sustainable development of ground water resources in Shirpur taluka
1SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND WATERRESOURCES IN SHIRPUR TALUKA OF DHULEDISTRICT ,MAHARASHTRA,INDIA.S.B.KHANAPURKAR *ABSTRACT1/3 of the total area of Shirpur taluka is covered by Tapi Alluvium and2/3 portion is covered by Deccan Basalt.In Tapi Alluvium and as well as in DeccanBasalt multiaquifer system occurs.In Basalt alternate layers of weathered basalt andhard massive basalt are observed. In the same manner in Tapi alluvium alternate layersof yellow silt , sand and boulders can be noticed.The effective porosity of sand bed inTapi Alluvium is about 30%. The sand beds were fully saturated during the post faultigperiod. The excessive development of this aquifer system to cater to the ever increasingneeds of irrigated agriculture mainly the cash crops like ,Banana,Sugar Cane etc,hadaffected the availability of ground water. Sustainability of groundwater as main sourceof drinking water in rural areas has been affected due to indiscriminate withdrawl ofthis source.In absence of any regulatory measures to control groundwater development,the farmers were resorting to incessant groundwater pumping to meet the waterrequirement of cash crops.The groundwater based drinking water schemes were thefirst casualty of such a development. Due to overexploitation of groundwater resources,groundwater levels declined and all the dugwells in the Tapi Alluvium in Shirpurtaluka dried in 1990. Average depth of the dugwells in this area is 40 metres. Even thetubewells having depth of about 150 to 200 metres have become dry. As the semipervious alternate layers of silt transmit very little water situation was becoming morecritical day by day.A well, having depth of about 50 metres and which is about 3 metresaway from the main canal flowing for 2 to 3 months is dry for last 20 years.Even afterheavy rainfall the wells are dry.This clearly shows that there is very little lateral andvertical percolation through the yellow silt.In Basalt area due to the change in nature of rainfall (Heavy rainfallwithin short duration ,only runoff and very little percolation) aquifers though havingeffective porosity to the tune of 2.5 to 3 % hardly fully saturate.That is why dugwellsand borewells in Deccan Basalt hardly yielding water maximum up to December.Therewas severe scarcity after December for drinking water as well as for irrigation.OnlyKharip crop was possible,________________________________________________________________________• Project Director (Water Conservation) Priyadarshini Sahakari Soot Girni,Ltd Shirpurand Retired Sr.Geologist from G.S.D.A. Govt. of Maharashtra• Address_ Plot No 51 B,Bansilal Nagar, Shahada Road,Shirpur ,Tah.Shirpur,Dist.Dhule• Mob.No 982236639
2Drying of wells and tubewells in alluvial area and insufficient availabilityof water after December in the Deccan Basalt area were the main problem of theShirpur Taluka.To change the whole scenario and make available perennial water tothis rainfed area was the main object of the project.Due to the vagaries of rainfall and specific geological formations therewas less percolation against heavy withdrawl .To overcome this problem 14 smallstreams in the project area were widened up to 20 to 30 metres and deepened up to 10 to15 metres from its origin in the Basalt and Alluvial area .In this manner the imperviouslayer of yellow soil in alluvium and hard massive trap in Basalt were removed and 65cement plugs of appropriate dimension without gates and wasteweir wereconstructed.Hence this project is named as ‘ANGIOPLASTY IN WATERCONSERVATION’Also surplus water of dams was injected into 59 dry dug wells having thedepth of 50 metres, directly with proper filtration. Due to this waterlevels both inAlluvium and Basalt area risen to a great extent .In basalt area even dry borewells of150 metres in depth attained waterlevel at a depth of 6 metres below ground level,andin Alluvial area at a depth of 20 metres bgl.This project of ANGIOPLASTY IN WATER CONSERVATION ifadopted in the whole of Maharashtra 2ndand even 3rdcrop will be possible in all thevillages in Non-Command and Rainfed area and there will not be drinking waterproblem and total eradication of tankers will be possible.INTRODUCTIONShirpur taluka has a geographical area of 837.39 sq.km. It has a cultivablearea of 653.77 sq.km,( 78.07% ), forest area of about101.09 sq.km.,land not available forcultivation is 82.53 sq.km. Out of the cultivable total area under irrigation is about 84.61(12.94 % )The occurrence and distribution of rainfall in the Shirpur taluka is highlyerratic.The annual normal rainfall is 617 mm received over 36 days. Surface water resourcesin the Taluka are unevenly distributed.This resources is also not assured as it depends onrainfall.Irrigation projects in the taluka cover only small area in south eastern part of thetaluka . As a result of this ,the use of groundwater for irrigation ,drinking water and industrialpurposes has increased many folds.In entire taluka intensive development of groundwater haslead to critical situations resulting in manifestations of problems like declining groundwaterlevels,shortage of water supply, etc.This situation warrants for taking up programmes toaugment groundwater resources on strong lines in the whole taluka.In this paper, groundwater resources in different formations of the entiretaluka ,its utilisation ,problems caused due to excessive utilization of groundwater,methods tobe adopted in conserving the scarce resources and recharging the aquifers have beendiscussed.CLIMATEThe climate of this taluka is on the whole dry except during the south-westmonsoon season.The year may be divided in to four seasons.The cold season from Decemberto February is followed by the hot season from March to May.The south –west monsoon
3season which follows thereafter lasts till September.October and November the post monsoonseason.RAINFALLThe average annual rainfall in the Taluka is 617.00 spread over 35 daysMISBEHAVIOUR OF RAINFALL IN SHIRPUR TALUKA DURING 2005 TO 2009YEARTOTALRAINFALLNO OFRAINYDAYSNO OF DAYSOF>20 MMRAINFALLTOTALRAINFALLDURINGTHESE DAYS% WITHTOTALRAINFALL2005 533 41 10 338 632006 995 41 15 796 802007 854 27 13 724 852008 621 37 13 402 652009 803 32 14 639 80TOTAL 3806 178 65 2899 373AVERAGE 761.2 35.6 13 579.8 74.6It is interesting to note that about 75% of the total rainfall occurred during 13days.This is the main reason of scarcity.Evapotranspiration:Evapotranspiration is an important parameter to decide the quality of wateravailable for plant growth. Evapotranspiration in this taluka is higher during the plant growthperiod, thus reducing the availability of water for plant growth.DROUGHT PRONE TALUKAThe semi arid tracts of the State which receives rainfall between 750 to 1000mm are drought prone areas.The Shirpur taluka comes in drought prone area of the State.HYDROGEOLOGYThe tahsil Shirpur in Dhule district falling in Tapi alluvial basin is mainlyunderlain by alluvial formation with basaltic lava flows occupying hilly tract. The basalticlava flows in hilly tract are not favourable for groundwater development but give rise toperennial and seasonal springs. The contact of the basaltic lava flows with alluvial mountainfront deposit is demarcated by a major fault.The alluvial deposits are further subdividedinto(a)Talus and Scree deposits bordering the Satpura foot hills and (b) Alluvium consisting ofsand clays gravel.Talus And Scree Deposits(Bazada)The mountain front deposit consisting of talus and scree locally known asBazada are highly porous and have capacity to accept higher quantity of water asrecharge.The maximum thickness of this formation is not ascertained but it has been found tobe 50 m at many places.This deposit mainly consists of poorly sorted unconsolidatedformation having admixture of large to small size boulders,pebbles and gravels and coarse tofine sand and clay in varying proportions.The groundwater occurs under unconfinedcondition and depth to water level at present ranges from 50 to 60 m bgl during pre mansoon
4.Normally this zone forms potential aquifers yielding copious ground water.At present thedug wells and shallow tubewells are dry.Previously the yield of the dug wells was rangingfrom 160-200 cum /day with 3 to 4 m drawdown .The discharge of tubewells was varyingfrom 2.8.to 43.8 cum /hours.The specific yield of the aquifers varies from 6 to 12 per centand Transmissivity ranges upto 950 square m/day.The gradient of water table is between 20to 30 m/km towards south.The quality of groundwater is excellent with TDS being less than400 ppm .45 METRES DRY DUGWELL INALLUVIAL AREA IN SHIRPURTALUKA45 METRES DRY DUGWELLIN ALLUVAL AREA IN SHIRPUR TALUKAAlluviumAlluvium consists of alternate layers of clay and sand ,gravels and boulders ofvariable thickness.These formations occupy the central and southern parts of the ShirpurTaluka.The thickness of alluviam at places is found to be more than 350m. Hardpan ofcalcareous concretions are also prevalent at many places which affects the verticalinfiltration.The groundwater at shallow depth (upto 40 m bgl) occurs under unconfinedconditions and at deeper levels under semi confined to confined conditions. At present thedug wells and shallow tubewells are dry.Previously the yield of the dug wells was rangingfrom 160-200 cum /day with 3 to 4 m drawdown. The discharge of tubewells was varyingfrom 2.8.to 30 cum /hour.Ground Water Level SituationThe groundwater is declining continuously and declines in the range of fewcentimeters to 1.8 m /year.All the wells in depth range of even 50 m are dry at places.Depthto water level as deep as 50 m bgl has been observed.
5DISCHARGE FROM 100 M DEEP TUBEWELL HAVING 10 HPSUBMERCIBLE PUMP IN SHIRPUR AREADISCHARGE OF WATER FROM 100M DEEP TUBEWELL HAVING10 HP SUBMERCIBLE IN SHIRPUR AREAPROBLEMS DUE TO EXISTING GEOLOGICAL FORMATION AND OVEREXPLOITATIONFailure of dug wellsAs the semi pervious alternate layers of silt transmit very little water, situationwas becoming more critical day by day.A well, having depth of about 50 metres and whichis about 3 metres away from the main canal flowing for 2 to 3 months is dry for last 20years.Even after heavy rainfall the wells are dry.This clearly shows that there is very littlelateral and vertical percolation through the yellow silt.In Basalt area due to the change in nature of rainfall (Heavy rainfall withinshort duration ,only runoff and very little percolation) aquifers though having effectiveporosity to the tune of 2.5 to 3 % hardly fully saturate.That is why dugwells and borewells inDeccan Basalt hardly yielding water maximum up to December.There was severe scarcityafter December for drinking water as well as for irrigation. Only Kharip crop was possible.In such situation increased utilization of groundwater and tapping deeperaquifers has resulted in drying up of deep wells.All the dugwells in the Alluvial areas andmost of the wells in the Deccan Basalt area have become dry. Now even the shallowborewells and tubewellshave gone dry and the yield in the deep borewlls dwindling.As aresult huge amount invested on dug wells, pumpsets and other development works by theindividual farmers has become infructuous.The most affected are the borewells drilled fordrinking water purposes which are situated in the elevated regions.With the increased use of
6groundwater for irrigation purpose,deep borewells have been drilled in the close proximity ofthe drinking water borewells.This has resulted in drying up of drinking water wells in manyparts of the taluka.Increased unit cost on wellDepletion of shallow aquifers by excessive withdrawl has resulted in dryingup of shallow wells.As a result ,through deep borewells deep aquifers were tapped.This hasincreased the unit cost on the borewell construction.Increased energy consumptionNow a days groundwater is being tapped from deeper aquifers. In view ofdeeper groundwater levels ,high HP pumps have been installed to draw water from deeperlevels.Thus consumption of energy has increased.Drop in efficiency of pumpsHigher capacity pumps installed in low yielding wellshas resulted in cavilationof pumpsets which has resulted in drop in efficiency of pumps.Productive land left as fallowDue to excessive withdrawl ,in many placesshallow wells / borewells havedried up.Majority of farmers owning these wellsare small and marginal farmers who can notafford to go in for a deeper borewell. As a result , the land ,which was once productive ,hasbecome fallow.NEED FOR TECH.BASED ARTIFICIAL RECHARGEGroundwater is a dynamic renewable resource .This resources is replenishedannually through precipitation and also through seepage of water applied for irrigation.Itsoccurrence and availability are controlled by the structure of the rockformations,geomorphological and hydrogeological set up and hydrometerological conditions.Due to increased demand for domestic,industrial and agricultural needs andlimited surface water resource, there was rapid exploitation of groundwater resource.Thisintensive development had led to critical situations resultin in manifestation of problems likedeclining groundwater levels,shortage of water supply, etc.Therefore, there was an urgentneed to check this trend and to take suitable measures to augment groundwater resources tomake the existing groundwater structures sustainable.METHODOLOGY FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGESTRUCTURESStudy of changing nature of rainfall,aquifer characteristics and existence ofalternate layers of pervious and impervious strata in Deccan Basalt and Alluvium in Shirpurtaluka compelled to admit that the traditional methods of artificial recharge will not be ofmuch use.In Basalt area due to the change in nature of rainfall (Heavy rainfall withinshort duration ,only runoff and very little percolation) aquifers though having effectiveporosity to the tune of 2.5 to 3 % hardly fully saturate.Considering the growing demand ofwater that water is sufficient at the most up to January.January onwards there is scarcity of
7water for drinking and irrigation.To overcome this problem it is necessary to ponder overthree things which are as follows• Though the nature of rainfall is changed the aquifer should be saturated100%• Maintenance of constant supply of water to the aquifer to maintain thewater level• Artificial removal of impervious layer i.e.hard massive trap in DeccanBasalt and yellow impervious soil and silt in Alluvium.This is calledThe Angioplasty In Water ConservationTYPE OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE STRUCTURES TO BE CONSTRUCTEDKeeping in mind the above objects it was decided1. To construct check dams on every stream, small or big, without gatesand wasteweir to augment huge storage of water following theprinciple of ridge to valley2. To deepen the stream up to15 to 20 mtres and widen up to 30 metres inDeccan Basalt .and Alluvium.3. To recharge the deeper aquifer in the Alluvial area of Tapi Basinusing the surplus water of the dams in the Deccan Basalt areaartificially through the dry dugwells having depth of aout 40 to 50metres.4.WORK CARRIED OUT IN SHIRPUR TALUKA OF DHULEDISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRASince 2004 in Shirpur taluka Tech.Based Water Conservation is underprogress. Project area is about 100 sq.km. in which 65 cement bunds have been constructedon 14 small streams.This whole area is rainfed and non-command.There are no gates andwasteweir to these bunds.Minimum storage capacity of the bund is 10 T.C.M. and maximumis 150 T.C.M. Artficial recharge projects are completed on 59 dry dugwells. To recharge thedeeper aquifers in the Alluvial area of Tapi Basin surplus water of dams at the rate of 70000l/p/h is artificially poured by gravity in to the dry dugwells .73Storage in Dahiwad cement bundSTORAGE IN DAHIWAD CEMENT BUND
864CEMENT BUND NO 7WIDENING AND DEEPENING OF SMALL STREAM OF HAVING DIMENTION 2METRE WIDE AND 1.5 METRE DEEP83ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE THROUGH THE DRY DUG WELL IN ALLUVIALAREA OF SHIRPUR TALUKA
9RESULTS OBTAINED• Water level in Basalt area which has depleted up to 150 metres has risen by 140metres.Now water level is about 10 metre b.g.l. Water level in Alluvaial areawhich has depleted up to 150 metres has risen by 110 metres.Now water level isabout 40 metre b.g.l.• Now water remains in the stream up to March .Previously streams used to dry inNovember.• Drinking water problem solved. forever.• Irrigation area increased.Now farmers are taking double crop in this rainfed andnon-command area.Average per capita income increased at least by one lac Rs./Ha.• Energy consumption decreased.Due to reduction in suction length low HP pumpshave been installed to draw water.• Fisheries started in many villages resulting in to rise in annual income of thefarmer.CASCADE TYPE CEMENT BUNDS
10CONCLUSIONSPrior to the project there was severe scarcity of drinking water and water forirrigation.Day by day the waterlevel was depleting and the farmers used to lower the pipes inthe borewells and tubewells to draw water from the deeper aquifer. 85% of the total area ofShirpur taluka is rainfed and noncommand.After completion of the 6thyear of the projectsufficient water for irrigation ,drinking and for industries is available even in summer.Theproject implemented was proved to be viable and successful.Such type of project with the Angioplasty In Water Conservation if takenon all small streams in all the mini and micro watersheds of the entire Maharashtra there willnot be tankerfed village and for all villages in rainfed and noncommand areas water will beavailable for second crop.Total eradication of flood and scarcity is possible maximum withinten years.