‘Textural Analysis- Machineand Human Perspectives’Vinita Puranik andVandana MishraCentre of Food TechnologyUniversity of A...
Sensory EvaluationA scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyzeand interpret reactions to those characteristics ...
Why sensory science?• Sensory science shows the way in productdevelopment and Quality Control• ‘It is like Braille to the ...
• A group of similar sensory impressionsmediated by a given organ is referred toas sense (modality).• Factors from the env...
FOOD PRODUCTS ARE MULTIDI-MENSIONAL:• Visual: package appearance, productappearance, color.• Olfactory: product aroma/frag...
Sensory Characteristics• Appearance• Taste• Odor• Flavor• Texture• Sound
• TextureIt refers to the properties held and sensationscaused by the external surface of objectsreceived through the sens...
• Texture can be regarded as amanifestation of the rheologicalproperties of a food. -It is an important attribute in that...
Characterisation of food texture commonly falls into two maingroups, based on sensory and instrumental methods of analys...
Texture– Qualities felt by tongue, palate, teeth,or fingersTexture – mouthfeel – how a food feels in yourmouth (sticky, sm...
Food product Textural attribute mostcommonly associatedCarrot (raw) Hard, crunchyButter SoftToffee GummyMeat/ Paneer Chewy...
Nature of Attribute ExamplesVisual Colour (Fruits and Vegetables)Dropping rate (Liquids)Auditory sound intensity during ma...
• Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluationof mechanical characteristics where a material is subjectedto...
Instrumental techniques involvesmeasurement• Fundamental tests• Empirical tests• Imitative tests
• Fundamental tests determine one or more physicalconstants to describe exactly the properties of thefood in terms of well...
Researchers seek correlation betweensensory and instrumental measurements:1) the need for quality control instruments2) th...
Texture Profile AnalysisA closer look at this popularway of characterising thestructure of foods
• Texture profile analysis (TPA) is anobjective method of sensory analysispioneered in 1963 by Szczesniak.• Later in 1978 ...
The test consists of compressing a piece of food two times in areciprocating motion that imitates the action of the jaw an...
• Known as the “two bitetest”• Provides texturalparameters which correlatewell withsensory evaluationparametersTPA (TEXTUR...
• Known as the“two bite test”• Provides texturalparameters whichcorrelate well withsensoryevaluationparametersTPA (TEXTURE...
• Known as the“two bite test”• Provides texturalparameters whichcorrelate well withsensoryevaluationparametersTPA (TEXTURE...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the Probe
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBEDOWN‘COMPRESSION’
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBEUP‘Decompression’
DOWNForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBE
UPForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBE
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILEANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataFracturability
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataFracturability DefinitionThe force at which there isthe first ...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataHardness 1Hardness 2
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataHardnessHardness 2DefinitionThe maximum force duringthe first ...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BArea 1Area 2
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BDefinitionThe ratio of the positive forcearea during the se...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BDefinitionThe ratio of the positive forcearea during the se...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA B
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataStringiness
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataStringinessNoteDefined as the distance that theproduct is exte...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringiness
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILEANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringinessDefinitionThe height that the foodrecovers during th...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringiness
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataWork of AdhesionAdhesivness
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataDefinitionThe negative area forthe first compression cycle -re...
ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataDefinitionThe maximum negative forceof the first compression c...
Resilience Not an original TPA parameter. Developed from looking closely at elastic recovery A measurement of how the s...
Initial Modulus Not an original Texture Profile Analysis parameter Developed from looking closer at curve before fractur...
Texture profile parameters aredetermined from:• Fracturability = F1• Hardness = F2• Cohesiveness = A2/A1• Adhesiveness = (...
• Hardness is defined as the force required to cut through a Food sampleusing the front teeth or as the maximum peak force...
• Cohesiveness is defined as the force of internal bond holding aFood structure or the ratio of the positive force area du...
• Chewiness is defined the length of time required to masticate Food to astate of swallowing or the product of gumminess x...
Texture analyserStable Micro Systems, TA-XT2i
Different probes
Needle probe Compression Cylindrical probe Three point bend rigplatens
Cylinder probe
• Stress relaxation describes how polymers relieve stress underconstant strain, because they are viscoelastic. Thisnonline...
Penetration test Principle Food tested Probe usedFirmnessButter,Margarinecylinder probe, conical probe,TTC spreadibility r...
Compression testPrinciple Food tested Probe usedFirmness Cake cylinder probeNoodles cylinder probeHardness Carrot cylinder...
Descriptive analysis in sensoryEvaluation• “Descriptive analysis is the sensory method bywhich the attributes of a food or...
Common descriptive methodsA variety of procedures have beendeveloped for descriptive testing. Theseinclude• Flavour profil...
Flavour profile• Uses panel of 4 - 6 trained panellists• Panel sit round table and evaluate one sample at a timeand record...
Quantitative descriptive analysis• Panelists develop agreed terminologybeforehand• Panelists evaluate products one at atim...
Spectrum descriptive analysis• Panelists score intensities with respect to learnedabsolute intensity scales• A wide variet...
Free-choice profiling• Panelists are allowed to invent their own terms to describe the sensoryattributes of a set of sampl...
FCP Analysis• Since consumers will have developed different lexicons/vocabularies, similarterms may be grouped at the rese...
• Texture is regarded as a manifestation of the rheologicalproperties of a food and it affects processing, handling andcon...
Thank You!
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  • I’ll now move onto TPA (or Texture Profile Analysis) which is a common test and uses the principles of compression. It is known as an imatative test as it attempts to imitate the action of the jaw by compressing the sample piece twice in a reciprocating motion and for this reason it is often called the “Two Bite Test”. This point indicates the beginning of the first compression and here is the beginning of the second compression cycle. The force-time curve obtained from this then provides the user with a number of textural parameters that are known to correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters. A typical curve may look similar to this one here.
  • I’ll now move onto TPA (or Texture Profile Analysis) which is a common test and uses the principles of compression. It is known as an imatative test as it attempts to imitate the action of the jaw by compressing the sample piece twice in a reciprocating motion and for this reason it is often called the “Two Bite Test”. This point indicates the beginning of the first compression and here is the beginning of the second compression cycle. The force-time curve obtained from this then provides the user with a number of textural parameters that are known to correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters. A typical curve may look similar to this one here.
  • I’ll now move onto TPA (or Texture Profile Analysis) which is a common test and uses the principles of compression. It is known as an imatative test as it attempts to imitate the action of the jaw by compressing the sample piece twice in a reciprocating motion and for this reason it is often called the “Two Bite Test”. This point indicates the beginning of the first compression and here is the beginning of the second compression cycle. The force-time curve obtained from this then provides the user with a number of textural parameters that are known to correlate well with sensory evaluation parameters. A typical curve may look similar to this one here.
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Here is a diagram of the procedure in more detail. From this you can see that on the first compression (or bite) the hardness is determined as the height of the peak force. For samples which are quite brittle the force is seen to have a significant peak in the curve on the first bite which is not present in, for instance, the testing of gels. On the upstroke of the compression probe the force is released and an adhesive value may be obtained depending on the degree of adhesion (or stickiness) of the sample to the probe, for instance in some gels. The distance over which this adhesion takes place is an indication of the stringiness of the product (for instance chewing gum would possess a greater degree of stringiness than would a sample of cream cheese. The springiness (or elasticity) is obtained on the second bite within the duration of the downstroke and gives an indication of the elastic recovery of the sample. Several other textural parameters can also be obtained such as gumminess, chewiness and cohesivess which are calculated from data using the following inbuilt formulae. All of these values are obtained in less than a second by the pressing of two buttons as soon as the test is finished, so you can see that it is a useful test and provides textural values without need for calculations (and actually makes people think you’ve done a lot of work).
  • Te

    1. 1. ‘Textural Analysis- Machineand Human Perspectives’Vinita Puranik andVandana MishraCentre of Food TechnologyUniversity of Allahabad
    2. 2. Sensory EvaluationA scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyzeand interpret reactions to those characteristics of food andmaterials as they are perceived by senses of sight, smell,taste, touch and hearing.IFT; USAIn order to receive information from the environment we areequipped with sense organs eg eye, ear, nose, skin.Each sense organ is part of a sensory system which receivessensory inputs and transmits sensory information to thebrain.
    3. 3. Why sensory science?• Sensory science shows the way in productdevelopment and Quality Control• ‘It is like Braille to the blind’.Why is sensory evaluation important in productdevelopment?• Many decisions must be reached during thedevelopment of a product. All these decisionswill influence the final product attributes or –characteristics.
    4. 4. • A group of similar sensory impressionsmediated by a given organ is referred toas sense (modality).• Factors from the environment or frombody biochemistry that elicit sensoryimpression are referred to as sensorystimuli• A combination of sensory impressions iscalled a sensation.• An interpretation of sensation withreference to what has been experiencedand learned by individual and the resultantoverall impression is called sensory
    5. 5. FOOD PRODUCTS ARE MULTIDI-MENSIONAL:• Visual: package appearance, productappearance, color.• Olfactory: product aroma/fragrance.• Kinesthetic/Tactile: product feel.• Gustatory: product taste, texture.• Auditory: sound from use.
    6. 6. Sensory Characteristics• Appearance• Taste• Odor• Flavor• Texture• Sound
    7. 7. • TextureIt refers to the properties held and sensationscaused by the external surface of objectsreceived through the sense of touch.
    8. 8. • Texture can be regarded as amanifestation of the rheologicalproperties of a food. -It is an important attribute in thatit affects processing and handlingaffects shelf-life and consumeracceptance of foods.
    9. 9. Characterisation of food texture commonly falls into two maingroups, based on sensory and instrumental methods of analysis.• Sensory Evaluation of food texture by touch includes theuse of the fingers, as well as the lips, tongue, palate andteeth in the mouth.• Instrumental methods of assessing food texture can be carried out under more strictly defined andcontrolled conditions and Analysis gives consistent results, if analysed in constantcondition. Instrumental procedures are generally more sensitive andreproducible than their subjective sensory equivalentswhere variation in results is generally attributed to variationin sample heterogeneity rather than instrumental precision.
    10. 10. Texture– Qualities felt by tongue, palate, teeth,or fingersTexture – mouthfeel – how a food feels in yourmouth (sticky, smooth, tender)Tactual and mouth feel play an important role in examining the body andtexture characteristics. –-The tongue and palate evaluate feeling of meatiness and grittiness in butterand sandy defect in ice cream and sweetened condensed milk.-The pressure between the teeth and jaws determine the hardness, chewinessand gumminess.-The fingertips and ball of the thump help in determining other texturalattributes, notably stickiness, elasticity/ sponginess and brittleness.-Creamy was as a mouthfeel characteristic``possessing the textural propertyproducing the sensation of the presence of a miscible, thick, smooth liquidin the oral cavity.
    11. 11. Food product Textural attribute mostcommonly associatedCarrot (raw) Hard, crunchyButter SoftToffee GummyMeat/ Paneer ChewyBiscuit BrittleRasogolla SpongyOranges JuicyChest nut puree PastySemolina GrainySalt Gritty/ coarsePeanut butter, Creamysoup, andmost dairy products
    12. 12. Nature of Attribute ExamplesVisual Colour (Fruits and Vegetables)Dropping rate (Liquids)Auditory sound intensity during mastication(Crunchy, Crispy Foods)Tactile, Non oral Resistance to deformation (Fruits and bread)Resistance to cut with a knife (meats)Resistance to cut with a spoon (Dairy deserts)Tactile, Oral Resistance to mastication (Solid Foods)Resistance to displacement in mouth (Liquid Foods)Structural Characteristics (fibrousness, granularity, flouriness etc.)In mouth movements (liquids and Solids)
    13. 13. • Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluationof mechanical characteristics where a material is subjectedto a controlled force from which a deformation curve of itsresponse is generated.• Texture analysis is the science used by food technologiststo objectively measure the subjective mechanicalcharacteristics of finished foods, their intermediatecomponents and functional ingredients.• In simple terms, we use instruments to measure how afood feels when we eat it or performs duringprocessing or handling.• Instrument must have the capacity to measurecertain characteristics with a type and intensitysimilar to those perceived by the human mouth.
    14. 14. Instrumental techniques involvesmeasurement• Fundamental tests• Empirical tests• Imitative tests
    15. 15. • Fundamental tests determine one or more physicalconstants to describe exactly the properties of thefood in terms of well defined rheological parameters.• Empirical tests usually measure parameters which arepoorly defined in rheological terms but which, frompractical experience, have been found to relate closelyto the property of interest.• Imitative tests, aims to reproduce the mechanicaloperations applied in human evaluation to mimic oursenses to make the test as applicable to the productas possible, for example, to represent a biting actionor a chewing action.
    16. 16. Researchers seek correlation betweensensory and instrumental measurements:1) the need for quality control instruments2) the desire to predict consumer response3) the desire to understand what is beingperceived in sensory texture assessment4) the need to develop improved / optimisedinstrumental test methods and, ultimately,to construct a texture testing apparatus thatwill duplicate the sensory evaluation.
    17. 17. Texture Profile AnalysisA closer look at this popularway of characterising thestructure of foods
    18. 18. • Texture profile analysis (TPA) is anobjective method of sensory analysispioneered in 1963 by Szczesniak.• Later in 1978 Bourne adapted the Instronto perform TPA by compressing standard-sized samples of food twice.
    19. 19. The test consists of compressing a piece of food two times in areciprocating motion that imitates the action of the jaw andextracting from the resulting force-time curve a number oftextural parameters that correlate well with sensory evaluationof those parameters.The mechanical textural characteristics of foods can be dividedas- Primary parameters of• Hardness,• Cohesiveness,• Springiness (elasticity),• Adhesiveness, and Secondary (or derived) parameters of• Fracturability (brittleness),• Chewiness• Gumminess• Resilience• Stringiness• Initial Modulus
    20. 20. • Known as the “two bitetest”• Provides texturalparameters which correlatewell withsensory evaluationparametersTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)
    21. 21. • Known as the“two bite test”• Provides texturalparameters whichcorrelate well withsensoryevaluationparametersTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)FORCETIMEFIRST BITE
    22. 22. • Known as the“two bite test”• Provides texturalparameters whichcorrelate well withsensoryevaluationparametersTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)FORCETIMESECOND BITE
    23. 23. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the Probe
    24. 24. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBEDOWN‘COMPRESSION’
    25. 25. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBEUP‘Decompression’
    26. 26. DOWNForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBE
    27. 27. UPForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Movement of the PROBE
    28. 28. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILEANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataFracturability
    29. 29. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataFracturability DefinitionThe force at which there isthe first significant break inthe curve (originally calledthe brittleness)
    30. 30. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataHardness 1Hardness 2
    31. 31. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataHardnessHardness 2DefinitionThe maximum force duringthe first cycle of compression.Is also known as the“firmness”.
    32. 32. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BArea 1Area 2
    33. 33. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BDefinitionThe ratio of the positive forcearea during the second cycleof compression to that of thefirst cycle.
    34. 34. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA BDefinitionThe ratio of the positive forcearea during the second cycleof compression to that of thefirst cycle.
    35. 35. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataA B
    36. 36. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataStringiness
    37. 37. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataStringinessNoteDefined as the distance that theproduct is extended during de-compression before separatingfrom the probe.
    38. 38. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringiness
    39. 39. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILEANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringinessDefinitionThe height that the foodrecovers during the time thatelapses between the end of thefirst cycle and the start of thesecond cycle.
    40. 40. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataSpringiness
    41. 41. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataWork of AdhesionAdhesivness
    42. 42. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataDefinitionThe negative area forthe first compression cycle -representing the work neededto overcome the attractiveforces between the surfaces ofthe probe and the food.Work of Adhesion
    43. 43. ForceTimeoTPA (TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS)Analysis of the dataDefinitionThe maximum negative forceof the first compression cycleAdhesivness
    44. 44. Resilience Not an original TPA parameter. Developed from looking closely at elastic recovery A measurement of how the sample recovers fromdeformation both in terms of speed and forcesderived. . Ratio of the first UP ( decompression) stroke to thefirst DOWN ( compression) stroke• It is taken as the ratio of areas from the first probereversal point to the crossing of the x-axis and thearea produced from the first compression cycle.• It is not a parameter from the original Texture ProfileAnalysis work but instead has developed fromlooking more closely at the elastic recovery of thesample.• There are no units for this parameter.
    45. 45. Initial Modulus Not an original Texture Profile Analysis parameter Developed from looking closer at curve before fracture Initial Modulus = Initial Stress / Initial Strain Initial Stress: taken as mean force from 0.5 -1.5secs and then dividingby the Contact Area Initial Strain: calculated at the 1.5 second point Initial Modulus is derived as Initial Stress / Initial Strain. Units are in e.g. N/mm². The Initial Stress is calculated as the average force of the points in therange 0.5 seconds to 1.5 seconds divided by the Contact Area (which isspecified by you in the Run A Test screen). Initial Strain is the strain calculated at the 1.5 second point of the curve.The Initial Strain can only be calculated if STRAIN is available andhence PRODUCT HEIGHT can be derived. Initial Modulus is not a parameter from the original Texture ProfileAnalysis work but instead has developed from looking more closely atthe portion of the curve before fracture.
    46. 46. Texture profile parameters aredetermined from:• Fracturability = F1• Hardness = F2• Cohesiveness = A2/A1• Adhesiveness = (based on)A3• Springiness = D1• Gumminess = hardness xcohesiveness= F2 x A2/A1• Chewiness = hardness xcohesiveness xspringiness= F2 x A2/A1 x D1• Modulus of deformability(based on) slope, S1
    47. 47. • Hardness is defined as the force required to cut through a Food sampleusing the front teeth or as the maximum peak force during the firstcompression cycle (first bite) and has often been substituted by the termfirmness. Units are kg, g or N.• Fracturability (originally called brittleness) is defined as the force required tobreak a Food sample into piece or the force at the first significant break inthe TPA curve. Brittleness, crunchiness, and crumbliness, which are asimilar concept, can be measured as the ease with which the materialfractures under an increasing compression load; in general, the smaller thedeformation under a given load, the lower the cohesiveness and the greaterthe ability to fracture of the product. Units are kg, g or N.• Adhesiveness is defined as the force with which a cooked Food adheres toother materials. e.g., tongue, teeth, palate, fingers or as the negative forcearea for the first bite and represents the work required to overcome theattractive forces between the surface of a food and the surface of othermaterials with which the food comes into contact, i.e. the total forcenecessary to pull the compression plunger away from the sample. Formaterials with a high adhesiveness and low cohesiveness, when tested, partof the sample is likely to adhere to the probe on the upward stroke. Units arekg s, g s or N s.
    48. 48. • Cohesiveness is defined as the force of internal bond holding aFood structure or the ratio of the positive force area during thesecond compression to that during the first compression.Cohesiveness may be measured as the rate at which thematerial disintegrates under mechanical action. Tensilestrength is a manifestation of cohesiveness. If adhesiveness islow compared with cohesiveness then the probe is likely toremain clean as the product has the ability to hold together.Cohesiveness is usually tested in terms of the secondaryparameters brittleness, chewiness and gumminess.• Springiness (originally called elasticity) is the extent to which apiece of Food returns to its original length when stretched or isrelated to the height that the food recovers during the time thatelapses between the end of the first bite and the start of thesecond bite.• Gumminess is defined as the product of hardness xcohesiveness. Gumminess is a characteristic of semisolid foodswith a low degree of hardness and a high degree ofcohesiveness. (N)
    49. 49. • Chewiness is defined the length of time required to masticate Food to astate of swallowing or the product of gumminess x springiness (which equalshardness x cohesiveness x springiness) and is therefore influenced by thechange of any one of these parameters. Chewiness, tenderness andtoughness are measured in terms of the energy required to masticate a solidfood. They are the characteristics most difficult to measure precisely,because mastication involves compressing, shearing, piercing, grinding,tearing and cutting, along with adequate lubrication by saliva at bodytemperatures. It should be understood that the same product cannot exhibitboth chewiness and gumminess, unless as a solid it becomes a semisolidduring sensory mastication. Such a transition is practically neveraccomplished during instrumental TPA evaluation. Thus, it is incorrect toquantify and report chewiness and gumminess in TPA of solid or semisolidproducts. Chewiness should be reported for solids and gumminess forsemisolids. (J)• Stringiness is the distance the product is extended during decompressionbefore separating from the compression probe. It is not a parameter fromthe original Texture Profile Analysis work but instead has developed fromlooking more closely at the adhesiveness portion of the curve. The units ofthis parameter would be in distance e.g. mm.
    50. 50. Texture analyserStable Micro Systems, TA-XT2i
    51. 51. Different probes
    52. 52. Needle probe Compression Cylindrical probe Three point bend rigplatens
    53. 53. Cylinder probe
    54. 54. • Stress relaxation describes how polymers relieve stress underconstant strain, because they are viscoelastic. Thisnonlinearity is described by both stress relaxation and aphenomenon known as creep which describes how polymersstrain under constant stress.• Creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move ordeform permanently under the influence of stresses. It occursas a result of long term exposure to levels of stress that arebelow the yield strength of the material. Creep alwaysincreases with temperature.• Compliance can mean in mechanical science the inverse ofstiffness.• Creep recovery is rate of decrease in deformation that occurswhen load is removed after prolonged application in a creeptest. Constant temp. is maintained to elliminate effects ofthermal expansion and measurements are taken from timeload is zero to eliminate elastic effects.
    55. 55. Penetration test Principle Food tested Probe usedFirmnessButter,Margarinecylinder probe, conical probe,TTC spreadibility rigcheese spread TTC spreadibility rigMayonnaise TTC spreadibility rigHardness Caramel Spherical probeChocolate bars cylinder probeIcecream cylinder probeSoftness Cheese, Cream cylinder probe, conical probeStickiness Caramel Spherical probecheese spread TTC spreadibility rigStringiness Caramel Spherical probeSpreadibilityButter, cheesespread, TTC spreadibility rigJam, Marmalade TTC spreadibility rigSkin strength/Elasticity Grape cylinder probeGel strength/adhesiveness Jam, Marmalade cylinder probe
    56. 56. Compression testPrinciple Food tested Probe usedFirmness Cake cylinder probeNoodles cylinder probeHardness Carrot cylinder probeBreaking force (shellstrength) Egg whole cylinder probe / Flat bladeBending test PrincipleFirmness Carrot 3 point bend rigUniaxial Tension TestPrincipleResistence to extension /Extensibility Gluten Kiefer Dough extensibility rigNoodles Kiefer Dough extensibility rig
    57. 57. Descriptive analysis in sensoryEvaluation• “Descriptive analysis is the sensory method bywhich the attributes of a food or product areidentified and quantified using human subjectswho have been specifically trained for thispurpose”.• It is the most complex and most sensitive of thesensory evaluation tools available.• It provides a qualitative, detailed description ofthe sensory attributes perceived in a product aswell as a qualitative measurement of themagnitude or intensity of each attributedetected.• Many different types of Descriptive Analysismethods exist.
    58. 58. Common descriptive methodsA variety of procedures have beendeveloped for descriptive testing. Theseinclude• Flavour profile• Texture profile• Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA)• Spectrum analysis• Time-Intensity descriptive analysis• Free choice profiling
    59. 59. Flavour profile• Uses panel of 4 - 6 trained panellists• Panel sit round table and evaluate one sample at a timeand record the ratings• Panel then discusses ratings and arrives at a consensus• Advantage of small panelDisadvantages• Consensus method means risk of bias from dominantpersonality• Danger of lack of consistency and reproducibilityTexture profile• Procedure similar to flavour profile, but a wider range ofscaling techinques may be used• Results may be by consensus method or by statisticalanalysis• Panel training involves understanding underlyingmechanical principles• Experience of a wide range of textural attribute
    60. 60. Quantitative descriptive analysis• Panelists develop agreed terminologybeforehand• Panelists evaluate products one at atime in separate booths• Panellists are discouraged fromdiscussing results afterwards• Scoring is by marking on a line• The results are analysed statistically• Can lead to inconsistency of results
    61. 61. Spectrum descriptive analysis• Panelists score intensities with respect to learnedabsolute intensity scales• A wide variety of standard descriptors are provided• Scoring is both by use of descriptive terms and bymarking on a line• It is intended to provide consistent and reliable data byproviding a wide range of standardsTime-intensity analysis• Panelists evaluate intensity of an attribute at intervalsover a period• Time-intensity response curve is generated• This should not be seen by the panelists while it is beinggenerated• Requires a well-trained panel to be effective
    62. 62. Free-choice profiling• Panelists are allowed to invent their own terms to describe the sensoryattributes of a set of samples• Samples are from the same category of products• Panelists develop their own scoresheets• Multivariate statistical methods are used to analyse the data• These are aimed at identifying terms that appear to measure the sameattribute• Panel training requirements are minimal• Panel is closer to a consumer panel• Still being evaluated against other descriptive methods.Free-choice profiling (FCP) is a quick and inexpensive method in whichconsumers are asked to both identify attributes in the sample and ratethe liking and/or intensity of those attributes.• They should be provided with adequate instruction on how to performthis test and possibly given product categories to consider (aroma,appearance, flavor, texture, etc.).• Each consumer will have different attributes, indicating which aremost important. Though consumers should be recruited as normal(product usage, age/gender specifications), researchers may be able toseparate consumers into groups, better identifying whichcharacteristics are most important in that segment.
    63. 63. FCP Analysis• Since consumers will have developed different lexicons/vocabularies, similarterms may be grouped at the researcher’s discretion: first by category, thenby term. It is important to note that consumers may use terms in differentways.• Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) is a common statistical tool toanalyze FCP data. GPA can compare FCP results across all terms. Valuesremain as individual data, not mean values. Results will indicate significantattributes, product discrimination and panelist performance.• Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on product attributes may also be usedto graphically represent product and panelist scores, though not as clearlyas GPA. The resulting descriptive data is decomposed using a multivariatetechnique such as principal component analysis (PCA). This reduces thenumber of sensory dimensions required to describe the product set.Individual consumer scores are then integrated into the sensory space byregressing each consumers response onto the coordinates obtained fromPCA. Since the data analysis is on an individual not aggregated level, theshortcoming of traditional product testing that assumes liking to be similaracross individuals may be overcomeFCP Benefits and Limitations.• This method is quick, inexpensive and provides insight into consumerperception not given by a descriptive panel or traditional consumer testing.• They may be suitable to marketing promotions, provide a new direction forproduct development or uncover unidentified product defects orconsiderations. However, terms generated by consumers may be toopersonal or difficult to interpret.
    64. 64. • Texture is regarded as a manifestation of the rheologicalproperties of a food and it affects processing, handling andconsumer acceptance of foods• Texture analysis is the science to objectively measure thesubjective mechanical characteristics of foods.• As the food industry changes in response to consumerdemands and expectations, the variety of products evolvesand grows, so all decisions from above analysis will influencethe final product attributes or characteristics.• Researchers seek correlation between sensory andinstrumental measurements, so Instrument must have thecapacity to measure characteristics with a type and intensitysimilar to those perceived by the human mouth.Conclusion
    65. 65. Thank You!

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