INTERPLANETARY INTERNET

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INTERPLANETARY INTERNET

  1. 1. INTERPLANETARY INTERNET Next generation of INTERNET
  2. 2. Today's World  Information technology, telecommunication fields etc are growing in a tremendous speed. Nobody can even predict tomorrow’s world. New technologies and gadgets are evolving and introducing in the market. Far from necessity ,it has become a craze now a days.
  3. 3. A world without INTERNET is unimaginable. What are the features of Next generation Internets?  The answer is. .
  4. 4. is going to be the most widely discussed topic of next decade!
  5. 5. • What is actually an IPN??  IPN means INTERPLANETARY INTERNET or simply InterPlaNet.  In short words it is a network of regional internets extended to neighbouring planets.
  6. 6. First generation IPN • IPN mainly deals with Space Explorations. • Communication within our planet is happening in lightning speed. BUT IT IS NOT THE CASE OUTSIDE OUR PLANET. • Communicaton outside our planet is an irony.
  7. 7. Imagine ??? If I say a “Hi” to you and you hear it after 2 Hours !!!!! This is the problem of COMMUNICATION outside the planet.
  8. 8. Space Explorations Nations are spending huge amount of wealth every year for space research. It is a bulk budget consuming area. Space missions are multi billion projects.
  9. 9. What about space mission failures? It has become a familiar term associated with space explorations. Mass amount of resources go waste. Billions of economy vanishes into air like cracker.
  10. 10. Failed missions…! Mars Polar Lander (and the two DS-2 probes) vanished.
  11. 11. Failed missions…! The Mars Climate Orbiter, whose relay system the MPL was supposed to have used, had crashed.
  12. 12. Failed missions…! NASA has canceled plans to launch the Mars Telecommunicati ons Orbiter in September 2009.
  13. 13. What was the fate of India’s ambitious mission CHANDRYAAN…!? and many more. .
  14. 14. How does failure happen?? • It happens when communication with satellite breaks. • What is a solution? • Answer is……
  15. 15. Introduction to IPN.  On the freezing surface of Mars, a sensor takes readings of the thin atmosphere and transmits the data to an automated rover, which relays the information to an orbiting satellite. From there, the data packets are sent to an approaching research ship, where astronauts study the readings and send their findings back to Earth, via e-mail.  Via e-mail?!  This may sound like science fiction, but it is becoming science fact.
  16. 16.  20 years ago few people had heard of the Internet. Even 10 years ago it was viewed by many as a technological curiosity .  Now the so-called "dot com" economy makes multi-billion dollar deals on a regular basis.  5 years from now the Internet could be a phenomenon that has expanded beyond Earth to form an interplanetary network of Internets reaching to Mars and beyond. That is the vision of Vint Cerf and his colleagues at the Interplanetary Internet (IPN) team.
  17. 17. What is an IPN? The Interplanetary Internet is being designed to be a network that connects a series of Internets. These internets would be located on planets and moons, or aboard spacecraft. It is the means whereby Earth's nervous system expands outwards across the solar system and beyond. "wiring up" the solar system
  18. 18. •End-to-end information flow across the solar system •Layered architecture for evolvability and interoperability •IP-like protocol suite tailored to operate over long round trip light times •Integrated communications and navigation services 18
  19. 19. Internet vs IPN Parameters Internet IPN 1. 1. Distance Of Low Very High Communication 2. 2. Line Of Sight Not Present Present Obstruction 3. 3. Antenna Can be high Must be low weight 4. 4. Bandwidth Comparatively High Comparatively low. Optical fibres or 5. 5. Transmission wires RF or Laser channel technology 6. 6. Protocol TCP/IP PTP 7. 7. Delay Not Significant Significant
  20. 20. History of IPN • The Interplanetary Internet study at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory(JPL) was started by a team of scientists at JPL led by Vinton G.Cerf and Adrian Hooke. • Cerf is one of the pioneers of the Internet on Earth, and currently holds the position of distinguished visiting scientist at JPL. Hooke is one of the directors of the CCSDS. Vinton G.Cerf Adrian Hooke
  21. 21. History of IPN(cont..) • Vinton G.Cerf, often touted as the "father of the internet", • He is currently Senior Vice President for Internet Architecture and Technology at MCI Worldcom located in northern Virginia. • He is the co-inventor of the Internet’s TCP/IP protocol
  22. 22. NEED OF InterPlaNetary Internet 22
  23. 23. Need of IPN If we ever want to find out more about other planets, we will need a better communication system for future space missions.
  24. 24. Obstacles in Space communication • Today, communication in space moves at a snail's pace compared to communication on Earth  Reasons  Distance -- On Earth, we are only a fraction of a light second apart, making Earth communication nearly instantaneous over the Internet. As you move farther out into space, however, there is a delay of minutes or hours because light has to travel millions of miles, instead of thousands of miles, between transmitter and receiver,our nearest planet Mars is 200million km away .
  25. 25. • When you start to consider distances so vast that the speed of light becomes a constraint, bandwidth becomes a precious commodity, and locations are so remote that network components need to be ultra- reliable, autonomous, and power efficient for years at a time. • It takes light 1.26 seconds to travel from the Earth to the Moon. Due to the vast distances involved, much longer delays are incurred than in the Earth-bound Internet.
  26. 26. Some Fast Facts • Time taken by light Earth – Jupiter : 32.7 min Earth – Saturn : 76.7 min Earth – Pluto : 5.5 hours Earth – Voyager1 : 13 hours Earth – Voyager2 : 10.4 hours.
  27. 27. Neptune Uranus Pluto Saturn JUPITER Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars
  28. 28.  . Line of sight obstruction --Anything that blocks the space between the signal transmitter and receiver ,Celestial blocking ,can interrupt communication. • Landed vehicles on remote planetary surfaces will move out of sight of Earth as the body rotates, and may have to communicate through local relay satellites that only provide data transmission contacts for a few minutes at a time.
  29. 29. earth mars mars earth sun sun
  30. 30. Rotation of earth
  31. 31. JUPITER Mars There is a large gap in between the Orbits of the Mars and the Jupiter This gap is occupied by a large number of small bodies that revolve around the Sun These are called asteroids
  32. 32.  Weight -- High-powered antennas that would improve communication with deep space probes are often too heavy to send on a space mission, because the payload must be light and efficiently used. • NASA currently communicates with interplanetary and Earth-orbiting missions using its Deep Space Network. • The network consists of dishes in California, Spain, and Australia, which are manually set to receive transmissions from a given spacecraft. Each facility is equipped with one 111-foot (34-meter) diameter high efficiency antenna, one 111-foot beam waveguide antenna (three in California), one 85-foot (26-meter) antenna, one 230-foot (70-meter) antenna and one 36-foot (11-meter) antenna. The antennas are place as 1200 apart to cover the whole 3600.
  33. 33. • The cost of delivering 1 watt on a spacecraft in orbit around Mars at approximately US$200,000. The cost of delivering that same watt to a Lander on the surface of Mars is US$75,000,000. • Up until now, sending commands to a lonely ship was simply a matter of shooting off a radio signal when its antenna came within range. A simple matter, that is, after telecommunications software written precisely for that one specific mission had been painstakingly fashioned. Afterward, that software was usually discarded. For the next mission, unique software was crafted all over again.
  34. 34. • The main drawback of the Deep Space Network is that it relies on line-of-sight transmissions. That means rovers or astronauts on the far side of Mars must wait until they are back in the line of sight with Earth before sending a message home. To receive the message, the Deep Space Network dishes must be pointed in the right direction at the right time, or the signal will be lost forever • However, recent space missions have lost communication with the DSN, including the Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander missions in 1999.
  35. 35. Failed missions…! • Mars Polar Lander (and the two DS-2 probes) vanished. • The Mars Climate Orbiter, whose relay system the MPL was supposed to have used, had crashed. • NASA has canceled plans to launch the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in September 2009.
  36. 36. How IPN works??
  37. 37. How internet works? • Main components of an internet system are: • 1 CLIENT COMPUTER: • It’s nothing but the user computer. Computers are normally used as user end equipment for data exchange. • 2 ISP (INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER): • It is the company that provides us access to the whole network eg: Dishnet, Sathyam
  38. 38. Web Client/Server Architecture
  39. 39. How internet works?(cont..) • 3 ISP POP (POINT OF PRESENCE): • Is a rack full of modems into which users dial into. The POP is a place for local users to access the company’s network, often through a local phone number or dedicated line. It’s also known as gateway. • 4 NAP (NETWORK ACCESS POINT): • Is the place were all the ISP’s are interconnected. In the real Internet, dozens of large Internet providers interconnect at NAPs in various cities, and trillions of bytes of data flow between the individual networks at these points.
  40. 40. How internet works?(cont..) • 5. ROUTERS: • The routers determine where to send information from one computer to another. . • It joins the two networks, passing information from one to the other. • Regardless of how many networks are attached, the basic operation and function of the router remains the same. Since the Internet is one huge network made up of tens of thousands of smaller networks, its use of routers is an absolute necessity.
  41. 41. How internet works?(cont..) • 6 .BACKBONES: • They are nothing but high data rate transmission channels. • Backbones are typically fiber optic trunk lines. • Most modern backbones can carry data at a rate of more than 2Gbps. • 7. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP ADDRESSES): • Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. The IP stands for Internet Protocol, which is the language that computers use to communicate over the Internet. A protocol is the pre-defined way that someone who wants to use a service talks with that service. The "someone" could be a person, but more often it is a computer program like a Web browser. • The four numbers in an IP address are called octets, because they each have eight positions when viewed in binary form. If you add all the positions together, you get 32, which is why IP addresses are considered 32-bit numbers. • , the IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255 is used for broadcasts.
  42. 42. How internet works?(cont..) • 8.PROTOCOL: • The protocols used are TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol), formulated by scientist named Vint Cerf. Normally TCP is used in LAN and IP is normally used in WAN. In Internet a combination of both is used
  43. 43. Internet History Milestones 1985 1993 NSFNET founded by Web Browser “Mosaic” 1969 1983 The National Science invented by Mark ARPANET DOD Mandated Adoption of Foundation Andreesen R&D Project TCP/IP ARPANET INTERNET 1974 1983 Vinton Cerf ARPANET Split into 1991 and Robert Kahn Initiated ARPANET and MILNET World Wide Web TCP/IP Released by Tim-Berners Lee
  44. 44. The Universal Resource Locator (URL) Each page of information on the web has a unique address called the URL at which it can be found http://mason.gmu.edu/~abaranie/lecture18.htm The document can be obtained Host Name - Path to the Web File Name Page Denotes that the File using the The Name of is Written in HTML Hypertext the Server HyperText Markup Transfer Protocol Language (HTTP)
  45. 45. Know-how behind IPN……….. • The IPN would work more like e-mail, where information would be stored and forwarded to any hub on the system. This "delay-tolerant" network would provide an always-on connection between planets, spacecrafts, and the terrestrial Internet. In the case of Mars, these hubs could be installed on a series of satellites circling the planet. Astronauts could send messages from the far side of Mars, and those messages would be relayed to the nearest hub for routing back to Earth. The "store-and-forward" methodology of the IPN helps minimize problems that crop up due to the vast distances involved, such as high error rates and latency rates that are minutes or even hours long (versus fractions of a second on Earth).
  46. 46. Architecture
  47. 47. Architecture • Even though the theoretical architecture of IPN is similar to that of the normal Internet system, the components such as gateways and transmission channels are different due to the long distance to be covered by the signal. Here are the three basic components of the proposed interplanetary Internet: • • NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). • • A six-satellite constellation around Mars. • • A new protocol for transferring data.
  48. 48. • 1 DEEP SPACE NETWORK: • The DSN is the international network of antennas used by NASA to track data and control navigation of interplanetary spacecraft. It is designed to allow for continuous radio communication with the spacecraft. DSN will work as earth’s gateway in the proposed system. In an interplanetary Internet, the DSN will be the Earth's gateway or portal to that Internet. In a paper published by the MITRE Corp., a company that is financing the Interplanetary Internet Study, researchers suggest that the DSN's antennas could be pointed at Mars to connect Earth and Mars for at least 12 hours each day. Satellites orbiting Mars should provide a full-time connection between the two planets. A Martian rover, probe or human colony will provide a Mars portal to the interplanetary Internet.
  49. 49.  2 SATELLITE CONSTELLATION: • Under the Mars Network plan, the DSN will interact with a constellation of six micro satellites and one large Marsat satellite placed in low Mars orbit
  50. 50. • . The six microsats are relay satellites for spacecraft on or near the surface of the planet, and they will allow more data to come back from Mars missions. The Marsat will collect data from each of the smaller satellites and beam it to Earth. It will also keep Earth and distant spacecraft connected continuously and allow for high- bandwidth data and video of the planet
  51. 51.  3 PROTOCOL USED: • Programmers are developing an Internet file transfer protocol to transmit the messages and overcome delays and interruptions. This protocol will act as the backbone of the entire system much as the Internet protocol (IP) and transmission control protocol (TCP) operate on Earth.. • Vint Cerf is part of the team of scientists who are developing a new protocol to enable reliable file transfer over the long distances between planets and spacecraft. This new space protocol must keep the Internet running even if some packets of data are lost during transmission. It must also block out noise picked up while crossing millions of miles.
  52. 52. • An initial test of DTN in space last October was successful. The code was loaded on a comet-studying spacecraft called Deep Impact as that probe headed out for a flyby of Comet Hartley 2. • During the test about 300 images were transmitted over distances that stretched up to 24 million km. • The software even survived the unintentional reboot of one of the Earth- based antennas.
  53. 53. • A key to DTN is a technique called ”store and forward.” Basically, every node hangs onto the data it receives until it can safely pass it on. On Earth, the data would simply get dumped if there was a problem and be retransmitted by the source. • A "region" is an area where the characteristics of communication are the same. Region characteristics include communications, security, the maintenance of resources, perhaps ownership, and other factors. The Interplanetary Internet is a "network of regional internets."
  54. 54. • A standard way to achieve end-to-end communication through multiple regions in a disconnected, variable- delay environment using a generalized suite of protocols led to the concept of a "bundle" as a high- level way to address the generalized Store-and-Forward problem. • Unlike the Earth’s backbone environment of continuous connectivity, negligible delay and clean data channels, the hallmarks of the interplanetary backbone are therefore intermittent connectivity, huge propagation delays and noisy data channels. While the Earth’s backbone network is wired – large numbers of fiber or copper circuits interconnecting fixed hubs – the interplanetary backbone is dependent on fragile wireless links.
  55. 55.  The bundling protocol operates in two ways:  • It operates in a “store and forward” mode, very similar to e-mail, where bundles are held at routers along the way until such time as a forward path is established.  • It avoids the need for a sender to store data until an acknowledgement is received from the other end by operating in a "custodial" mode. In this mode, intermediate nodes in the network can assume responsibility for ensuring that bundles reach their destinations, allowing senders (and previous custodians) to reassign resources to new observations.  • In the presence of high error rate links, the hop-by-hop store-and-forward bundling model with per-hop error control increases the probability of successful end to end transmission.
  56. 56.  One idea for the space protocol is called the Parcel Transfer Protocol (PTP), which will store and forward data at the gateway of each planet. The IPN would work more like e-mail, where information would be stored and forwarded to any hub on the system. This "delay- tolerant" network would provide an always-on connection between planets, spacecrafts, and the terrestrial Internet. In the case of Mars, these hubs could be installed on a series of satellites circling the planet. Astronauts could send messages from the far side of Mars, and those messages would be relayed to the nearest hub for routing back to Earth. The "store-and-forward" methodology of the IPN helps minimize problems that crop up due to the vast distances involved, such as high error rates and latency rates that are minutes or even hours long (versus fractions of a second on Earth).  A routing function will direct bundles (messages) through a concatenated series of Internets, just as the Earth’s current Internet protocol (IP) routes data through a series of independent networks on Earth. To guarantee reliability of the end-to-end transfer, the bundles will also contain retransmission mechanisms functionally similar to those provided by the terrestrial Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
  57. 57. An initial test of DTN in space last October was successful. The code was loaded on a comet-studying spacecraft called Deep Impact as that probe headed out for a flyby of Comet Hartley 2. During the test about 300 images were transmitted over distances that stretched up to 24 million km. The software even survived the unintentional reboot of one of the Earth- based antennas.
  58. 58.  A key to DTN is a technique called ”store and forward.” Basically, every node hangs onto the data it receives until it can safely pass it on. On Earth, the data would simply get dumped if there was a problem and be retransmitted by the source.  A "region" is an area where the characteristics of communication are the same. Region characteristics include communications, security, the maintenance of resources, perhaps ownership, and other factors. The Interplanetary Internet is a "network of regional internets."
  59. 59. A standard way to achieve end-to-end communication through multiple regions in a disconnected, variable-delay environment using a generalized suite of protocols led to the concept of a "bundle" as a high-level way to address the generalized Store-and- Forward problem.
  60. 60. Bundle Service Layering, implemented as the Bundling protocol suite for delay- tolerant networking, will provide general purpose delay-tolerant protocol services in support of a range of applications: custody transfer, segmentation and reassembly, end-to-end reliability, end-to-end security, and end-to-end routing among them. The Bundle Protocol was first tested in space on the UK-DMC satellite in 2008.
  61. 61. An example of one of these end-to-end applications flown on a space mission is CFDP, used on the comet mission, Deep Impact. CFDP is the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol.
  62. 62. Organizations behind..  Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS):-a body composed of the major space agencies of the world. It has 11 member agencies, 22 observer agencies, and over 100 industrial associates.  NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)  NCSA/ACCESS (National Computational Science Alliance/Alliance Center for Collaborative Education, Science and Software) located in Arlington, Virginia
  63. 63. the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) the Interplanetary Internet Research Group (IPNRG) the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
  64. 64. . CHALLENGES TO INTERPLANETARY INTERNET (DISADVANTAGES)  An interplanetary Internet will make data move drastically faster between Earth and the probes and other spacecraft that are millions of miles away.  Engineers need to overcome several challenges before we plan our virtual journey to Mars through cyberspace.  These challenges are:  • The speed-of-light delay.  • Power Supply.  • Satellite maintenance.  • The possibility of hacker break-ins.  • Noise interference.
  65. 65. • 1 SPEED OF LIGHT DELAY:  On Earth, two computers connected to the Internet are only a few thousand miles away at the most. Because light travels 3 lakh km per hr, it takes only a few fractions of a second to send a packet of data from one computer to another. In contrast, distances between a station on Earth and one on Mars can be between 38 million miles (56 million km) and 248 million miles (400 million km). At these distances, it can take several minutes or hours for a radio signal to reach a receiving station. An interplanetary Internet will not be able to duplicate the real-time immediacy of the Internet that we use. The store-and- forward method will allow information to be sent in bundles and overcome the concern of data being lost due to delays
  66. 66. • 2 POWER SUPPLY:  A major problem faced by the Interplanetary Internet is with power consumption by the various nodes in the system. The fact that the solar flux on Mars is half that on Earth, and that the use of nuclear power sources is still somewhat forbidden, and it becomes clear that both power sources and power usage need to place a strong emphasis on efficiency and economy. Current photovoltaic-powered satellites start to become impractical beyond the orbit of Mars necessitating more efficient hardware and different power supplies.  3 SATELLITE MAINTENANCE:  The satellites of the Mars Network will be tens or hundreds of millions of miles from Earth and that means that it will be hard to get up there to fix things when they go wrong. The components of these satellites would have to be much more reliable than those circling Earth.
  67. 67. • 4 HACKERS:  Hackers pose the biggest threat to an interplanetary Internet. Break- ins and corruption of navigation or communication systems could be disastrous for space missions, and even cause deaths in manned- spacecraft missions. Developers are taking every precaution to design a system that will be able to control access. The protocol selected will have to be impenetrable to hackers, something that has not been possible on Earth. Developers may look at the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol used for financial transactions as a model for securing the interplanetary Internet • 5 NOISE INTERFERENCE:  Even if noise interference problems can be solved to a particular extend with the help of the new protocol, it is going to be a serious threat for the scientists. Since the distances to be covered by the signals are so large, the interference of noise in the IPN will be very high.
  68. 68. APPLICATIONS & FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS  The interplanetary Internet will possibly wire us to Mars within the decade and to other planets in the decades to follow. It will no longer be necessary to go into space to experience space travel. Instead, space will be brought right to your desktop. With enhancements made to boost data rate transfers, you and I might soon be able to take a virtual space trip to the mountains of Mars, the rings of Saturn or the giant spot on Jupiter. The main fields of application of IPN are:
  69. 69. • ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH:  IPN actually helps scientists to study various events happening in the universe easily. With the help of more and more data which will be available from IPN they can make more effective studies.
  70. 70. • PUBLIC VIEWING:  High b/w satellites can send videos for public viewing on the earth. Now we are only seeing events on other planets with the help of animation or if original videos, they will be blurred due to the lower data rate, which will be solved to a particular extend with the help of IPN.
  71. 71. Delay-tolerant networking which has several major areas of application in addition to the Interplanetary Internet, including stressed tactical communications, sensor webs, disaster recovery, hostile environments, and remote outposts.
  72. 72. • VIRTUAL WORLD: Can be implemented with the help of virtual reality and can be used for scientific and entertainment purposes. This will make an economical way for ordinary people to experience various environments in other planets. • SPACE TOURISM.
  73. 73. Future developments .. Future developments..
  74. 74. • FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS  1 CONNECTIVITY: • In the first phase of it’s development scientists are actually trying to make a network between Mars and Earth. Currently NASA is planning to use their DSN as Earth’s gateway to the IPN world. But this Deep Space Network can only provide only a connectivity of 12hrs. a day. If the number of antenna arrays used in the DSN is increased to a higher number, it may provide round the clock connectivity between planets.
  75. 75.  2 SECURITY: • Security aspects in IPN are also under development now. NASA is planning to use SSL (Secured Socket Layer) as the security standard, which is currently used over Internet. It has been proven that SSL is not completely secure from all aspects. A more accurate and reliable security standard can be implemented for increased security and for Hacker free operation.  3 BANDWIDTH: • The overall bandwidth of the proposed system is only some 1Mbps, which is very less compared to Gbps rate of current internet backbones. A more effective advancement in the bundling technique used may increase the effective bandwidth.
  76. 76.  4 POWER SUPPLY: • Power supply is also a problem. When considering distant planets from Sun, it will be difficult for using solar power supplies. So an alternative for power supply is also considered by the scientists.
  77. 77. • The IPN's task is to route messages between terrestrial and Martian area codes - not find the end recipient. To this end the current domain naming system would be expanded such that Earth-based users would find .earth.sol affixed to the end of their Internet addresses while Martians would use .mars.sol.So within a few years “.com” will be replaced by “.earth.sol“, “.mars.sol”. . .
  78. 78. CONCLUSION  Thus Interplanetary Internet is going to change the way of study of Astronomers and the way we think about other planets. IPN will truly reach us to the corners of Universe.  With this kind of network in place, the communications problems resulting from having very little communications infrastructure in place at Mars that plagued the 'rescue' efforts after the Mars Polar Lander disappeared would be greatly simplified.  The potential applications of a Interplanetary Internet extend well beyond the management of space missions. People who surf the Internet today and tap websites in extreme locations such as Antarctica may some day be able to communicate to web or ftp servers on Martian micro satellites to request data directly from Mars. And that's just the beginning. Eventually there will be web servers on the International Space Station, on (or above) the Moon and other planets, and other regions of the solar system.
  79. 79. thank you..

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