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  1. 1. The Incas were a Pre-Columbian tribe that lived on the Andes Mountains, which is in modern day Peru. The Inca empire was the biggest empire in the Pre-Columbian era. The Incas spoke Quechua language and its capital, were it’s government was based was called Cuzco. There is much debate over the population of the empire, with estimates ranging from 1 million to 37 million. At the empires greatest extent it reached from Ecuador to Chile, with Peru in the centre.
  2. 2. The Incan empire started from small beginnings. It originated from the kingdom of Cuzco which was a small city state in the city Cuzco. In 1438 the kingdom of Cuzco, under the leadership of Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui started to expand the empire. First the tribe of Chancas was taken, which cleared the path for more expansion of the empire. Kingdom of Cuzco in the red Cuzco in modern-day Peru
  3. 3. The Incan empire was centred in Cuzco, the capital. The empire stretched down from modern day Ecuador down to Chile. It expanded out into Bolivia, some of Argentina and smaller parts of Colombia. Mainly, people of the Inca empire lived on or around the Andes mountains of west, South America. The Incan empire was the main occupier of the west coast of South America
  4. 4. The Incan empire was around during the Pre-Columbian Era. That era was when there was no significant European influences in society and government, in South America. The empire officially started in 1438 but the culture and religion of the Incas arose sometime in the early 13th century. The Inca Empire ended in 1533. 95 years was the length of the empire.
  5. 5. The Inca empire expanded upwards and downwards because to the east is the Amazon rainforest. It would be a big headache for the invading soldiers because they would have to use the slash and burn method which is time consuming and there is alot of rainforest to cover. Once the empire gained total control of the conquered lands it was easy to plant crops due to the fertile soil.
  6. 6. 1200 – The Inca tribe founded the city state of Cuzco. 1200 - 1440 – During this period they do not try do expand there city state. 1438 – Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui becomes the leader of the newly formed Inca Empire. He conquers alot of tribes and took there land as part of his expansion of the empire. He also builds Macchu Picchu. 1471 – Tupac Inca Yupanqui becomes emperor. 1476 – Emperor Tupac defeats the Chuma empire & their land comes under Inca control. 1493 – Huayna Capac, Tupac’s son becomes emperor. The empire reaches its peak under his reign. 1525 – Emperor Huayna dies from a plague, that was likely brought from the Spanish. Emperor Huayna’s sons fight over the crown. The empire enters a civil war. 1532 - Atahualpa defeats Huascar & becomes emperor. The Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro arrives in Peru. He captures the emperor & holds him for ransom. 1533 – The Spanish kill Atahualpa & Install Huayna’s other son Manco Inca as emperor. 1537 – Manco flees & forms a separate government from the Spanish. The colony of New Castile was formed. 1572 – The Spanish execute the last of the emperors of the empire.
  7. 7. Achievements important to the success of the Inca Empire: Communication: (roads, runners, string writing) Specialized Professions (engineers, metal workers, stone masons, other artisans) Service Tax (huge free labour force) Technology (terrace farming, surplus crops, irrigation systems) Strong Central Government (all powerful Inca, strict laws, basic needs satisfied) Inventions: Terrace Farming Freeze Dried Foods Use of Gold and Silver Stonework Textiles Aqueducts (the Incas were frequent bathers) Hanging Bridges Panpipes Systems of Measurement (calendar, quipus)
  8. 8. Huayna Capac Huayna Capac was the eleventh Sapa Inca (emperor) of the Inca Empire. He was the Sapa Inca from 1493–1525. He was the successor of Tupac Inca Yupanqui. Huayna Capac was born in Tomebamba, possibly in 1468. Huayna Capac's legitimate wife and full sister was Coya Cusirimay. The couple produced no male heirs, but Huayna Capac had as many as 50 or more children with other women. Huayna contracted smallpox, which was the cause of his death.
  9. 9. Most of the Incas who were not killed by the Spanish in combat probably died from European diseases. But the Incas did not die out entirely; rather, the survivors of the Spanish invasion blended into the rest of the population. Still today Inca culture and religion is prevalent in South America.
  10. 10. Similarities & Differences: Their architecture, style of dress, basic culture, religious practices, legends and mythologies, rituals, games, even their physical appearance all are the same with just slight differences in these categories. Culture and religion differ quite prominently but some aspects of it, such as human sacrifice are the same. The conditions that the empire live in such as desert & rainforest are also different. The Aztecs lived in hot conditions, as they lived in modern day Mexico. The Mayans lived in humid conditions, as they lived in modern day Guatemala, Belize and other central American countries. The Incas lived in a range of different conditions such as mountains (Andes), seaside, rainforests and many more due to the extent of the empire.
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