<ul><li>Oil Absorbing and Vapor Retaining Fibrous Mats </li></ul><ul><li>Vinitkumar Singh 1 , Utkarsh Sata 1 , Sudheer Jin...
<ul><ul><li>The United States uses about 700 million gallons of oil every day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  The world uses near...
<ul><li>Marine life </li></ul><ul><li>Wild life </li></ul>Figure : 1 Figure : 2
<ul><li>Travel economy has been hurt in the Gulf Coast States. The US will lose $22.7 billion  over the next three years <...
Source:  http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2010/images/oil_chart.jpg
<ul><li>Booms </li></ul><ul><li>Skimmers </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical dispersants & Biological ag...
<ul><li>Natural materials </li></ul><ul><li>-  Cotton fibers, Wool and Human Hair  </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Fiber geometry & Structural arrangement  </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic nature of the fiber  </li></ul><ul><li>Surf...
<ul><li>To investigate the oil absorption capacity of nonwovens & fibrous materials </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nonwoven Materials Used </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton- Carbon Composite [Fibertect TM  ] </li></ul><ul><li>( Hobbs Bond...
<ul><li>Preparation of Sample </li></ul><ul><li>a)  Needlepunching process was used for developing the cotton-  </li></ul>...
Figure :6 Figure :7
Figure : 9
Patent  : Ramkumar, S. S., US 7,516,525  (2009), Process for making protective chemical wipe and such wipes Ramkumar, S. S...
Fiber parameters of cotton (HVI) Fiber parameters of cotton (AFIS) Fiber parameters of 1R Cotton (AFIS) <ul><li>Micronaire...
Figure:  10   Top view  Figure: 11   Side View
<ul><li>Adsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Movement </li></ul>Hyung-Min Choi and Hyo-Jung...
Oil absorption gm/ gm
Figure:12  SEM Image of the cotton fiber
Figure :14 SEM image of  75 GSM spunbond  polypropylene nonwoven  Figure: 13 SEM Image of the three-layered composite with...
<ul><li>Results were analyzed using JMP-IN® statistical analysis package </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison between Fibertect, H...
<ul><li>Oil Absorption by Fibertect </li></ul>
Figure:15 Oil washed ashore Figure:16 Oil pick-up by Fibertect Field: Grand Isle, LA    Field testing was carried out by o...
 
(Interlocking takes place only at the interface)   Top Needlepunched Fabric Activated Carbon Nonwoven Fabric Bottom Needle...
Adsorption Studies Using TGA
TGA Front View  (Closed Furnace) Sample Loading in TGA TGA Sample Pan SORBENT Sample
Paraoxon 0.1 % w/v in Butanol. Tangent 1 Tangent 2 Derivative Curve
 
 
 
Adsorption Capacity Values for Various Nonwoven Activated Carbon Layers (Middle Layer)
ACN- Middle Layer The Middle Carbon Layer retains significant amount of its adsorption capacity (0.16 g/g)
<ul><li>Cotton-Carbon Nonwoven Oil Absorbent </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of cotton-carbon nonwoven composite absorbs  15 gram...
<ul><li>The cotton-carbon nonwoven pad first developed to adsorb toxic vapors is finding additional applications such as o...
<ul><li>Funding and support from these organizations are greatly appreciated:  </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Defens...
<ul><li>Special thanks to these supporters: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Roger Haldenby of Plains Cotton Growers, Inc.  </li></ul...
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Fiber Society Conference Ads Vapor 2010

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Oil Absorbing and Vapor Retaining Fibrous Mats
Vinitkumar Singh1, Utkarsh Sata1, Sudheer Jinka1, Muralidhar Lalagiri1, Amit Kapoor2 and Seshadri Ramkumar1 1Nonwovens and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 2First Line Technologies, Chantilly, VA seshadri.ramkumar@tiehh.ttu.edu


ABSTRACT

Recently, human health and environmental issues are surfacing up in the Gulf of Mexico due to toxic gases associated with the deepwater horizon rig explosion. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recently endorsed a research study which shows the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at depths up to 400 meters below the ocean surface. Even though these PAHs are detected at very low concentrations, they are known to cause cancer and other health problems over prolonged exposure. There have been 143 health related cases in Louisiana due to the oil spill exposure. Conventional polypropylene based nonwovens are known to have oil absorbing capability. However, with detection of subsurface plumes that contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene, it is important to have remediation tools which can not only absorb the oil but also adsorb the toxic vapors associated with it. Recent research at Texas Tech University has shown that absorbing mats made from raw cotton and activated carbon fabric were able to provide solution to this complex and uncertain issue. Fundamental aspects on the absorption and adsorption characteristics of mats will be dealt in the presentation.
Experimental results from our lab show that each cotton-carbon composite is able to absorb 15 grams of motor oil. This result matches with the oil absorption capacity of commercially available polypropylene sorbents. Additionally, experiments have been performed on crude oil obtained from an oil pump in Texas.

FIGURE 1. Initial Field Test of Cotton-Carbon Nonwoven in Grand Isle, LA (Credit First Line Technology)
Initial field study undertaken on the oiled shores of Grand Isle, Louisiana shows that the three layered cotton-carbon composite was able to absorb viscous and semisolid oil (see Fig.1). In addition, lab tests have shown that the middle carbon layer of the cotton-carbon composite, when challenged with vapors of VOC toluene, can adsorb this VOC up to 25 % of the carbon layer’s weight. This nonwoven composite gives an edge over synthetic sorbents as it allows for an environmentally safe, biodegradable technology that is perfect for the expanding effort to protect and decontaminate coastal lands and wildlife. This presentation will focus on the development, oil absorption capability evaluation and vapor adsorption/retention studies of the three layered cotton-carbon nonwoven composite.
REFERENCES

[1] Ramkumar, SS; Love, AH; Sata, UR, et al. “Next-Generation Nonparticulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination,” Industrial &amp; Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol., No. 47, 24, 2008, 9889-9895.

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Fiber Society Conference Ads Vapor 2010

  1. 1. <ul><li>Oil Absorbing and Vapor Retaining Fibrous Mats </li></ul><ul><li>Vinitkumar Singh 1 , Utkarsh Sata 1 , Sudheer Jinka 1 , Muralidhar Lalagiri 1 , </li></ul><ul><li>Amit Kapoor 2 and Seshadri Ramkumar 1 </li></ul><ul><li> 1 Nonwovens and Advanced Materials Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Tech University , Lubbock, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>2 First Line Technology, Chantilly, VA </li></ul><ul><li>The Fiber Society 2010 Fall Meeting and Technical Conference </li></ul><ul><li>October 20-22, 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>The United States uses about 700 million gallons of oil every day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  The world uses nearly 3 billion gallons each day </li></ul><ul><li>  Exxon Valdez  spill (March 1989), Alaska - 11 million gallons of crude oil spill </li></ul><ul><li>Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 2010), Gulf of Mexico- 152 million gallons of oil ( World’s Largest Oil Spill ) </li></ul>Source: http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/stories/oilymess/supp_primer.html
  3. 3. <ul><li>Marine life </li></ul><ul><li>Wild life </li></ul>Figure : 1 Figure : 2
  4. 4. <ul><li>Travel economy has been hurt in the Gulf Coast States. The US will lose $22.7 billion over the next three years </li></ul><ul><li>Oil spill will have long-term effects on businesses and jobs in the Gulf Coast region </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal region's 400,000 travel industry jobs at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Human health issue-long term </li></ul>Source: http://www.ustravel.org/news/press-releases/bp-oil-spill-impact-gulf-travel-likely-last-3-years-and-cost-227-billion
  5. 5. Source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2010/images/oil_chart.jpg
  6. 6. <ul><li>Booms </li></ul><ul><li>Skimmers </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical dispersants & Biological agents </li></ul><ul><li>In-situ burning </li></ul><ul><li>High-pressure or low-pressure hoses </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Shovels & road equipment </li></ul>Figure:3 Source: http://ifai.com/ Figure: 4 Figure:5 © BP pIc © BP pIc
  7. 7. <ul><li>Natural materials </li></ul><ul><li>- Cotton fibers, Wool and Human Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers </li></ul><ul><li>- Polypropylene , Polyurethane </li></ul><ul><li>Processed material </li></ul><ul><li>- Cotton-carbon composite, Hydrophobic cotton fibers </li></ul>Source: Deschamps, G., H. Caruel, M. E. Borredon, C. Bonnin & C. Vignoles (2003) Oil removal from water by selective sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers, Study of sorption properties and comparison with other cotton fiber-based sorbents. Environmental Science & Technology, 37 , 1013-1015.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fiber geometry & Structural arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic nature of the fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Porosity </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>To investigate the oil absorption capacity of nonwovens & fibrous materials </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Nonwoven Materials Used </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton- Carbon Composite [Fibertect TM ] </li></ul><ul><li>( Hobbs Bonded Fibers, Waco, TX ) </li></ul><ul><li>Meltblown Polypropylene absorbent pads -190 gsm (SMO928 A ) </li></ul><ul><li>( Hollingsworth & Vose) </li></ul><ul><li>Spunbond Polypropylene nonwoven sheets- 75 gsm </li></ul><ul><li>( UTNRL, Knoxville, TN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Raw cotton fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Used </li></ul><ul><li>Light crude oil (Quaker State SAE low-30, density = 0.863 g/cm 3 , Viscosity= 3.2 cP ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Preparation of Sample </li></ul><ul><li>a) Needlepunching process was used for developing the cotton- </li></ul><ul><li> carbon oil soaking nonwoven </li></ul><ul><li>b) Continuous batt formation of cotton fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of sample </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM( F26-06)- Standard test method for sorbent performance of adsorbents </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure :6 Figure :7
  13. 13. Figure : 9
  14. 14. Patent : Ramkumar, S. S., US 7,516,525 (2009), Process for making protective chemical wipe and such wipes Ramkumar, S. S., A. H. Love, U. R. Sata, C. J. Koester, W. J. Smith, G. A. Keating, L. W. Hobbs, S. B. Cox, W. M. Lagna & R. J. Kendall (2008) Next-Generation Nonparticulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47 , 9889-9895. Specifications for the cotton-carbon composite <ul><li>Surface area of activated carbon = 1280 m 2 /gm </li></ul><ul><li>Activated carbon, which holds volatile chemicals is sandwiched between two sheets </li></ul><ul><li>of cotton nonwoven material </li></ul><ul><li>The cotton used is raw and mechanically cleaned </li></ul>Figure : 8 Layer Thickness ( inch) Weight ( GSM) Carbon 0.1 108.68 Raw cotton 0.12 136.65 Total 0.2 327.10
  15. 15. Fiber parameters of cotton (HVI) Fiber parameters of cotton (AFIS) Fiber parameters of 1R Cotton (AFIS) <ul><li>Micronaire: 1 repeat/sample and 5 sample/cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Length, Uniformity, Strength, Elongation: 2 repeat/sample and 5 sample/cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Fineness, Immature Fiber content (IFC), Maturity ratio:1repeat/sample and 3 sample/cotton </li></ul>Parameter Value Micronaire 5.05 (0.1) Length ( inches) 1.04 (0.0) Unif. % 80.88 (0.7) Strength ( gm/tex) 28.38 (1) Elongation (%) 7.26 (0.2) Parameter Value Avg Fineness ( mTex) 167 (1.155) Avg IFC (%) 7.82 ( 0.462) Avg Maturity Ratio 0.87 (0.006 )
  16. 16. Figure: 10 Top view Figure: 11 Side View
  17. 17. <ul><li>Adsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Movement </li></ul>Hyung-Min Choi and Hyo-Jung Kwon, Textile Research Journal, April 1993
  18. 18. Oil absorption gm/ gm
  19. 19. Figure:12 SEM Image of the cotton fiber
  20. 20. Figure :14 SEM image of 75 GSM spunbond polypropylene nonwoven Figure: 13 SEM Image of the three-layered composite with activated carbon in the middle
  21. 21. <ul><li>Results were analyzed using JMP-IN® statistical analysis package </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison between Fibertect, H&V commercial sorbent and Spunbond Polypropylene , P-value = 0.0001 and hence the absorption values are significantly different </li></ul><ul><li>For 3 pairs testing Tukey Kramer HSD </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates positive values which imply significant difference. Positive values are between 1) Fibertect & Spunbond polypropylene ( Significantly different) 2) H&V commercial sorbent & Spunbond polypropylene ( Significantly different) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Fibertect & H&V commercial sorbent ( Not significantly different ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Oil Absorption by Fibertect </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure:15 Oil washed ashore Figure:16 Oil pick-up by Fibertect Field: Grand Isle, LA   Field testing was carried out by our collaborator, First Line Technology Photo courtesy: First Line Technology
  24. 25. (Interlocking takes place only at the interface) Top Needlepunched Fabric Activated Carbon Nonwoven Fabric Bottom Needlepunched Fabric Interlocking is only at the Interface
  25. 26. Adsorption Studies Using TGA
  26. 27. TGA Front View (Closed Furnace) Sample Loading in TGA TGA Sample Pan SORBENT Sample
  27. 28. Paraoxon 0.1 % w/v in Butanol. Tangent 1 Tangent 2 Derivative Curve
  28. 32. Adsorption Capacity Values for Various Nonwoven Activated Carbon Layers (Middle Layer)
  29. 33. ACN- Middle Layer The Middle Carbon Layer retains significant amount of its adsorption capacity (0.16 g/g)
  30. 34. <ul><li>Cotton-Carbon Nonwoven Oil Absorbent </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of cotton-carbon nonwoven composite absorbs 15 grams of oil </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Aspect : cotton-carbon nonwoven can hold hydrocarbons that are carcinogenic and harmful to marine lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable ( relative to synthetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Re-usable </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous Cotton Oil Sorbent </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of raw cotton absorbs 45 grams of oil </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>The cotton-carbon nonwoven pad first developed to adsorb toxic vapors is finding additional applications such as oil pick-up and holding toxic fumes/vapors </li></ul><ul><li>Applications are also evolving in natural gas industry </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Funding and support from these organizations are greatly appreciated: </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Incorporated (Texas State Support Program) </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Foundation (Memphis) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Department of Agriculture (FFRGP) </li></ul><ul><li>The CH Foundation (Lubbock) </li></ul><ul><li>ICRC-College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, TTU </li></ul><ul><li>Plains Cotton Growers, Inc. (Lubbock) </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Special thanks to these supporters: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Roger Haldenby of Plains Cotton Growers, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Kater Hake of Cotton Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Kay Sanford of The CH Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Steve Verett & Mr. Shawn Wade of Plains Cotton Growers, Inc. </li></ul>

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