. the spirit of belonging to the same country is called Unity in Diversity.f. What are scheduled castes? 4. What does diversity add to our lives? Scheduled castes are the marginalised groups that are provided benefits of reservations by the state Diversity adds a lot of things in human lives. of India. Different kinds of food, different festivals, different languages from different parts of Indiag. Discrimination of both kinds would be faced give a new look to the people about the rich by certain regions, some religious groups, and heritage of India. tribals. Go to your library. Read newspapers and magazines and identify examples of each. 5. What do you mean by inequality? Give an Complete a list and discuss in class. example. Class activity Inequality means imbalance of availability of the resources and opportunities for different people.h. Mention provisions given in the Constitution The caste system is an example of inequality. which promote equality. 6. What do you mean by equality ? The provisions are as follows: Equality means all men are equal to be protected 1. Reservations for backward classes by law; all are free to follow their religion, 2. Untouchability is made a punishable offence. language, and festivals and to express themselvesi. What would you suggest to create a society where freely. Everyone has freedom to do work of their there is no prejudice and discrimination? You own choice. There is no discrimination on the could write a poem to express your thoughts. grounds of religion, caste, language, gender or The following measures can be taken: birth.
  • 153 TEACHER’S MANUAL7. Explain briefly caste system in our country. 8. Write a short note on Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar. In the caste system, the people were placed in a Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar (1891-1956) is considered sort of social ladder. Those who placed themselves as the father of the Indian constitution and was also at the top of this ladder were called upper castes, the well-known leader of the Dalits. He fought for and others who were at the bottom were called the rights of the Dalit community. His initiation lower caste people. led to end untouchability and discrimination with Dalits. He also urged the Dalits to take up education and get different kinds of government jobs. Later in his life he converted to Buddhism because it was the religion based on equality. He asked Dalits to fight against caste system and for respect of all.
  • What is25 Government? LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To acquire an understanding of why a government is required • To recognise the need for universal adult franchiseTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned Central Government – The government at the centre,Time required: 3 periods making policies that have to be followed uniformly throughout the country. State Government – The government at the state level,VOCABULARY making policies applicable within its jurisdiction.Government administration Local Government – The lowest level of government,Implementation execution entrusted with welfare functions.Authority power/InfluenceMonarchy rule of king/queenHereditary inherited/Transmissible TEACHING POINTSUnion merger IntroductionResources assets/CapitalRepresentative delegate (a) The students must understand the meaning andLegislature parliament significance of the term government.Executive administrative (b) They must know the importance of rules and regulations in our life.DEFINITIONS (c) They will also learn about the types of government,Term of government – The period for which a different organs and levels of government in particular government is elected. India and the importance of right to vote in aDemocracy – A form of government by the people, of democracy. the people and for the people.Representative democracy – A form of government Assessment – 1 Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group where decisions are taken by delegates, elected by Assessment; Tool – Group Discussion the people, on their behalf.Universal Adult Franchise – A right that enables all Rules in our life: the adult citizens to vote. The text starts with an extract that describes a classChartist Movement – A movement by the room situation. Ask students to read it. This should British workforce in 1832 for getting political be followed by a discussion. concessions.
  • 155 TEACHER’S MANUALDiscuss (Page 191) Organs of governmentWhy are rules and regulations necessary? Illustrate the composition of the government on theTo maintain order in a class, rules and regulations black board through this diagram. Organs of Governmentare necessary.Who maintains discipline in your class ?In the absence of the teacher, the monitor maintains Legislature Executive Judiciarydiscipline in the class. (It makes laws. Laws (It implements (It gives justice to the are made or puts into people. It protectsHow is discipline maintained ? practice all the people against unjust • to satisfy the general laws made by rule and sees that theThe teachers/monitors are given the authority. people the legislature.) government is carriedThey can exercise power to ensure that rules and • to regulate the out according to the behavior of the people) laws of the land.)regulations are followed by the students. They canpunish students, when, they do not follow rules. Assessment – 3Need for a government Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/GroupHighlight the following points and explain each one Assessment; Tool – Group Discussionof them. Discuss (Page 192) • It is essential to have leaders to bring about • Mr. Pyarelal will be punished by the police. The cooperation among people. Leaders prevent police form a part of the executive branch of the conflict. Kings were leaders in the past. government. • As population grew, life became more complex • The law is not in accordance with the constitution. and as a result interdependence among people The girls will get protection from the judiciary. increased. • Patterns of government changed. Ultimately this Levels of government in India gave rise to a government of the people. It is important for children to visualize the several • Government thus is either a person, or a group subdivisions into which a territory is divided. of people who rule the country. They can be asked to look at a map of India andFunctions of the government identify the number of states and union territories into which it is divided.Assessment – 2 Each state is further divided into smaller units knownPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group as districtsAssessment; Tool – Mind MappingHave a mind mapping activity with the class on thefunctions performed by the government, explainingeach point. It protects the boundaries of It manages the Each box indicates a district. It maintains law the country resources of and order the people Districts are composed of cities (large towns), towns and villages. It works for the Three levels of government are found in India It brings about What the development welfare of the in the country Government people Central/Union Government does It extends It builds roads, cooperation with bridges and other countries and provides transport It undertakes maintains relations to people relief measures at with the M the time calamity strikes
  • 156 TEACHER’S MANUALIt is located in Delhi. It takes decisions for thewhole country and establishes relations with other Post Monarchy Present Democraticcountries. • [A king and Queen • P e o p l e c h o s e t h e i rState government ruled. When the government at the time ofEach state has a government of its own. Decisions ruler died, his./ elections.made by it apply only to the people, living in that her. •They control theirstate. • Although they had g o v e r n m e n t . S o , t h i s advisors to guide government is responsibleLocal self-government t h e m , t h e y t o o k to the people who chose it.It is found in the cities, towns and villages of India. their won decisions] • T h e y r e m o v e i t f r o mLocal self-government involves people living in cities, Today, however, power if they are unhappytowns and villages. They take decisions related to many kings have at the way it functions.matters that concern them. power only in name. • The government has aEach government has power. This power has been They have to follow term. A term is a periodgiven to it by the constitution of the land. the advice given to for which it must last. them by their In India it is for 5 years.Assessment – 4 ministers. This period must neitherPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group be too much or too little.Assessment; Tool – Group Discussion It must just be sufficientIn-text Questions (Pages 192 – 193) for the government to prove its worth to the people.Which level of government will take decision related tosanitation in your city? Assessment – 5This decision related to sanitation will be taken by Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Groupthe local government. Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentA lot of money and technical help is required to start a In-text Questions (Page 193)project in India, such as building dams or constructing Name some countries which have monarchs. Are thewaterways. Help is required from a foreign country. Which monarchs in those countries powerful ?What kind of rolegovernment will enter into talks with the government of do they play ?a foreign country to get help? Britain. No, the King/Queen has powers only forIt is only the central government that can enter into namesake.relations with other countries of the world. In 2006, violence broke out in a neighbouring countryWith whom will you talk a foreign power to check on of India. The people fought to reduce the powers of theterrorists from troubling the country? monarch and to bring about reforms. Name the country. Also try to find out the kind of changes that have takenThis is the function of the Central government. place.A law is passed by the government of Bihar. To whom Nepal. Nepal again faces a constitutional crisis. Thewill the law apply? 8 month old Maoist government resigned and theThe law passed by the government of Bihar will PM wanted the Maoist rebels to be absorbed in therelate only to the people living within the state. army. The Army chief refused. The PM felt that it was undemocratic on the part of the President to stopTypes of Government the government from sacking the army chief.There are many types of governments found all over Rights in a democracythe world. Emphasise the requisites of a democracy to the students.
  • 157 TEACHER’S MANUAL • Most countries have a representative democracy. Ask students to read the reasons listed in the book. This means that people do not rule directly They could also discuss the reasons to ascertain as the country is large in size. People choose whether they are reasonable arguments. leaders who rule on their behalf and elect their The student can then trace the years when universal representative to the legislature. adult franchise was accepted in different parts of the • Some rights are given to people to help them world. control the government they choose. Year Country (i) They can express their views and criticize their government. This will ensure the 1893 New Zealand responsibility of the government towards its 1902 Australia people. 1920 USA (ii) People are considered equal because then 1928 Great Britain only can they be free 1945 France (iii) All people who are 18 years of age and 1971 Switzerland citizens of the country get the right to vote 1952 India This is known as “universal adult franchise”. They must also realize that its popularity lies in the factAssessment – 6 that it is government of the people. It gives people thePurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group power to organize themselves into unions to highlightAssessment; Tool – Group Discussion their grievances. In this way, people can influence theDiscuss (Page 194) action of the government and make it work, according to their liking.How does the choice of government differ in a monarchyand a democracy ? Assessment – 7In a monarchy, it is the son/daughter of the King/ Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment;Queen who inherits the position. In a democracy, Tool – Oral Assessmentit is the people who have power. They choose their Questions based on poems (Page 196)government, control it and if required, remove it The NUC has made a demand from whom ? What is theirfrom power. demand ?Why are people given the right to vote in a democracy ? It has made a demand from the parents. They wantDemocratic states follow the principle of universal an increase in their pocket money.adult franchise by which all are considered equal What have they decided to do to get their demandand are given the right to vote. However, they must met ?be adults and citizens of the country. They would not blow their noses, go late to bed, eatHistory of the right to vote ice-cream and chips at the time of breakfast and notThe right to vote was not given to all people in the touch the cabbage served to them. They would notbeginning. People had to struggle to get the right to allow their earholes and nails to be inspected byvote for all. parents. They would also not do their homework. Their performance would compel the teacher toTwo movements associated with this struggle are as comment that they “could do better” in their reportfollows: cards. They would also not put back their toys aftera) The Chartist Movement– this gave men the right playing. to vote. When would they put their plan of action into forceb) The Suffragette Movement– this was a struggle if their demands are not met ? by women to get the right to vote at the time of Their plan would be put into force from that day elections. It started in the US in 1848. onwards.
  • 158 TEACHER’S MANUALWhen did the NAP respond to their demand ? Why ? e. Find out how many general elections have taken place in India.The NAP gave a quick reply to the threat of thechildren as they saw it as a serious situation. 15 general elections have taken place in the country with the last elections held in May 2009.Why, does the NAP say that it is unable to meet thedemands of the children ? f. What happened in the period between 1971-77?It stated that it was not able to meet the demand What was the result of this development?because an increase in wages was slow, compared An Emergency took place in the country. Duringto the rise in prices. the emergency the rights and liberties of theWhat does the parent body intend to do if the children do people were taken away by the government.not give up their demands ? g. Which was the major issue that brought downThe parents threatened that they would have to the governments in 1989 and 2004?resort to violent measures if the children did not 1989 - Corruption (Bofors issue), 2004 – Indiagive up their claims. shining an extravagant campaign, that took theDo you think the children would have succeeded ? shine off the NDA.No 2. Match the following : a) SuffragetteSummative Assessment 1 b) LegislatureKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES c) Representative democracy d) Judiciary1. Answer the following questions : e) Union governmenta. State the functions of the legislature. The legislature makes laws to satisfy the general Summative Assessment 2 needs of the people and to regulate the behaviour of the people. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONSb. Kings and queens inherit their positions. Do you 1. Is India a democratic country? think this is democratic? Yes, India is a democratic country as its government No. Democracy implies a government which is formed by the representatives, elected by the is chosen by the people through elections. It is controlled by the people. The people also remove people and vote casted on the basis of universal it from power, if they are dissatisfied by it. A adult franchise. Laws are made by the parliament monarch inherits his/her position, and thus, is which consists of people’s representatives. not a democratic choice. 2. What is meant by ‘Universal Adult Franchise ?c. What do you understand by the principal of Universal adult franchise means all people above Universal Adult Franchise? 18 years of age in the country have the right to When all adult people, regardless of their caste, vote, regardless of their religion, caste, birth or religion and economic condition are given the gender. right to vote, it is known as universal adult 3. Who is the head of the government in a franchise. monarchical form of government?d. How are rights of people protected in a In a monarchical form of government king or queen democratic government? is the head of the state. He/she has the power to Citizens appeal to the judiciary, which protects make decisions and to run the government. their rights.
  • 159 TEACHER’S MANUAL4. What was the demand of suffrage? 7. List five ways in which you think the government The term suffrage means ‘right to vote’. There affects your daily life. were movements in 1920s in several countries by The government affects our life daily in the the people called the suffragettes. They demanded following five ways: - the right to vote for all women as well as get their (1) Build roads and school voices heard. They chained themselves to railings (2) To reduce the price of things in the public places. At last women got suffrage (3) Supply of electricity in USA in 1920 and in UK in 1928. (4) Running of postal services5. Who gives the government the power to make (5) Railway services decisions and enforce laws? 8. Explain the different levels of government. The answer of this question depends on the The government at different levels are as type of government that exists in a country. For follows: example, in a democracy it is the people who give 1) Local level – means its decision making covers the government this power. your village, town or locality. It is named as6. Write a note on democratic government. Gram Panchayat or Municipality or Municipal In a democratic government, people have the Council. power to elect their leaders. India is a democracy 2) State level – covers an entire state like Haryana where people choose their representatives through or Assam etc. A state government governs own the election process and those who win the state, does not interfere with the others. election with a majority, form the government. In 3) National level – Its decision making, covers the a democracy, people do not participate directly. entire country.
  • Basic Features26 of a Democratic Government LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To appreciate the need to make decisions with collective sanction • To understand key elements that influence the functioning of democracyTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned Sex ratio – It is the ratio of females per 1000 males inTime required: 3 periods a given population. TEACHING POINTSVOCABULARYNiggers negroes/Coloured people IntroductionBarbarism ruthless/Uncivilised treatment • The students need to understand the importance of social equality for a progressive society.Apartheid being apart • They will also learn about the essential featuresTyrant dictator of a democracy.Conflict clash • Understand the term ‘Apartheid’ and its role inSegregation isolation freeing South Africa from the shackles of age old practice of racism.Racism discrimination on the basis of race/ colour Assessment – 1Regime government Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentOpposition opponent in parliament Social EqualityGender sex The teacher will ask the students to read the extractEquity fairness by W. E. B Du Bois In-Text Questions (Page 198)DEFINITIONS The sentenceÊ those who do not want youÊ, shows that the writerÊs table companion was a person of which ÊcolourÊ ?Apartheid – It was a policy of racial segregation He was “white” in colour. followed in South Africa. Which reason was given to the writer to prevent him fromConstitution – It is a legal document containing a set staying at the hotel ? of rights and responsibilities for the citizens as well He was told that it was a hotel meant only for white as the government. people.Equality of opportunity – It is a right that provides equal opportunities to all, irrespective of one’s What was the fault of the writer ? socio-economic background. The writer was a non-white.
  • 161 TEACHER’S MANUAL • The motive of the extract is to familiarize • This system was devised by James Madison. students with racialism where discrimination • Do not conclude that if a government is elected takes place among people. If discrimination by the people it is a democratic government. exists, it means that there is no social equality. Though elections gave rise to the rule of Hitler in Such a government would not be a democratic Germany, he ruled in an undemocratic manner. one. Therefore, methods have to be adopted to prevent this.Apartheid • List out the important points on the blackboard Discuss (Page 199) and explain them. A summary of the book ‘The Diary of Anne Frank’ can • Policy of ‘racial segregation’ or ‘separateness’ be narrated. This will give an understanding of how followed in South Africa. Hitler misused his democratic powers to become an • Denial of opportunities to the non-whites. autocrat. Students will also get to know how the ‘Nazi • Struggle of people to eradicate this practice. Death Camps’ also known as ‘Concentration Camps’ • The role played by Nelson Mandela and the grossly violated the right to live for some sections of African National Congress in this struggle. the society, especially for the Jews.Emphasise the fact that inequality is inconsistent System of checks and balanceswith democracy. The lesson will try to draw out all A democratic system must not change into anthe features that are essential for a democracy. undemocratic one. How is this ensured?Assessment – 2 Main IdeasPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • The government is run according to provisionsAssessment; Tool – Group Discussion contained in the constitution.Representative Democracy • Some provisions aim to provide protection toAsk the students the question : What is representative the marginalised.democracy ? • The second house acts as a check. It checks the house elected by the people.Summarise the main idea on the blackboard. • Power is divided among all levels of the government. Representative Democracy • Local government ensures that people’s participation is there even at the lowest level. A government where representatives chosen by people rule • A court system exists, which is not controlled either by the legislature or the executive. It sees It is found in large countries with vast populations that the law is followed by everybody. So it protects people against injustice. In such a government the legislature has 2 houses Assessment – 3 Legis lature Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment House-I In-Text Questions (Page 199) House-II Its composition differs Its composition differs What is representative democracy?from country to country from country to country A system of government where people do not ruleThe representatives belong directly is known as representative democracy.to different political parties People elect their representatives, who rule on their behalf. People control their government and can alsoThe part which wins one remove it from power, if they are unhappy with itsmore than half the seats forms the government performance.
  • 162 TEACHER’S MANUALHow is the government formed? Assessment – 4Elections take place at regular intervals. Political Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Groupparties field their candidates at the time of elections. Assessment; Tool – Group DiscussionThe party which gets the majority of seats in the Discuss (Page 200)legislature, forms the government. Why do you think television is a better means of expressingMention some ways in which a check is exercised on a opinion in India than the newspaper?democratic government to prevent it from ruling in an Television is both audio-visual, hence it has greaterunfair manner. appeal than a newspaper. An illiterate person isGovernment cannot rule in an unfair manner. unable to read a newspaper. But, such a personThe government runs according to the provisions would not face this problem with television.contained in the constitution. The students can Read the newspaper. Identify an issue which has causedmention any of the points mentioned above. dissatisfaction among the people. What were the steps taken by the government to resolve the issue?Participation through elections and other means ofparticipation Pick up an issue relevant to the period when the lesson is being done. Moderate a discussion inYou can ask students a few questions based on class.information they already have. Religion(a) Why do we need a government? Race(b) Each government is given a term. Why? Causes and consequences of conflict Causes for Conflict(c) How do people judge the effectiveness of the Caste government? Gender(d) Elections involve people. But, elections take place Region at regular intervals. How are people involved during the term of the government? Language They can go They can take part Wealth on strike in protest marches Ways in which people can Rural-urban differences show their displeasure A sense of injustice among people of a particular and control government group during its termThey can launch An unfair division of opportunities and resources They can use the media– signature Intolerant people who create mischief Ultimately emphasise – the success of a campaigns democratic government depends upon aware and alert citizens who react to Emphasise : The success of a democratic government situations and respond to them. depends upon aware and alert citizens who react They are not passive. to situations and respond to them. They are not The students can undertake the activity radio, magazines, newspaper, interro. passive. Project work p 200 • Spreads in formation reports on Project work (Page 200) different issues in the newspapers by • Spreads information – reports on different issues correspondents. in the newspapers by correspondents. • Provides an opportunity for an exchange of views letters to the editor. • Provides an opportunity for an exchange of • Gives an authoritative opinion views – letters to the editor editorial/articles by guwriters. • Gives an authoritative opinion – editorial / • Helps in social reform pick up any articles by guest writers article based on an issue fo human interest/social interest • Helps in social reform – pick up any article based on an issue of human interest/social interest.
  • 163 TEACHER’S MANUALCauses and consequences of conflict Settlement of conflictsCauses for conflict Role of the police and the courts in resolving religion conflicts. race Assessment – 6 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual gender Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment In-Text Questions (Page 201) region Identify a cause for conflict in your class. How did you resolve that conflict ? language Dialogue with students will enable students to wealth realize that though there is always a cause for conflict, it is imperative to control them e.g. rural-urban differences • A student can identify any cause for conflict in class. Intolerant people – Monopolization of the first row by a group of who create mischief students A sense of injustice An unfair division – A group of students being a source of among people of a of opportunities distraction in class etc. particular group and resources The complaint must have been made to the teacherConsequences of conflict who must have changed the seats of the naughty • Conflict leads to disharmony students, and asked the students to occupy the first • It leads to violence row in rotation. • It affects peace and development Find out principles common to all religions that • Creates mistrust among people emphasizes brotherhood and tolerance. You can refer to your history textbook.Students could identity any other relevant cause • Identity students who belong to differentand consequence of conflict. They could also be religious faiths. Ask them to find about theirencouraged to identify any concrete incident as an religious beliefs. Hold a group discussion.example, and discuss it. This is dependent upon the Since all religions believe in brotherhood andinterest and awareness level of the students. tolerance, why do the beliefs lead to conflict in society?Assessment – 5 You have read about Emperor Ashoka in history. HowPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group did he solve the problems which took place as a result ofAssessment; Tool – Group Discussion conflicts in his kingdom ?Discuss (Page 201) • Ashoka never forced his religious beliefs on hisPoint out factors which cause conflict in India. subjects. He devised a code to live a virtuous life,• Religion, caste, race, gender, region, language, gave up violence and adopted measures in the field wealth, rural-urban differences, the feeling of a of administration to unite people of different groups, sense of injustice among people of a particular to form one united administrative unit. group, mischief-mongers, unfair divisions of If you were the Prime Minister of India for one month, opportunities and resources. All these factors how would you deal with the problem of conflicts ? lead to conflict. • Allow students to use their imagination for thisWhy is conflict harmful for people ? one!• Conflict leads to disharmony. It affects peace Essentials of democracy and development. As it causes mistrust among Students can identify the essential requirements of people, it often results in violence. democracy through discussion.
  • 164 TEACHER’S MANUALSummative Assessment 1 of the Dalit movement in India. 5. Ayyankali (1863–1941) was a leader of the IndianKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES lower caste Dalits known as the Untouchables. He pioneered many reforms to improve the lives of1. Answer the following questions : the Dalits.a. Go to your school library. Do research. Prepare a 6. Birsa Munda (1875–1900) was a tribal leader and file on people from the lower castes or economic a folk hero, belonging to the Munda tribe. He was status who have distinguished themselves in the person behind the Millenarian movement various fields. Focus on difficulties faced, the that rose in the tribal belt of Bihar ( modern day attitude of people and their struggle to achieve Jharkhand) during the British Raj, in the late 19th what they did. century. It made him an important figure in the Names of Prominent Dalit Achievers: history of the Indian independence movement. 1. Sri Ravidas Ji was a religious leader, revered 7. Kanshi Ram was a prominent dalit leader who by most Hindus as a Saint, by the Radhasoami formed the Bahujan Samaj Party in 1984. organization as a Saint and as a Bhagat by Sikhs. 8. Mayawati (born January 15,1956) is an Indian Today his birth anniversary is celebrated as Shri politician and is currently the Chief Minister Ravidas Jayanti. of Uttar Pradesh. She has also been the Chief 2. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891– Minister for three other short tenures in the past. December 6, 1956), also known as Babasaheb, Currently, her party holds the absolute majority was an Indian nationalist, jurist, a Dalit political in the state. leader and a Buddhist revivalist. He was also 9. Jagjivan Ram the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor untouchable family, Ambedkar 10. Meira Kumar, cabinet minister in the UPA spent his whole life fighting against social government. discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna – the 11. K.G. Balakrishnan, the first dalit Chief Justice of Hindu categorization of human society into four India. varnas – and the Indian caste system. He is also These are names of some prominent dalit achievers. credited with having sparked the Dalit Buddhist Ask students to do the necessary research to get movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the required information and display it on the the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award. class board. Divide the class into groups for this 3. Ilaiyaraaja (born Gnanadesikan on June 2, 1943) activity. is a critically acclaimed Indian film composer, b. On the basis of your findings prepare an singer, lyricist and the first Asian Composer to argument. The topic is: Merit does not lie in one’s score a Symphony. He is a gold medalist from gender or caste. It lies in one’s capacity to achieve Trinity College of Music, London. In a career the impossible. Hence equal opportunities be spanning more than 30 years, he has composed provided to all. over 4,500 songs, providing film scores for more It is not on the basis of caste and gender that than 900 Indian films in various languages. He is we determine the merit of a person. Any one, based in Chennai, the fourth largest city in India who has the ability to achieve objectives, has and the centre of the Tamil film industry. merit. Therefore, equal opportunities should be 4. Diwan Bahadur R Srinivasan (1860–1945), provided to all. also known as Rettamalai Srinivasan was a People of the lower caste and women have not Dalit activist, politician and freedom fighter been able to make inroads into certain areas. This from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. He is is not because they lacked capability but because remembered today as one of the pioneers
  • 165 TEACHER’S MANUAL they were considered unsuitable and hence h. Do you feel dialogue among groups can resolve unacceptable. Stereotypes were responsible for conflicts? depriving them of opportunities and so prevented Yes, because when both the parties face each them from competing with the rest. However, other they try to resolve their differences through when given the chance they proved their worth. sharing of ideas. This does not necessarily mean In the science examinations held in 2008, the three that they will reach a conclusion. A dialogue toppers were women. In May 2009, ten out of succeeds when both sides are determined to find twenty five were women and thirteen physically a solution and are willing to compromise. challenged also succeeded among the general i. Prepare a street play on any factor that creates category. Students can expand the idea. disunity in India. Enact it in class.c. Analyze an advertisement, film or popular TV Divide students into groups. The play, directed serial to show how it projects women. and enacted by them could be presented in the The teacher can pick up any advertisement, film assembly. or popular TV serial watched and liked by the 2. Fill in the blanks. students. (a) term / tenure • The Barbie doll was supposed to have 36-24-36 (b) seats in the legislature dimensions and was fair in colour in the past. A (c) upper house current report states the new preference is for size (d) apartheid zero Barbie dolls. (e) Nelson Mandelad. Think of a situation when you were denied 3. It is necessary because an opportunity in spite of having the capacity. What did you feel? Write a poem to express your • We pay taxes to maintain the body. feelings. • People discussion can only lead to balanced Leave it to the discretion of the students. Ask them decisions. to illustrate it. The good ones can be put up for • Criticism for the sake of criticising democracy. The display. role of the opposition is to control the governmente. Make groups of five to six children. Prepare an with a healthy discussion. advertisement to promote the interests of the girl • The leaders do not set good example for people. child. Summative Assessment 2 Once again, encourage the creativity of the children.f. Analyze why all the means of communication ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS are not within the reach of the common man. 1. List three ways in which the non-whites were Internet, newspaper and electronic media – all are discriminated against the whites. controlled by the rich. Poor have little access to a) Non-whites were not allowed to vote . them. When they do possess them they are unable b) Non-whites could not use hospitals meant for to communicate the needs of the common people, the white people. as they promote the interest of the group they c) Buses and trains were separate for non-whites. represent, i.e. the rich and the middle class. 2. Who played a major role to stop untouchability ing. Name sections of society which have been India played a major role to stop untouchability exploited for centuries. in India? Women, children, scheduled castes, scheduled Dr. B.R.Ambedkar played a major role to stop tribes and socially and educationally backward untouchability in India. classes of people
  • 166 TEACHER’S MANUAL3. What special provisions were marked by the 5. What do you understand by Apartheid? Government to stop untouchability? Apartheid means separation on the basis of race. The government banned untouchability by South African people were divided into white, passing laws and by ensuring equal rights to black, Indian and coloured races. According to education, transport and medical facilities for the the law, these races were not allowed to mingle downtrodden people. with each other, to live near each other or even to4. What are the three ways in which people can use common facilities. express their views about the actions of the 6. Why do you think we need the government to government? find solutions to many disputes or conflicts? There are three ways in which people can express We need the government to find solutions for their views : disputes because it is the government which a) Newspapers makes laws for us. It is responsible for helping b) Television to resolve conflicts. So the government plays an important role in getting representatives of c) Rallies etc. concerned communities to meet, try and arrive on a solution.
  • 27 Panchayati Raj LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand local level of government functioning • To understand the working of the Panchayati Raj and appreciate its importance • To gain a sense of who performs what role within the local administration • To understand how the various levels of administration at the local level are interconnected • To understand the intricacies involved in the local administration’s provision of waterTextbook: Refer to pages b) Empowerment at the local level helps to sortTime required: 3 periods problems better. c) Discussion gives the opportunity to expressVOCABULARY oneself.Livelihood living The Gram SabhaTattered torn Main IdeasCommittee working groupPermutation variation Assessment – 1Gram village Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & GroupDEFINITIONS DiscussionGram Sabha – Gram Sabha is an assembly of the Exercise: Ask students to reflect and identify village. problems and issues of conflict in class. Subject themSarpanch – Sarpanch is the head of the village body. to discussion. The teacher must play the role of aGram Panchayat – The lowest unit of the Panchayati moderator. After a ten minute discussion the teacher Raj system. can ask the following questions:Block Samiti – A cluster of hundred villages come What is the motive of the discussion ? together and form a Block Samiti. Response: To solve the problem.Panch – The decision makers in a village. Why did I involve you all in the discussion ?TEACHING POINTS Response: Because it is related to our problems. We identified them.Introduction How will your involvement help ?a) Make the students understand that with authority, comes responsibility. Response: We can find solutions to our problems
  • 168 TEACHER’S MANUALonly when we are able to express our viewpoints. • When everybody talks, it is possible to reach to aWhen all of us are consulted, the decision taken will decision.be acceptable to all groups. • This provides the minority the opportunity toThe narrative describing Asah, Sukhpreet and highlight their grievances.Zainab’s trip can be read. • The decision taken is a wise one, as it is able to takeThe main points gleaned from this description are: the best of the majority and minority opinions. • The village assembly known as the Gram Sabha is • Such a decision will be more readily followed by made up of all adult villagers. everybody, since all have taken a part in making it. • The purpose of this assembly is to discuss issues • Any other relevant point. that concern the village. The Gram Panchayat • The function of the assembly is to enable villagers to: To help the students to picture the system, draw this (i) Take the lead in solving their own problems diagram on the blackboard. Composition of the Village (ii) Approve all plans made for their own Government development(iii) Take part in programmes made by the government to develop the area Legislature Executive Gram Panchayat Judiciary Gram Sabha • It is made of 5 or more members. Nyay(iv) Take decisions after discussion All Adult • These members are elected PanchayaAssessment – 2 Villagers are by the Gram Sabha. its Members • It has a head, known as thePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Sarpanch, who is also elected byAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment the Gram Sabha.In- Text Questions (Page 204) • It is elected for a term of 5 years, but can be removed earlier.What is the Gram Sabha ?The Gram Sabha is the village assembly. Assessment – 4On the basis of the above, point out the functions Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Groupperformed by the Gram Sabha. Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentThe Gram Sabha involves people in finding solutions In – Text Questions (Page 205)to their problems. The people approve plans made for The students will read the description of thetheir development, take part in programmes made meeting given on pages 204–205 and then answerby the government to develop their area. Decisions the questions.related to the village are made after discussion. Identify two issues that caused happiness among theWhy do you feel that villagers themselves are the best villagers.judges of what their village needs ? The villagers were happy with the functioning of theVillagers, being inhabitants of the area, knowthe problems of people living in their area and ration shop. They were also pleased because all theunderstand their needs better. school buildings had been cleaned and painted. Which issues caused discontent in the gathering ?Assessment – 3 The discontent was due to the fact that the villagePurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group faced a water problem. Some people were notAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group allowed to draw water from the few wells thatDiscussion existed in the village.Discuss (Page 204) What according to you, could be the reason why someImportance of Discussions people were not allowed to use the well ? • It gives everybody an opportunity to express Probably, they belonged to the lower castes, so they their viewpoint were not allowed to draw water from the wells.
  • 169 TEACHER’S MANUALAs a student of science and geography, what other methods • The Panchayat Samiti is made up of 5–30 members.could you suggest, to solve the problem of water shortage Its composition differs from region to region. Thisin the village ? is because some villages have more population than the others. The size of the Gram PanchayatWater harvesting will be more if the population is bigger. • If VI A, B, C, and D constitute the Gram Sabha andPanchayati Raj have 189 students in all. It will elect 189 ÷ 21 = 9The various levels of administration at the local level Panchas.are interconnected. • The Gram Sabha also elects the President who isMain Ideas known as the Sarpanch.• Panchayati Raj implies a three-level structure • An official, appointed by the government, known which was introduced by the 73rd Amendment as the secretary keeps a record of the meetings of Act. the Gram Sabha.• The Gram Panchayat constitutes the lowest unit. Assessment – 5 It covers a village or a group of villages. Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• The Block Samiti constitutes the next level. It covers Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment almost a hundred villages. An officer known as the Block Development Officer ensures that all In-Text Questions (Page 206) decisions made by it, are followed. What is a ward?• The Zila Parishad is found at the district level. It A ward is a small unit into which a village is divided sees that the activities of the Panchayat Samitis are for the purpose of elections. A representative is carried out properly. It also distributes funds fairly elected from each ward. among all the Gram Panchayats. Who elects the Sarpanch?• The structure at every level is linked to the next The Gram Sabha elects the Sarpanch. level. In this way the problems of people at the lowest level are communicated to the government What is the function of the secretary? at the highest level. The secretary keeps a record of the meetings of the Zilla Parishad Gram Sabha. (Found at the district level) Who has the right to vote? Find out. Block Samiti A citizen of India, who is 18 years of age, has the (Hundred villages make a Block) right to vote. Gram Panchayat (Found in the village) Role of the Gram PanchayatElection in the villages • It sees that rules made by the Gram Sabha are followed.• To describe the concept of ward, tell them that • They implement plans made for the development for the purpose of elections the village is divided of the village. into small parts. Each part must have equal • They impose taxes and collect them from people population. living in the village. For example, if a class (VI-A) has 42 students sitting • They see that roads, water sources, drainage, in 6 rows of 7 children each, the first 3 rows could school buildings etc. are well kept. constitute 1 ward. The students sitting in these The Gram Sabha checks the working of the Gram rows will elect 1 representative. Similarly, students Panchayat. sitting in the next 3 rows constitute the second The Gram Panchayat functions for 5 years. The Gram ward. They, too, will elect 1 representative. So, the Panchayat, however, can be removed earlier. class sends 2 representatives to the administrative Have a mind mapping activity with the class. Display body–Gram Panchayat. A representative to the the information in the class. executive body is known as a Panch.
  • 170 TEACHER’S MANUALIn–Text Questions (Page 207) The villager was not able to approach the PanchayatWhat functions does the Gram Panchayat perform? office for the following reasons.The Gram Panchayat enforces rules. It implements (i) The Sarpanch behen said that the talati wasplans made for the development of the village. It absentensures that roads, water sources, drainage, school- (ii) She had to attend a weddingbuildings are well-maintained. It imposes taxes on (iii) The Panchayat office was lockedpeople and collects them. How does the Sarpanch defend herself ?Do you think the Gram Panchayat can become very She claimed that since it was the marriage season,powerful ? they had to often go out and so might have missedIt is controlled by the Gram Sabha as it is accountable some applicants.to it. Whether it is a powerful body or not depends Discuss the report in the class. How democratic areupon the quality of the people. Panchayats in their functioning?Sources of Income This report is an indication of the fact that Panchayats are not exactly democratic in their functioning.Money for administration is got from many sources.Use a diagram to give information to the students. This (a) Discrimination is practiced against Muslims.way the students are able to retain the information The Panchayat has failed to keep in touch withbetter. them after the riots and has denied them their opportunities. Taxes on Funds given by (b) Job cards were given to the upper castes because houses government they are averse to labour. The other castes were not informed about the scheme. Sources of Summative Assessment 1 Income KEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES Taxes on a) What is the Gram Sabha ? Donations market places The Gram Sabha is the assembly of the village, where all the adult members vote. b) State the functions of the Gram Sabha.Assessment – 6Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group The Gram Sabha is a permanent body whichAssessment; Tool – A Case Study & Oral provides the people of the village a forum to discuss their problems. It elects the Pradhan andAssessment Panchas of the Panchayat and has the powers toA Case study remove them. It controls the working of the GramIn-Text Questions (Page 208) Panchayat. It decides the developmental policiesAccording to this report, which communities face of the village and also passes the annual budgetdiscrimination? of the Gram Panchayat.Minority community-Muslims c) Describe the composition of the Gram Panchayat.Why was it not possible to call the villagers for the GramSabha meeting? The Gram Panchayat is a body made of 5–30 members. Its President is known as the Sarpanch.People were scattered so they could not be called. Other members are known as the Panchas.Besides that, the Sarpanch felt that they might notbe interested. d) How does the Panchayati Raj system give power to people ?Why was the villager not able to approach the Panchayatoffice? This system ensures involvement of people in
  • 171 TEACHER’S MANUAL decision making at the lowest level. It is a three- Block Samiti intermediary level tier structure. Each tier is linked with the next tier. Zila Parishad highest level Thus, the people are able to communicate their i) If you look at the composition of the Panchayati needs to the government at the highest level. Raj System, what distinctive features do youe) Study newspapers and magazines. Find out the notice about it ? strengths and weaknesses of the Panchayati Raj system. You could include a few case studies to Expand each point. prove your stand. It takes democracy down to the lowest level. Strengths It is linked in a manner whereby needs of the people • Gives people power by involving them in can be communicated to the government. decision making. It empowers the marginalized. • The marginalized, through reservation are able It ensures that power is not concentrated at the to get their voices heard. highest level. • Needs of the people can be communicated to the government as the body provides representation 2. Hold a class debate : to the people who can fulfil this purpose. It is unfair to reserve seats for women in the village Weaknesses government. • Caste plays a very important role in its For functioning. 1. Merit demands that competent people get • Rich people dominate the body. opportunities. Women are not competent • It suffers due to lack of communication between the bureaucrats and people living in the 2. In a democratic society the competition is free village. and open. Whey don’t women fight for thesef) A negative report–the case study given above ( on opportunities? page 208) taken from the Indian Express, points 3. When women elect candidates who represent out to the influence of caste and religion even in them they automatically get a voice. politics of the village. This is a danger foreseen Against by Ambedkar even at the time of making the constitution. 1. How can we conclude that women are incompetent, when we do not give them an For Reservation will improve opportunity? • The marginalised are people who need a voice. This body provides them the forum. 2. Women are backward because it was considered that their place is at home. Men got a head • If they unite they can make their voice be heard. start. Women were left behind. Society needs Unity is potential strength. to make up for what women have suffered. It Against Reservation will not improve is fair to reserve seats for them. • The example given in the case study goes to 3. On issues that concern them women need to prove that power still remains in the hands of be given a voice. the higher castes. • There have been many instances when the 3. Fill in the blanks : Panchayat itself has been responsible for acts (a) Panchayati Raj system of atrocities against the lower castes. http: llen. (b) Discussion Wikipedia.org/wiki/caste-related_violence_ in_India. (c) Zila Parishadh) Describe the three levels of the Panchayati Raj (d) Wards System. (e) Sarpanch Gram Panchayat lowest level
  • 172 TEACHER’S MANUALSummative Assessment 2 7. What are the main developmental activities carried out by the Gram Panchayat?ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS The important works that Gram Panchayat should carry out are as follows:1. Who elects the head or the President of the 1. The construction and maintenance of water Panchayat? sources, roads, drainage, school buildings and All the members of the Gram Sabha elect the other common property resources. Sarpanch who is the President of the Panchayat. 2. Levying and collecting local taxes. His tenure is for five years. 3. Executing government schemes related to2. W h i c h i s t h e f i r s t t i e r o f d e m o c r a t i c generating employment in the villages. government? 4. Recent government programme of Employment The Panchayati Raj System is the first tier or level Guarantee Scheme is executed with the help of of democratic government. Gram Panchayat.3. Describe the formation of a Panchayat. 8. Where does the Gram Panchayat get its funds Each village Panchayat is divided into wards i.e., from? division into smaller areas. Citizens of each ward The sources of funds of Gram Panchayat are as elect a representative who is known as the Ward follows: Member or Panch. All the ward members together 1. Through the collection of taxes on houses, market make a Panchayat. places, etc.4. How many levels are involved in Panchayati Raj 2. Government scheme funds received through System? various departments of the government- through There are three levels or tiers involved in the Janpad and Zila Panchayats. Panchayati Raj System which are the Gram Sabha, 3. Through donations by people for community Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad. works etc.5. What do you understand by Block level 9. What are the main developmental activities governance? carried out by the Gram Panchayat? Block level governance is the second level of The important works that Gram Panchayat Panchayati Raj and is also called the Janpad should carry out are as follows: Panchayat or the Panchayat Samiti. The Panchayat 1. The construction and maintenance of water Samiti has many Gram Panchayats under it. sources, roads, drainage, school buildings and6. W h a t i s t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s o f other common property resources. Panchayats? 2. Levying and collecting local taxes. Together with the guidelines set by the 3. Executing government schemes related to Constitution; each state in the country has its generating employment in the villages. own laws with regard to Panchayats. The idea is 4. Recent government programme of Employment to make available more and more space for people Guarantee Scheme is executed with the help of to participate in the government and express their Gram Panchayat. opinions.
  • Rural28 Administration LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To develop an understanding of how the local government works in the village • To understand the role of officials in carrying out the administration at the local level • To develop awareness of existing institutions that can help a citizen to make the government function betterTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned In-Text Questions (Page 210)Time required: 3 periods Why did the big fight take place? The fight took place over land which belonged toVOCABULARY Akhtar. It had been occupied by his rival. What is the function of the police?Inconvenience problem The police is the civil force which has been recruitedTussle fight to control crime.Profusely copiously, in large amounts Will the police listen to me ? Why was Akhtar doubtfulThanas police stations about the police?Patwari revenue Collector Akhtar was a poor man. He felt that his grievancesSuccession inherit / Take over would not get a just hearing at the police station.Amendment modification Assessment – 2Juggle cope with Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & GroupTEACHING POINTS Discussion Discuss (Page 210)The big fight It depends. An honest police officer would not discriminate between the rich and the poor. The factAssessment – 1 that he/she stood for what is fair and just, would compelPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group them to look into the merit of the case and ensure thatAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group justice was done. It would not matter if Sandeep’sDiscussion mother had not gone with him /Akhtar.Read the introductory extract loudly. Then make the A corrupt officer would favour the side from whomstudents answer the question that follow. he / she would benefit. For some, the presence of an
  • 174 TEACHER’S MANUALintermediary who belonged to the same social class District (head of civil administration inwould definitely make the difference. district–Deputy Commissioner Sub- or District CollectorThe composition of the police administrations and divisions Sub-divisional Magistratemaintenance of land records. Tehsil/Talukas TehsildarMain points (helped by Naib-Tehsildar) • The civil force which has been recruited by the Pargana (A number of villages) Kanungos state to detect crime and prevent it, is known as the police. Thus, it maintains law and order. Villages Patwari It is not necessary to know the composition in detail. On conclusion of this exercise, the students can draw • The patwari maintains records related to land this diagram in their notebooks. revenue in a village. • People who work on land pay taxes to the Assessment – 4 government. The rate of this tax is based on the Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; quality of the land and its size. Tool – Project The patwariAssessment – 3 Project workPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group • Peace – which is possible only through theAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group maintenance of law and order.Discussion • It is necessary to have complete informationIn – Text Questions (Page 211) about resources at disposal. We can then only know how to use them.What would be the consequence if programmes made by • We must know about the level of developmentofficials were not enforced ? in the different regions. This would enable usIt would not be able to bring about development if to bring about balanced development in theprogrammes made by officials were not enforced. country.How is the rate of tax on land fixed ? • We must have information about the institutionsThe quality of the land and the size of the land we possess. Then only we can use them to bring about development.owned by activator are kept in mind when the rate All this information will be compiled byof the tax on land is fixed. administrations. They are involved with the dayWho is a patwari ? to day administration of the country.The patwari maintains records related to land in the The extract should be read in class. It makes studentsvillage. He also collects revenue from the people. aware about the need to maintain records. GoodWhy do you think tax must be collected from cultivators records are necessary because:of land ? (i) Information is essential to help calculate the taxMoney got from people in the form of taxes is used (ii) Information helps administration to bring aboutto make programmes for the benefit of the people. reform. A government that responds to the needs of the people and gets the support of theDistrict Collector people.The head of the civil administration in a village is the (iii) Records help in the smooth sale of the land.district collector. He supervises the • Collection of land revenue in the district Assessment – 5 • The maintenance of land records. Present the Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group information in the form of a visual so that the Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group children can comprehend the different levels at Discussion which revenue is collected. In –Text Questions (Page 212)
  • 175 TEACHER’S MANUALThe extract gives three reasons why land records of police is in charge of a circle. An inspector ofmust be maintained. Can you think of other reasons police supervises the work of the police station.why they are necessary ? Sub-Inspectors, Assistant Sub-Inspectors, head constables and constables, work under his i) Inheritance of land is made easy if there are supervision. papers to support ones claims. c. How do you think the Hindu Succession ii) When we take loans, it is necessary to show Amendment Act, 2005 will affect the lives of land as a possession. This land is mortgaged if we are unable to pay the loan. women? Discuss.What does the tehsildar do ? It will give them ownership of ancestral property. Thus, it will enable women to become theThe tehsildar maintains land records and collects cultivators of their own land.revenue in the tehsil or taluka. It could lead to friction in the family in the future.Why is it essential for the patwari to update the land The disputes over land will involve son andrecords ? daughters. It should lead to an end to the dowryTo bring about reform it is essential to update the system.land records. Updated land records clearly state d. What are the functions of the village patwari?what the level of development is. The state can thentake measures to strengthen the weak ones. The village patwari maintains land records, updates them and collects revenue from land.Functions of the patwari 2. Match the following: • Maintains and updates land records • Collects revenue in a village a. The head of civil administration - is the Deputy CommissionerTehsildar b. The Kanungo collects revenue - in parganas • Supervises the work of the patwari • Solves all disputes related to land c. The Hindu Sucession Amendment Act, 2005 - • Collects revenue in a taluka/tehsil gives women the right to acquire property. d. There are ten police stations - in every circle.An interesting factAncestral property belonged only to men. With the 3. Mark True or False against the followingpassing of the Hindu Succession Amendment Act statements:2005, women too, have acquired this right. This right a. The District Collector is a member of the Indianonly applies to Hindu women. Police Service. False – The District Collector is a member of theSummative Assessment 1 Indian Administrative service. b. The patwari looks after revenue collection in aKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES tehsil.1. Answer in one or two sentences: False – The patwari looks after revenue collectiona. What does the police do after a matter is reported in a village at the Police Station? c. There are around five to six circles in a district. It carries out an inquiry into the incident, so that correct statement – True further action can be taken. d. Women did not have the right to own anyb. Describe the composition of the police property before the Hindu Succession administration in a district. Amendment Act, 2005. The head of the police is known as the correct statement – True superintendent of police. A Deputy superintendent
  • 176 TEACHER’S MANUALe. Land revenue is fixed on the basis of the size of and land revenue is collected. They make sure the land. that the farmers can easily get a copy of their land False – It is also fixed on the basis of the quality record, students can obtain their caste certificates of the land. and people can get their income certificates, etc. 4. What are the responsibilities of a Patwari?Summative Assessment 2 Patwari is responsible for a group of villages. He/she maintains and updates the records of theADDITIONAL QUESTIONS village. The land maps and the corresponding details are kept by the Patwari. The Patwari1. What is the Hindu Succession Amendment Act generally has ways of measuring agricultural 2005? fields. The Patwari is also responsible for According to the Hindu Succession Amendment organising the collection of land revenue. Act 2005, not only the sons but the daughters 5. How are the districts devided into subunits in and their mothers can have equal share in the matters related to land? land. Identical laws apply to all States and Union Territories of the country. For maintaining matters related to land, districts are divided into sub-units and these sections of2. Who is the head of a district and who are his a district are known by different names such as subordinates? tehsils, talukas, qasbas etc. The head of a district is the District Collector. He 6. How new technology is used for keeping land is responsible for all administrative works and records? under him are the revenue officers who are known as tehsildars. In some states, land and its related records are now being computerised and in addition kept at3. What are the functions of the Tehsildars? the Panchayat office so that they are more easily Tehsildars have to hear disputes of various kinds accessible and updated on a regular basis. including land disputes. They also supervise the work of the Patwaris, ensure that records are kept
  • Urban29 Administration LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To develop an understanding of how the local government works in a city • To understand the difference in the administrative functions of officials in the urban set up • To create an awareness regarding the organogram of the government in a city, both big and small, in area and populationTextbook: Refer to pages Assessment – 1Time required: 3 periods Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group DiscussionVOCABULARY Read A blue Monday in classTruant strike A blue MondayWoes anguish Initiate a discussion, by asking students to identifyGrievance complaints amenities or services used by Mary that wereAmenities facilities responsible for Mary reaching late to school.Petition appeal – Water/electricity/transportTax duty – Recall – all this point- it would be appropriateCouncil assembly to recollect government in rural areas.Responses replies Present the information in the form of an illustration on the black board.DEFINITIONS Main IdeasServices – Things that the government provides to fulfil basic needs of the people. Rural GovernmentAssembly – A company of persons collected together Panchayat System in one place, and usually for some common purpose,esp. for deliberation and legislation. Legislature ExecutiveResources – The total means available for ceonomic (Gram Sabha) (Gram Panchayat) and political development, such as mineral wealth, • All adult voters are • 5-30 members are elected by labor force, and armaments. members of the Gram the Gram Sabha. Sabha. • There is direct Rule byTEACHING POINTS the people in the villages.
  • 178 TEACHER’S MANUAL Urban Government • Provide transport (in some cities) • Set up public libraries and museums Legislature Executive• Adult voters vote to elect (Mayar) Assessment – 3 representatives to the general council. • Bodies in large are known Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group• The representatives are known as municipal corporation. Assessment; Tool – Project - Oral Assessment & as councillors. • In small towns, they are Group Discussion• They are elected from wards known as municipal councils. Project work (Page 216) into which a city is divided. It is not Direct Rule by the Divide students into groups of equal number of people in the Towns/Cities. students. Give them ten minutes for preparation.Composition of the Municipal body Sources of incomeAssessment – 2 Property tax on housesPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group and land Octroi onAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group Goods EducationDiscussion tax coming into the cityIn Text Questions (Page 215)What is the assembly in the city known as? Rent from Profession municipal Sources ofThey are known as councils. Income and business buildings taxHow are the members of the general council addressed?The members of the general council are addressed Fee foras the councillors. registration Water of birth taxWhat is the function of the council? and death Toll taxThe council makes laws for people living in that on bridges Vehicle and roads taxcity/town.Who executes the policies of the council ? In - Text Question (Page 217)The mayor executes the policies of the council. Why does it cost more to maintain services in a city than a village? Functioning of Urban Bodies Town Cities are larger in size and more people live in it. A vast network of public facilities and services are required in cities. Work Public health Rural area Standing Education Water supply Generalcommittee committee committee committee committee and sewage purpose Mention some sources of income for local bodies in committee committee cities.• Each committee performs a function committee The local bodies get income from many sources. related to a particular field. Some of these sources are property tax on houses and• Groups of councillors before members of these land, education tax, rent from municipal buildings, committee. fee for registration of births and deaths, toll tax on• Thus committees take decisions related to: bridges and roads, octroi on goods coming into the • Sanitation facilities city, profession and business tax, water tax etc. • Disposal of garbage How does everybody pay taxes in some form or the • Supply of water and electricity other? • Providing health facilities • Primary schools Some taxes are direct. However some taxes are • Maintain record of births and deaths indirect. For example, if we buy a good from the
  • 179 TEACHER’S MANUALmarket, the tax is included in the price of the product, d. Specify the manner in which the functions ofin some form. In this way, all people pay taxes. the General Council are carried out.What is property tax? The members of the General Council formProperty tax is the tax that we pay, because we own committees. Each committee is responsible for aproperty. particular area of work. For example, members of the public Health committee have to take care ofProject health facilities.Bring newspaper clippings to class. Read one or twoletters as an example to your students. Teach them e. What decisions are taken by the committees ofthe format of how to write an official letter. Divide the Municipal Council?them into groups and make them write these letters. Each committee takes decisions related to its areaDisplay them on the class board. of functioning. For example, the public healthMETHODS OF REDRESSING GRIEVANCES committee will take decisions regarding health.AGAINST MUNICIPAL BODIES f. Suggest methods you can adopt to highlight grievances against the Municipal Council. meet their representative with their demands We can use many methods to express our write letters to the press grievances. We can meet our councillors with our organise dharnas demands, write letter to the editor of a newspaper, hold protest marches, organise dharnas, sign hold protest marchespeople can petitions, approach a lok adalat, and in some cases sign petitions even go to a consumer court. approach a lok adalat g. Make a list of all the facilities your local body provides you. some issues can be taken to consumer court Allow the students to draw up the list after reading the chapter.Summative Assessment 1 h. Who executes the functions of the municipal body? You could organize a meeting withKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES the person and interview him/ her about the difficulties they face in providing the daily1. Answer the following questions : needs of the people.a. How is the Municipal Council different from The municipal commissioner. the Gram Sabha? i. Find out how your municipal body disposes of The Gram Sabha is composed of all adult voters garbage. Present a report to class. in the village. Voters elect their councillors to the municipal council. j. What is the role of the local body in providing facilities to slums? Aren’t the slum dwellers alsob. What do Councillors keep in mind when they inhabitants of the city and entitles to similar make plans for development? facilities? Find out. Councillors always keep in mind the interest of their voters when they make plans. 2. Fill in the blanks :c. Describe how elections to the Municipal Council a. grass root/lowest take place. b. councillor The city/towns are divided into small parts c. committees known as wards. Voters from a ward, elect their d. octroi duty representatives to the Municipal Council. e. a message on mobile
  • 180 TEACHER’S MANUALSummative Assessment 2 3. State any five functions of the Municipalities. The five functions of the Municipalities are asADDITIONAL QUESTIONS follows:- a. supply of adequate drinking water1. Why Urban Administration is important? b. providing and maintaining drainage and sewage Urban administration is necessary to provide systems the basic amenities like street lights, garbage collection, water supply, keeping the streets and c. maintenance of public street lighting, the markets clean, collecting of house tax and d. construction and maintenance of bus terminals, water taxes, etc. They are responsible for cleaning roads and bridges of city drainage system, maintenance of parks e. maintenance of birth and death records and market. It had made possible for regulating 4. What are the functions of Ward Committee? the urban development and local management of civic facilities. The important functions of Ward Committee are as follows:-2. How does Municipality or Municipal Corporation get its money? a. Supervision of the overall municipal work b. Water and sanitation requirements For providing and running several services, the Municipality needs a lot of money. The Municipal c. Identification of slums and their up gradation Corporation collects it in diverse ways. A tax is a d. Public health – information dissemination sum of money that people pay to the government e. Environment protection for the services the government supplies. People f. Supervision of public physical infrastructure like who own homes have to pay a property tax as well hospitals, schools and roads. as taxes for water and other services. The larger the house the more the tax, i.e., tax according 5. E x p l a i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e W a r d to quantity. Property levies however form 25- Committee. 30 percent of the total money that a Municipal The Ward Committee is a committee that includes Corporation earns. There are also taxes for the councillor and a few residents of that ward. It education. Even taxes like entertainment tax on is designed so as to be representative of the people tickets etc. are also levied. Rich people account residing in that ward. The ward councillors are for property taxes while wider population pays elected by the people. more general taxes.
  • 30 Livelihoods LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the conditions that underline and impact life strategies of various groups of people • To understand that these conditions and opportunities for making a living are not equally available to allTextbook: Refer to pages Assessment – 1Time required: 2 periods Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Audio-Visual Aids and Oral AssessmentVOCABULARY Preparation by the teacher and the students:Livelihood livingScattered sprinkled Collection of:Frequently regularly (a) Newspaper and magazine cuttingsChorus together (b) Extracts from books (c) PicturesOccupation profession (d) Films, film strips, slidesDebt liabilityMilling grinding The teacher may select any of the above aids according to their availability and / or procurability.DEFINITIONS For example, if you have pictures of people at work, they could be shown to students, of course someAnimal Husbandry – farming that involves keeping pictures must be of people working on land, some in animals to produce foodWeeding – removing wild crops from the field manufacturing units and some in offices.Primary occupation – jobs related to land Here, a few questions would help students to drawSecondary occupation – jobs involving processing of out a distinction, such as some are working on land, primary goods some working in factories / cottage industries, usingTertiary occupation – jobs involving rendering of machines to do their work. Machines might be simple services or sophisticated ones. The rest are people working in offices, in the services sector.TEACHING POINTS The motive is to help students classify all people who work, into 3 categories of occupations.Livelihoods
  • 182 TEACHER’S MANUAL 3 Categories of Occupations (d) With the high growth in population and other sectors not having developed much, people had no choice, but to work on land. Primary Secondary Tertiary Ayesha’s report People use machines People belong People work on land in to change raw to services they Main ideas materials into work in fields likeoccupations like • Reforms have improved the condition of people goods. People transport, trade,fishing, mining, farming and work in factories of communication, in villages. cottage industries banking, • Better seeds, pesticides and fertilizers are now forestry insurance etc. available to people.Assessment – 2 • Cooperative and rural banks provide loans toPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual farmers.Assessment; Tool – Written Assessment • Better irrigation facilities are given to people. • Electrification of villages has taken place.The students then, could do the activity prescribed • Agriculture being the main occupation, someon page 221. They could be given a work sheet in this cultivate small land holding while others workformat. The information gathered could be tabulated. on land of rich farmers.It could then be presented in the form of a pie chart • Migration of people takes place to towns andand displayed on the class bulletin board. cities in search of livelihood. S. No. Name of Occupation of Name of • Caste influence is strong on occupation so there student parents sector are barbers, potters, carpenters, sellers of paan, dhobis – all following traditional jobs. 1 (i) • People also carry out fishing, annual husbandry (ii) and forestry and in agro-based industries inOccupations in the village people’s homes.The students should read the account. Through a • There are artisans and people who makediscussion, the main points should be highlighted. handicrafts for which there is little demand.This could be done in the form of an illustration, Life of Farmerswhich should later be copied by the students in theiranswer books. Farmers with Little Land Landless Peasants Large Farmers 1. Small holdings were 1. They did not 1. Owned vastAssessment – 3 owned by them and have land but landholdings, but they worked on their worked on land did not work onPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group own land that belonged to it. They employedAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group 2. They could not adopt the others. landless peasants modern methods of 2. and paid themDiscussion agriculture and lacked 3. In lean seasons, wages to work onDiscuss (Page 224) irrigation facilities. they sought their land. 3. Work on land being temporary 2. They adopted allThe students must have already concluded that seasonal, in months livelihood in the modernfarming is the most important occupation in the between sowing the towns and methods and crop and harvesting it, cities. technologies.villages and why is it so. they would migrate to 4. They led a life 3. They carried out cities and seek some of great misery other activities like(a) India was under colonial rule for a long time. occupation to earn a trading, owned The colonial powers did little to develop the livelihood. mills and shops 4. When crops failed they as well. other sectors. were indebted to(b) Policies made by the British favoured British moneylenders when they bought seeds, industries. Thus, raw materials from India were fertilizers, pesticides used to feed British factories. etc. They relied on the same money lenders(c) The failure of government to bring about 5. They carried out other development till the 1970s and use of technology, allied occupations like selling milk jaggery etc. induced people to work in agriculture.
  • 183 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 4 Development needs to take place. Changes mustPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group take place in the secondary and tertiary sectors.Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group b. What difficulties were faced by farmers whoDiscussion owned small plots of land?In – Text Questions (Page 224) P4 type information ‘farmers with little land’Mention some changes which have taken place in the c. Why do small farmers and peasants who workedvillage. on land migrate to cities at certain times of theCooperative and rural banks have been set up. year?Irrigation facilities have improved. Electrification ofseveral villages has taken place. Villages have been There was no work for them on land at certainlinked to towns and cities by roads. times of the year. After sowing the crop, they were required only at the time of harvesting.Find out what a cooperative bank does in a village.Cooperative banks provide credit to farmers at low d. Fishing is another occupation followed byrates of interests. the people in the coastal areas. You must have heard about the tsunami which struck IndiaName other occupations followed by villagers that maynot be related to agriculture. Why do people follow these and affected the fishermen. Gather information.occupations ? Describe a day in the life of the family of a fisherman.People work in cottage industries. Artisans makehandicrafts that are sold in the town. They have to Here are some points related to fishing. You canearn a living. They might be skilled craftsmen. give it to the students.Enumerate some occupations that are related to PROBLEMS FACED BY FISH CULTIVATORSagriculture. i. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fishPeople cultivate land. Many follow occupations and white-spot disease of cultured shrimp. EUSrelated to land such as fishing, animal husbandry has caused significant production losses in manyand forestry. of the culture-based capture fisheries in reservoirs,Some facilities introduced in villages point out to a newer lakes, beels (floodplain lakes cut off from rivervariety of occupations. Name some. meanders), brackish waters and irrigationSeeds, pesticides and fertilizers. People must be tanks.working in cooperatives and also in cooperative ii. There is lack of prevention, diagnosis andbanks, which provide loans to people. treatment of diseases in rural aquaculture.There must be electricians also. iii. In less than ten years, serious viral diseases andWith roads being constructed and villages linked to environmental issues have threatened thetowns and cities, need arose for drivers for transport industry. As more than 80% of the farms areservices like buses, trucks, vans etc. owned by small operators, there has been aSummative Assessment 1 significant socio-economic impact on small-scale farmers in coastal regions. Continuous crop failures, high lease values and erosion of profitsKEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES have forced some operators to abandon their1. Answer the following questions : shrimp farms.a. Mother says, ‘unless things change…, Bhola e. What is a cottage industry? Make a list of the would continue farming.’ What changes need to commodities that could be produced in such take place and in which sector, to bring about a industries. difference? Some industries are located in the homes of the
  • 184 TEACHER’S MANUAL people. Raw materials acquired from land are In low income countries more than half the used to make products. Simple tools are used for population depends on agriculture for a living. this purpose. Matches and bidis are made at home. Less than 20% of the workforce is engaged in the Students can draw out a list of other products. tertiary sector.f. Who comprise the large farmers? Summative Assessment 2 Initially, land was owned by the higher castes. It is not so now. Land is owned by people who belong to the middle castes. People in services also ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS buy land for cultivation. They comprise the large 1. What is a private debt? farmers. It means loans which an individual takes for his/g. What is the importance of the secondary and her personal consumption from other people or tertiary sectors in the development of a country? institutions. Take the example of a country in the West 2. What is agriculture? and compare conditions in India to arrive at The term agriculture is derived from Latin word conclusions. You can look at books, magazines ‘ager’ or ‘agri’ meaning soil and culture meaning and even surf the internet. cultivation or tilling of soil. The development of a country is reflected in the 3. B r i e f l y e x p l a i n t h e t e r m s e a s o n a l occupational structure of a country. Occupational unemployment. structure indicates the percentage of population which is engaged in the primary, secondary Seasonal unemployment is found basically in and tertiary sectors. If there is an increase in the agricultural sectors. In industrial sectors, people secondary and tertiary sectors, lesser people will are employed normally for all the days in the rely on agriculture for livelihood. This shows that year. But, this is not true for agriculture. This is the economy has developed e.g. better transport due to the fact that agricultural operations require leads to swift movement of goods and services. labour only during certain seasons. In between the Thus, how developed a country is determined by seasons, the workers in agriculture remain idle or the growth of the services sector. Students can have no productive work to be engaged in. refer to the world development report to get a 4. What is tsunami ? comparative understanding of the occupational Tsunami is a cycle of waves, generated in a structures in high income countries. Barely 7% of body of water by an impulsive disturbance the people are engaged in the primary sector and that vertically displaces the water column. more than half the population is engaged in the Earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions tertiary sector. can cause tsunamis. Tsunamis can savagely attack2. Write T(Tertiary) P(Primary) S(Secondary) coastlines, causing devastating property, damage Bank clerk - T and loss of life. Insurance Agent – T 5. Apart from farming, what other occupations do the rural people depend upon? Automobile engineer – T The people in the rural areas depend upon Petrol pump owner – T collection from the forest, animal husbandry, Teacher – T dairy produce, fishing etc. For example, in Central Doctor – T India, both farming and collection from the forest Bus Driver – T are important sources of livelihood. Collecting Mining Engineers–S
  • 185 TEACHER’S MANUAL mahua, tendu leaves, honey, to be sold to traders, b. Most of the farmers have small holdings which is an important source of additional income. are uneconomical.6. What are the three main problems being faced c. In case of a crop failure, it becomes difficult in by Indian farmers today? paying the loans taken from the banks and private The three problems faced by the Indian farmers money lenders. In order to pay the debts, they are are as follows:- compelled to sell their produce at cheaper rates.a. Lack of availability of water for irrigation. The high yielding variety of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc. are very expensive which the farmers find it difficult to purchase.
  • Urban Livelihoods31 – A Study In Contrast LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • To understand the conditions that underline and impact life strategies of various groups of people • To understand that these conditions and opportunities for making a living are not equally available to allTextbook: Refer to pages Main pointsTime required: 2 periods The life of a rickshaw puller • A migrant to a large cityVOCABULARY • Worked for daily wages • Life was difficult. The day he got no work, heOccupation vocation got no money to meet his daily needsSpur encourage Life on the streetsKiosk stall • Mainly migrantsLogo symbol • Sold objects of low value. Picked up jobsAngling fishing according to their abilities.Impeccable flawless • Lived in slums or on the pavement • People did not like them because they added to the noise and congestion on the street.DEFINITIONS • Social welfare organisations tried to promoteLabour Chowk – A place where labourers are hired. their cause.Migrants – People moving from one place to • They were people like vendors, cabdrivers etc. another. Extracts on page 228 and 229 try to help students to visualize the life led by these people and problemsTEACHING POINTS faced by them.Assessment – 1 Assessment – 2Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/GroupAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group Assessment; Tool – Oral AssessmentDiscussion In – Text Questions (Page 228)The students should read the extracts in class. The What is the name of the vendor ? Where does he sit ?teacher could list out the main points on the black (a) The name of the vendor is Ram Chander. Heboard with the help of students. sits on the pavement.
  • 187 TEACHER’S MANUALName the product he sells. • Leads a tough existence (b) He sells footballs for his livelihood. • Gets daily wagesWhich factors have prompted people to buy footballs from Assessment – 4him ? Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (c) It being the season for the world cup, soccer fans Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & Group like to buy the colour imitations being sold on Discussion the pavement. Besides, the footballs are cheap. In –Text Questions (Page 230)From where has he bought his footballs ? How much has Which features are common to all occupations mentionedhe paid for each football ?What is the price at which each in this account?football is sold to customers ? • Common features of the occupations mentioned (d) He buys his footballs from Basti Shekhanin above are as follows: Jalandhar. He bought them in a price range of – They all work for daily wages. This means Rs 30–40. He sold it for Rs 100–150. that when they do not get work, they have noIs what he earns enough for him ?How do you know ? money. (e) Chander claims that he only earns enough to – They lead a difficult existence. make a living. – They are all migrants – They lack skills or educationWhich factors made him to decide to sell footballs ? – Live in slums or on pavements (f) He feels that it is easier to deal in balls rather What according to you would be the factors that drive than any other goods. It is easy to carry them on people to leave villages and look for work in the cities ? the bicycle backseat and to transport them to • Most of them rely on agriculture for existence. the place where he sells them. Agriculture is seasonal; hence they are notThis cabbie is driven by a craze for crosswords employed for a large part of the year. Besides, with machines being introduced for agriculturalAssessment – 3 purposes, they are no longer required to workPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group on land. They lack skills and education. SoAssessment; Tool – Oral Assessment they cannot get alternative employment. Thus, they have to leave the villages in search ofIn-Text Questions (Page 230) livelihood.When does Pallab Mishra set out for work? Why?• Pallab sets out for work before sunrise because In the market area a busy start to a day means good business. He Main points gets good business if he starts early. • Shops big and small existed in the market place.Which factors compelled him to take up taxi driving? • Employment was given to many people. The• His mother suffered from cancer. The salary was nature of their work differed. spent on her treatment. He started driving a taxi • Unlike vendors, owners of shops had taken a license from the municipal corporation to carry to help his father. out their business. Some owned shops, some paidWhy does he like his job? rent on shops.• He feels free like a bird. • Workers were paid a monthly salary and got aHow much does he earn in a day? day’s leave each week.• He earns about Rs 350 in a day. • Products were of great variety and came from different parts of the country to satisfy theLife of a domestic help buyers.Main points Banks – Work in the bank • Is a domestic help • People carried out different activities in the bank • Lives in a slum • Regular timings were followed in the bank
  • 188 TEACHER’S MANUAL• People worked five and half days in a week and • Once the order is completed workers are left with enjoyed all the national holidays and annual leave. no work. They have to look for other work then. They got medical leave also and many attractive • Factories do not provide good conditions of work benefits. in some cases. On the basis of these accounts• They were paid a regular salary. A part of this bring about the distinction among all kinds of money was kept aside in a fund which could be employments. used by them after they retired from service. Regular employment Self-employment Wage employmentWork in the factory area • A person who has a • A person who • A person whoMain Points permanent job and works for oneself. gets payment for is given a fixed work on daily,• These people sit at traffic intersections waiting for • They do not earn regular payment, weekly basis. a fixed amount of some one to provide them work. fixed hours of money. Income Example: work. domestic helpers,• They do work like digging, loading and unloading. varies according • They work on fixed to the work they labourers, people They build roads, lay telephone cables and dig days and have fixed who work in get. pipelines. hours of work. factories. • Their hours of• They were paid daily wages, hence, got no money • They enjoy special work are not when they got no work. benefits. fixed. Example: • All professionals rickshaw pullers,• They slept on pavements and kept their tools and and people who cab drivers, money for safe keeping with shopkeepers. work in offices vendors on the belong to this street, big shopAssessment – 5 category like bank owners.Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group workers etc.Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment & GroupDiscussion Assessment – 6In – Text Questions (Page 231) Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group Assessment; Tool – Group DiscussionWhat was unusual about people who earned daily wages ? Discuss (Page 232)• They waited daily at the labour chowk to get work. Over populated country with limited resourcesWhat is a labour chowk ? cannot grant conditions and opportunities, equally to all. • These are traffic intersections in factory areas. This is where labourers sit to get work. The information given above can be used to developSurf the net. Get more information about the conditions ideas.in which people live at the labour chowk. Summative Assessment 1 • Ask students to surf the net and then display the information on charts which can be displayed in class. KEY TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES 1. Answer the following questions :Work in Factories (Clothes Factory)Main Points a. C o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t u p c o m i n g professions.• Since clothes are made both for local and international markets, several workers are Some upcoming professions are: required. Retail management, radio jockey, fashion• To meet orders from a foreign country work has to designing. be completed on time, so extra help is required. b. Bharati is a worker in a garment factory. Give• Extra help is required during busy periods. an account describing the nature of her work. Workers work beyond the required 8 hours, so Use information from the text related to factory they get more money for working extra. Factories workers. On this basis write an account describing work in two shifts. Bharati’s work.
  • 189 TEACHER’S MANUALc. How is a self-employed person different from Several services that sustain life in cities are one who has regular employment? provided by people from villages e.g.– domestic A self-employed person works for self. Such a help, vendors, labourers etc. person does not earn a fixed regular payment. • Migration adds to the diversity and makes large cities cosmopolitan.d. Distinguish between regular employment and wage employment. Give examples. • Movement of people in search of livelihood leads to resentment in some parts of the country People with regular employment, i.e., with a as people of those areas feel that migrants are permanent job get a fixed regular payment. They taking away from them their due share of goods work on fixed days and have fixed hours of work and opportunities. (Newspaper clippings can and enjoy special benefits. All professionals and be used to illustrate the point) people who work in offices belong to this category, like bank workers. • Slums increase in great number in cities. This puts a strain on resources and leads to congestion People who get payment for work on daily weekly on the streets. basis are employed for wages. Domestic helps, labourers, people who work in factories belong • Students can add more relevant points to to this category of workers. substantiate the sector.e. Highlight how urban life is interlinked to rural g. Give examples to show interdependence among life. people. One example to show that urban life is interlinked Examples of interdependence among people. to rural life. Your student goes to school. Let us see how many Agriculture people have contributed to make her day at school in villages leads to pleasant. growth of food grain Parents – transport – school (teachers, books, lunch box) Work out the chain of people involved. It is then sold Food grain 2. Write True or False for the following statements. in the market in is sold to Rewrite the false statements correctly : urban areas wholesalers a. Rickshaw pullers do not own a fixed amount of money every month. (True) b. Garment factories make clothes for both local and international markets. (True) This is bought by c. All bank employees do not get equal salaries retailers (True)f. The two chapters point out to a different aspect d. Buying and selling involves a chain of activities. of diversity in India. Do you think this diversity (False) could be the major cause of conflict? e. The owners of shops take a license from the • The chapters point out to the diversity that exists municipal corporation to carryout business. in the field of livelihoods in rural and urban (False) areas. It makes us aware of the inter dependence that exists between rural and urban areas. Summative Assessment 2 • Whereas livelihoods in rural areas centre on agriculture, they satisfy the needs of the people ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS who depend upon agriculture, carried out in 1. Who is a street vendor? villages. Vendor is a retail salesperson without an
  • 190 TEACHER’S MANUAL established place of business. Vendors sell things 4. What are the main problems faced by the that are regularly prepared at home by their vendors? families. For example, those who sell food or The main problem the vendor’s face is: snacks on the streets, prepare most of these at home. a. Shops are usually temporary in structures.2. Who is a casual worker? b. Dismantling of their shops any time by the police. Casual worker is a worker who is employed on a temporary basis with generally limited c. They have no security. entitlements to benefits and little or no security d. There are certain parts of city where these of employment. The main feature is the absence vendors are not allowed to enter. of a continuing relationship of any stability with 5. What is the problem with street vendors? What an employer, which could lead to their not being solutions were suggested in their favour? considered ‘employees’ at all. Street vending till recently was looked upon3. What are the working conditions of the only as an obstruction to traffic and to people non-permanent workers? movement. Though with the efforts of many The working conditions of the non-permanent organisations, it is now recognised as a general workers are very depressing. They are given very benefit and as a right of people to earn their minimum pay for their work and if they complain livelihood. The government is considering about about their pay, they are asked to leave the job. amending law that banned street vendors, so that There is no job security or protection if there is ill they have a place to work and that there is also treatment. They are also expected to work for very a free flow of traffic and people. Hawking zones long hours. For example, in the cloth mill units have been suggested for towns and cities together the workers work on day and night shifts, with with permission to mobile vendors to move freely. each shift lasting 12 hours. One worker works on Hawkers need to be a part of communities which one machine for 12 hours and then is replaced work for their welfare and rules. by another on the same machine for the next 12 hours.