The Incas were a Pre-Columbian tribe that lived on the Andes
Mountains, which is in modern day Peru. The Inca empire was
the biggest empire in the Pre-Columbian era. The Incas spoke
Quechua language and its capital, were it’s government was
based was called Cuzco. There is much debate over the
population of the empire, with estimates ranging from 1 million
to 37 million. At the empires greatest extent it reached from
Ecuador to Chile, with Peru in the centre.
The Incan empire started from small beginnings. It
originated from the kingdom of Cuzco which was a
small city state in the city Cuzco. In 1438 the
kingdom of Cuzco, under the leadership of
Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui started to expand the
empire. First the tribe of Chancas was taken,
which cleared the path for more expansion of the
Cuzco in the red
Cuzco in modern-day
The Incan empire was centred in Cuzco, the capital. The empire stretched
down from modern day Ecuador down to Chile. It expanded out into Bolivia,
some of Argentina and smaller parts of Colombia. Mainly, people of the Inca
empire lived on or around the Andes mountains of west, South America.
empire was the
main occupier of
the west coast
The Incan empire was around during the Pre-Columbian Era. That era was when
there was no significant European influences in society and government, in South
America. The empire officially started in 1438 but the culture and religion of the
Incas arose sometime in the early 13th century. The Inca Empire ended in 1533. 95
years was the length of the empire.
The Inca empire expanded upwards and downwards because to the east is
the Amazon rainforest. It would be a big headache for the invading soldiers
because they would have to use the slash and burn method which is time
consuming and there is alot of rainforest to cover. Once the empire gained
total control of the conquered lands it was easy to plant crops due to the fertile
1200 – The Inca tribe founded the city state of Cuzco.
1200 - 1440 – During this period they do not try do expand there city state.
1438 – Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui becomes the leader of the newly formed Inca Empire.
He conquers alot of tribes and took there land as part of his expansion of the
empire. He also builds Macchu Picchu.
1471 – Tupac Inca Yupanqui becomes emperor.
1476 – Emperor Tupac defeats the Chuma empire & their land comes under Inca
1493 – Huayna Capac, Tupac’s son becomes emperor. The empire reaches its peak
under his reign.
1525 – Emperor Huayna dies from a plague, that was likely brought from the Spanish.
Emperor Huayna’s sons fight over the crown. The empire enters a civil war.
1532 - Atahualpa defeats Huascar & becomes emperor. The Spanish conquistador
Francisco Pizarro arrives in Peru. He captures the emperor & holds him for
1533 – The Spanish kill Atahualpa & Install Huayna’s other son Manco Inca as
1537 – Manco flees & forms a separate government from the Spanish. The colony of
New Castile was formed.
1572 – The Spanish execute the last of the emperors of the empire.
Achievements important to the success of the Inca Empire:
Communication: (roads, runners, string writing)
Specialized Professions (engineers, metal workers, stone masons, other artisans)
Service Tax (huge free labour force)
Technology (terrace farming, surplus crops, irrigation systems)
Strong Central Government (all powerful Inca, strict laws, basic needs satisfied)
Freeze Dried Foods
Use of Gold and Silver
Aqueducts (the Incas were frequent bathers)
Systems of Measurement (calendar, quipus)
Huayna Capac was the eleventh Sapa Inca (emperor) of the Inca Empire. He
was the Sapa Inca from 1493–1525. He was the successor of Tupac Inca
Yupanqui. Huayna Capac was born in Tomebamba, possibly in 1468. Huayna
Capac's legitimate wife and full sister was Coya Cusirimay. The couple
produced no male heirs, but Huayna Capac had as many as 50 or more
children with other women. Huayna contracted smallpox, which was the
cause of his death.
Most of the Incas who were not killed by the Spanish in combat probably died from
European diseases. But the Incas did not die out entirely; rather, the survivors of the
Spanish invasion blended into the rest of the population. Still today Inca culture and
religion is prevalent in South America.
Similarities & Differences:
Their architecture, style of dress, basic culture, religious practices, legends and
mythologies, rituals, games, even their physical appearance all are the same with
just slight differences in these categories. Culture and religion differ quite
prominently but some aspects of it, such as human sacrifice are the same. The
conditions that the empire live in such as desert & rainforest are also different. The
Aztecs lived in hot conditions, as they lived in modern day Mexico. The Mayans
lived in humid conditions, as they lived in modern day Guatemala, Belize and other
central American countries. The Incas lived in a range of different conditions such
as mountains (Andes), seaside, rainforests and many more due to the extent of the
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