1SIGNIFICANCE OF PROGRESSIVE REVISIONSOFNATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITYSTANDARDS (NAAQS) IN INDIAVinod KumarEnvironmental Mon...
EnvironmentPhysical Biological Social/CulturalLithosphere Floral PhysicalHydrosphere Faunal SocialAtmosphere Economicprote...
Composition of Clean and Dry AirNitrogen 78.09 %Oxygen 20.94 %Carbon dioxide 0.03 %Helium 0.005 %Oxides of Nitrogen 0.001 ...
The presence in outdoor atmosphere, of one or morecontaminants such asfumes, dust, gases, mist, grit, odor, smoke, smog or...
Impacts ofAcid Rain Smog5
6
Health Effects• aggravated asthma• coughing• difficult or painfulbreathing• chronic bronchitis• decreased lungfunction• Ca...
8First Air Pollution Study in IndiaCarried out by NEERI, Nagpur (1967 to 1989)Pollutants: Dust-fall, Sulphation rate, SO2,...
9Initiatives taken by Govt. of India1. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), wasconstituted in September, 1974 under the...
10Initiatives taken by Govt. of India1. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 wasimplemented to formulate environmental p...
111. Air Pollutants Monitored Under NAMP: SO2, NO2, SPMand PM10 and additional parameters (in 7 metrocities); Pb and other...
• WHO first came up with air quality guidelines in1987 ( , , , )• Which were updated in 1996 (• And subsequently revised i...
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (2009)12 PARAMETERS1. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)2. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)3. Particulate ...
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (2009)Pollutants(μg/m3)TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial, R...
Pollutants TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial,Residential,Rural and otherAreasEcologicallySensitive...
Pollutantsng/m3TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial,Residential,Rural and otherAreasEcologicallySensi...
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SIGNIFICANCE OF PROGRESSIVE REVISIONS OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) IN INDIA

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Most of the pollutants, related to petroleum production, processing and use, have an intrinsic toxic potential which permits them to be included in the Hazardous Pollutants category. Their photochemical reaction products are more dangerous than the original pollutants and may affect biological systems at extremely low concentrations. The review of the previous NAAQS and inclusion of new parameters was undertaken by the CPCB in association with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. The Proposal for revision in NAAQS was deliberated upon extensively and has been notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 on 16.11.2009 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The ministry has recently revised its National Ambient Air Quality Standards and has introduced more comprehensive monitoring strategies. It is also developing protocols for various parameters of ambient air as well as indoor air. It is also working on initiating comprehensive national ambient noise quality monitoring in urban areas.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF PROGRESSIVE REVISIONS OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) IN INDIA

  1. 1. 1SIGNIFICANCE OF PROGRESSIVE REVISIONSOFNATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITYSTANDARDS (NAAQS) IN INDIAVinod KumarEnvironmental Monitoring Division,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research,LUCKNOW-226 001Email:vinod.kothiya88@gmail.comCSIR-IITR
  2. 2. EnvironmentPhysical Biological Social/CulturalLithosphere Floral PhysicalHydrosphere Faunal SocialAtmosphere Economicprotective blanketMaintains heat balanceGives O2 for life & CO2 for photosynthesis2
  3. 3. Composition of Clean and Dry AirNitrogen 78.09 %Oxygen 20.94 %Carbon dioxide 0.03 %Helium 0.005 %Oxides of Nitrogen 0.001 ppmSulphur dioxide 0.0002 ppmCarbon monoxide 0.1 ppmA chemical species foreign to the composition ofthe clean atmosphere is called a ‘contaminant’.3
  4. 4. The presence in outdoor atmosphere, of one or morecontaminants such asfumes, dust, gases, mist, grit, odor, smoke, smog orvapors in considerable quantities and of durationwhich is injurious to human, animal or plant life.Sources of PollutionAir Pollution4Natural SourcesVolcanic EruptionsForest FiresNatural DecaysMarsh GasesCosmic DustsSoil DebrisPollen GrainsFungal SporesManmade SourcesVehicular EmissionDeforestationBurning of Fossil FuelsIndustrializationAgricultural ActivitiesWars
  5. 5. Impacts ofAcid Rain Smog5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Health Effects• aggravated asthma• coughing• difficult or painfulbreathing• chronic bronchitis• decreased lungfunction• Cardiac functionimpairment• premature death7
  8. 8. 8First Air Pollution Study in IndiaCarried out by NEERI, Nagpur (1967 to 1989)Pollutants: Dust-fall, Sulphation rate, SO2, NOX andSuspended Particulate Matter (SPM),Findings:SPM : Identified as major Pollutant (>300 µg/m3)SO2 : 40-60 till 1980 reduced to 20 µg/m3 till 1986NOx : 9-23 µg/m3 reported during 1988-89Conclusion of NEERI Study:SO2 and NOx levels were not of significantconcern, and SPM levels were very High
  9. 9. 9Initiatives taken by Govt. of India1. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), wasconstituted in September, 1974 under the Water(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.2. Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers andfunctions under the Air (Prevention and Control ofPollution) Act, 1981.3. The CPCB had adopted first AAQS on November11, 1982 as per section 16 (2) of the Air (Preventionand Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.Parameters of first AAQS on November 11, 1982SO2, NO2, SPM, Respirable Particulate Matter(<10µm), Pb & CO (criteria pollutants)Area classification based on land use and other factorsresidential and rural, industrial and sensitive categories
  10. 10. 10Initiatives taken by Govt. of India1. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 wasimplemented to formulate environmental policiesand to act as an umbrella legislation.2. CPCB initiated the National Ambient Air QualityMonitoring (NAAQM) program in the year 1984 withseven stations.3. Subsequently, the program was renamed as NationalAir Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The number ofmonitoring stations under the NAMP hasincreased, steadily, to 295 by 2000-2001 covering 99cities/towns in 28 States and 4 Union Territories.
  11. 11. 111. Air Pollutants Monitored Under NAMP: SO2, NO2, SPMand PM10 and additional parameters (in 7 metrocities); Pb and other toxic trace metals, H2S, NH3 &PAHs.2. Further the air quality standard was revised by CPCBin 1994 by including ammonia.3. Fast developmental activities during last two decadesresulted in the generation of many chemical airpollutants. The review of the previous NAAQS wasundertaken by the CPCB and IIT, Kanpur. The revisedNAAQS-2009 released on 16.11.2009.Initiatives taken by Govt. of India
  12. 12. • WHO first came up with air quality guidelines in1987 ( , , , )• Which were updated in 1996 (• And subsequently revised in 2000 ( )These were known as Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.• There after WHO issued guidelines in 2005 on airquality ( ).12International Scenario
  13. 13. NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (2009)12 PARAMETERS1. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)2. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)3. Particulate Matter (Size less than 10 μm) or PM104. Particulate Matter (Size less than 2.5 μm) or PM2.55. Ozone (O3)6. Lead (Pb)7. Carbon Monoxide (CO)8. Ammonia (NH3)9. Benzene (C6H6)10. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) Particulate phase only11. Arsenic (As)12. Nickel (Ni)13
  14. 14. NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (2009)Pollutants(μg/m3)TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial, Residential,Rural and other AreasEcologically SensitiveArea (Notified by GOI)SulphurDioxide (SO2)Annual *24 Hours **50802080NitrogenDioxide (NO2)Annual *24 Hours **40803080ParticulateMatter, Sizeless than 10μm (PM10)Annual *24 Hours **6010060100ParticulateMatter, Sizeless than2.5μm (PM2.5)Annual *24 Hours **40604060Ozone (O3) 8 Hours *1 Hour **10018010018014
  15. 15. Pollutants TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial,Residential,Rural and otherAreasEcologicallySensitive Area(Notified byCentral Government)Lead (Pb)μg/m3Annual *24 Hours**0.501.00.501.0CarbonMonoxide(CO) mg/m3Annual *24 Hours**02040204Ammonia(NH3)μg/m3Annual *24 Hours**100400100400Benzene(C6H6),μg/m3Annual * 05 0515NAAQS-2009
  16. 16. Pollutantsng/m3TimeWeightedAverageConcentration in Ambient AirIndustrial,Residential,Rural and otherAreasEcologicallySensitive Area(Notified by GOI)Benzo(a)Pyrene(BaP)Annual * 01 01Arsenic (As) Annual * 06 06Nickel (Ni) Annual * 20 20*Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in ayear at a particular site taken twice a week 24 hourly atuniform intervals.** 24 hourly or 8 hourly or 1 hourly monitored values, asapplicable, shall be complied with 98% of the time in a year.2% of the time, they may exceed the limits but not on twoconsecutive days of monitoring. 16NAAQS-2009
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