History of tobacco use & abuse


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History of tobacco use & abuse

  1. 1. History ofTobacco use & abuseSome interesting factsDr. Vinod JainMS, FACS, FICS, FIAFES, FAIS, FIMSA, FLCS, FMAS, MAMSAssociate ProfessorDepartment of SurgeryKing Georg’s Medical University,Lucknow, India
  2. 2. People usually smoke:-• For pleasure• To satisfy nicotineaddiction• For social purpose• For rituals• For self medication
  3. 3. Today• Tobacco is the major public health issue• Smoking & smokeless tobacco may leadto -- Mouth cancer- Lung cancer- Lung diseases- Heart disease- Premature birth of baby- Poor reproductive health in females- Fetal defects (child is born with defects)- Premature Death of person(Risk is both to smokers & non-smokers)
  4. 4. Non smokers are at risk ofpassive smoking
  5. 5. ButTobacco wasintroduced to theworld for• Medicinal &religious use
  6. 6. Tobacco plantBotanical name –Nicotiana tabacumMain Alkaloid –Nicotine
  7. 7. History of Tobacco use• Used by nativeAmericans of north &south America since3000 BC• Smoked in one formor another –Since2000 BC(as unidentified weedfor medicinal &social purpose)
  8. 8. Few ancients methods ofsmoking
  9. 9. Discovery & Global use ofTobacco• Christopher Columbus (1492)“discovered” “New world” in search ofIndian spices trade through sea route.• Two crews noticed natives of Americanisland (now Cuba), burning a weed toward off disease & fatigue.• The plants were brought to Europe &cultivated for Medicinal use by thesePortuguese
  10. 10. History of Tobacco use• Jean Nicot – French ambassador to Portugalgrew the herb to use it in many diseases• He sent it to King Francis II, Queen Mother &Lords of court for treating the ailments• Popularly known as “Ambassador’s herb” or“Nicotiana” in Nicot’s honour• Derives modern name Nicotiana tabacum fromNicot and Tabaco (Tabaco – cane pipe withtwo branches to sniff through nostrils)
  11. 11. Medicinal use of tobacco inAncient time• Used as magic herb for almost alldiseases at that time• Called as “Holy herb” or “God’s remedy”• John Frampton in 1577 wrote-“Joyful News out of the new found world”• Used through all routes of body in allphysical forms• Tobacco was called sacred plant fortraditional use
  12. 12. Prescribed to treat all kinds of physicaland mental illnesses:• asthma• dropsy• ringworm• scabs• scrofula• old sores• ulcers• wounds• contusions• bruises• carbuncles• flatulence• labor pains• menstrualperiods• halitosis• excessivephlegm• headaches• helminthiasis• rheumatism• tumefactions• toothache• plantpoisoning• scurf• excessivephlegm• venomousbites• breastafflictions• excessivebleeding• abscesses• wounds causedby arrows• colds• stomachaches• constipation• kidney stones• eczema• cancer• colic• gout• indigestion• rabies• sciatica• syncope• cataracts• dysentery• diseases ofthe uterus• facialinflammations• tonsillitis• epilepsy• burns• deafness• cosumption• corns• warts• hemorrhoids• fevers• nose bleeds• venerealdiseases.
  13. 13. Traditional use of TobaccoTobacco used bynative Americansfor• Ceremonialpurpose• Medicinal purpose
  14. 14. Ceremonial use• Communication with spirits (smoke)• Thanking the Creator• Praying for good harvest or betterfish catch• Birth, wedding or funeral occasions• Sealing the peace with enemies(peace pipes)• Thanks to mother earth & other spirits
  15. 15. Example of ceremonial prayerO Great Creator,I come before you in a humble mannerAnd offer you this sacred pipe.With tears in my eyes and an ancient song from my heartI pray.To the four powers of creation,To the grandfather Sun,To the grandmother Moon,To the Mother earth,And to my ancestors.May there be good health and healing for this Earth,May there be Beauty above me,May there be Beauty below me,May there be Beauty in me,May there be Beauty around me.I ask that this world be filled with peace, Love and Beauty.
  16. 16. Traditional medical useEven today some First Nations have“pipe carries”- To treat earaches, snakebites &other wounds- To purify mind & heal the body- To heal the pain of toothache
  17. 17. But• Cultivating tobacco plants in mass for useof cigarettes & chewing removes itsspiritual & medicinal purpose & strips thebeauty of this plant• This commercial or recreational use(misuse) is non traditional which leads toimbalance, addiction and disease
  18. 18. Strict warningfor tobaccomisuse wasalso issuedin ancientstimes.
  19. 19. • 1604 (England) –King James I pronounced in his“counter blast to tobacco” thatsmoking was “Loathsome to eyes, hatefulto nose, harmful to the brain anddangerous to the Lungs”• 1633 (Turkey) –Death penalty for smoking
  20. 20. Tobacco in India• Portuguese brought in tobacco throughGoa in 1600 for the purpose of trade• Initially introduced to Royal courts• Spread to commoner in 17thcentury• Portuguese traded it for Indian textiles &spices• British colonial rule magnified the tobaccoproduction & consumption (Import ofAmerican tobacco to India)
  21. 21. Tobacco in India• British East India company grew tobacco in Indiaas cash cropCultivated tobacco in IndiaExported to BritainRe-imported cigarettes to India toearn revenue
  22. 22. Tobacco in India• In late Nineteenth century Beedi industrygrew in India• Oldest Beedi manufacturing firmestablished in 1887• Tax policies of Indian Government afterIndependence also favoured Beediconsumption
  23. 23. • Introduction of Gutkha (oral tobacco)has opened New front betweencommercial tobacco use and publichealthTobacco in India
  24. 24. Tobacco use in IndiaBrake in tobacco control• Ready revenues from cash crop• Export to tobacco-hungry world market• Employment opportunities to millions• Half-hearted political will• Lack of self control• Glamorous advertisement of Tobacco• Lack of moral education
  25. 25. Napoleon Bonaparte once said -“This vice brings100 millions francseach year. I willcertainly forbid itat once- as soonas you can name avirtue that bringsin, as much asrevenue.”
  26. 26. Do you like to convert thesebeautiful plants into“death sticks”?“Death sticks”