The printer is computer peripheral,The printer is computer peripheral,
& output device that accepts text& output device that accepts text
and graphic as input,and graphic as input,
& prints or illustrations on paper as& prints or illustrations on paper as
a hard copy in the form ofa hard copy in the form of
documents or transparencies etc..documents or transparencies etc..
There are four major types ofThere are four major types of
1.1. Impact printerImpact printer
2.2. Sprayed-ink printerSprayed-ink printer
3.3. Laser printerLaser printer
Daisy wheelDaisy wheel
The printer look like daisy contains a disk made ofThe printer look like daisy contains a disk made of
plastic or metal on which letters and symbols areplastic or metal on which letters and symbols are
placed on each patel.placed on each patel.
When printer needs to print a character, itWhen printer needs to print a character, it
sends the signal to mechanism calledsends the signal to mechanism called printheadprinthead, the, the
printhead rotates the daisyprinthead rotates the daisy wheel until the desiredwheel until the desired
letter is in place andletter is in place and facing the paper then afacing the paper then a
electromechanical hammerelectromechanical hammer calledcalled SolenoidSolenoid strikes thestrikes the
back of the characterback of the character contained petal, forcing thecontained petal, forcing the
character to hit an inkcharacter to hit an ink ribbon, leaving an impression ofribbon, leaving an impression of
the character onthe character on the paper.the paper.
Daisy wheel printing speed isDaisy wheel printing speed is
measuredmeasured inin character per secondcharacter per second
andand standardstandard speed is 10 to 50speed is 10 to 50
characterscharacters per second.per second.
Printer work like typewriter andPrinter work like typewriter and
best in multi-copy applications, itbest in multi-copy applications, it can’tcan’t
print graphics.print graphics.
Dot MatrixDot Matrix
This is an other type of impactThis is an other type of impact
printers here printhead contains rowprinters here printhead contains row
of pins.of pins.
The pins are wrapped with coils ofThe pins are wrapped with coils of
wire to create solenoid, to trigger awire to create solenoid, to trigger a
particular pin the printer controllerparticular pin the printer controller
sends a signal tosends a signal to printheadprinthead, which, which
energize the wires, this makes wiresenergize the wires, this makes wires
into electromagnet which repel theinto electromagnet which repel the
print pin towards ribbon and printingprint pin towards ribbon and printing
dots in column and rows and makingdots in column and rows and making
letters and numbers on paper.letters and numbers on paper.
Initialy 9 pins used but laterInitialy 9 pins used but later
17 and 24 pin models also17 and 24 pin models also
introduced for fine outputintroduced for fine output
Its standard speed aboutIts standard speed about
50 to over 500 cps.50 to over 500 cps.
Inkjet printers considered as sprayed-ink on paper.Inkjet printers considered as sprayed-ink on paper.
this uses cartridge which contains ink, pumpthis uses cartridge which contains ink, pump
and a ink nozzle to complete printing.and a ink nozzle to complete printing.
when computer send print command thenwhen computer send print command then
printhead at cartridge energize Piezo-actuatorprinthead at cartridge energize Piezo-actuator
which spraying ink then nozzles makes shapewhich spraying ink then nozzles makes shape
letters, words or images on paper.letters, words or images on paper.
Ink-jet printers are capable of producing highInk-jet printers are capable of producing high
quality print. A typical ink-jet printer provides aquality print. A typical ink-jet printer provides a
resolution of 300 dpi, also newer models offerresolution of 300 dpi, also newer models offer higherhigher
Bubble jet printerBubble jet printer
Bubble-jet printers use special heatingBubble-jet printers use special heating
elements to out the ink.elements to out the ink.
Like inkjet printers this type of printer alsoLike inkjet printers this type of printer also
uses cartridge which have several smalluses cartridge which have several small
chambers inside, bottomchambers inside, bottom of each chamberof each chamber
have a small pinholes, these pinholes arehave a small pinholes, these pinholes are
used to spray ink on theused to spray ink on the page and printpage and print
characters and images with finecharacters and images with fine
If particular chamber needs to spray ink,If particular chamber needs to spray ink,
then electric signal is sent to heatingthen electric signal is sent to heating
element, when element is energized,element, when element is energized,
it creates vapours, then these vapours pushit creates vapours, then these vapours push
ink towards pinhole and forms a bubble ofink towards pinhole and forms a bubble of
Laser PrintersLaser Printers
Laser printers accept computer signals andLaser printers accept computer signals and
convert it to laser beam to produce anconvert it to laser beam to produce an
image on a drum, toner touches drum andimage on a drum, toner touches drum and
coat with inked powder and finally convertcoat with inked powder and finally convert
this inked image to a paper.this inked image to a paper.
Photocopiers also work on same procedure.Photocopiers also work on same procedure.
Laser printer also called page printers andLaser printer also called page printers and
use memory to print high-resolution text &use memory to print high-resolution text &
graphics outputs, resolution ranges fromgraphics outputs, resolution ranges from
300 to 1200 dpi. The speed of laser printers300 to 1200 dpi. The speed of laser printers
ranges from about 5 to 20 ppm.ranges from about 5 to 20 ppm.
Printer ComponentsPrinter Components
Printer Controller unitPrinter Controller unit
Corona wire unitCorona wire unit
Laser beam converter unitLaser beam converter unit
Photosensitive drum unitPhotosensitive drum unit
Toner unitToner unit
Paper feeding unitPaper feeding unit
Fuser unitFuser unit
Exit rollers unitExit rollers unit
How Laser printer worksHow Laser printer works
1.1. Text or graphics base data stream is sent toText or graphics base data stream is sent to
the printer.the printer.
2.2. The printer controller circuit receive inputThe printer controller circuit receive input
signals and manages how to print this data.signals and manages how to print this data.
3.3. Here this controller circuit done two jobsHere this controller circuit done two jobs
first it activates the corona wire. This is afirst it activates the corona wire. This is a
high-voltage wire generate static electrichigh-voltage wire generate static electric
charge to anything nearby, secondcharge to anything nearby, second
computercomputer data signals converts into laserdata signals converts into laser
4.4. The corona wire charges up theThe corona wire charges up the
photoreceptor drum so the drum gains aphotoreceptor drum so the drum gains a
positive charge spread uniformly across itspositive charge spread uniformly across its
5.5. The circuit activates the laser to draw theThe circuit activates the laser to draw the
image of page onto the drum using mirror,image of page onto the drum using mirror,
when laser beam hits the drum, itwhen laser beam hits the drum, it removesremoves
positive charges and creates negativepositive charges and creates negative
charges on drum and transfer image on thecharges on drum and transfer image on the
6.6. An ink roller (toner) touching drum andAn ink roller (toner) touching drum and
coats it with tiny particles of powdered inkcoats it with tiny particles of powdered ink
then this inked image ofthen this inked image of the page remainsthe page remains
on the drum.on the drum.
7.7. A sheet of paper from a hopper on the otherA sheet of paper from a hopper on the other
side of the printer feeds up toward theside of the printer feeds up toward the
drum. As it moves along, the paper is givendrum. As it moves along, the paper is given
a strong electrical positive charges bya strong electrical positive charges by
another corona wire.another corona wire.
8.8. When the paper reaches near the drum, itsWhen the paper reaches near the drum, its
positive charges attracts the negativepositive charges attracts the negative
charges away from the drum, then inked-charges away from the drum, then inked-
image isimage is transferred from the drum totransferred from the drum to paperpaper
9.9. The inked paper passes through two hotThe inked paper passes through two hot
rollers from fuser unit. The heat androllers from fuser unit. The heat and
pressure from the rollers press tonerpressure from the rollers press toner
particles permanently into the paper.particles permanently into the paper.
10.10. Finally exit rollers get printed paper out,Finally exit rollers get printed paper out, thisthis
output is hot for a while.output is hot for a while.
Laser print processesLaser print processes
1.1. EP print process:EP print process:
This technology uses aThis technology uses a
combination of static electriccombination of static electric
charges, laser light and toner.charges, laser light and toner.
2.2. HP print process:HP print process:
This technology is relativelyThis technology is relatively
samesame as EP but it uses chargingas EP but it uses charging
rollerroller instead of corona wire andinstead of corona wire and
developing roller in the toner.developing roller in the toner.
Laser print processesLaser print processes
3.3. LED print processLED print process
This technology usesThis technology uses
LEDs insteadLEDs instead of laser light, andof laser light, and
these LEDs arethese LEDs are near to drum,near to drum,
having advantage ofhaving advantage of low cost andlow cost and
laser beamlaser beam hazardous.hazardous.
Plotters are large-scale printers, These arePlotters are large-scale printers, These are
commonly used for technical drawings suchcommonly used for technical drawings such
as engineering drawings or architecturalas engineering drawings or architectural
The two basic types of plotters are calledThe two basic types of plotters are called
1.1. Flatbed plottersFlatbed plotters
2.2. Drum plotters.Drum plotters.
Flatbed PlottersFlatbed Plotters
Flatbed plotters one of the graphicsFlatbed plotters one of the graphics
output device that draws by moving aoutput device that draws by moving a
pen in both horizontal and verticalpen in both horizontal and vertical
directions over a sheet of paper; thedirections over a sheet of paper; the
overall size of the drawing is limited byoverall size of the drawing is limited by
the height and width of this bed.the height and width of this bed.
Drum PlottersDrum Plotters
Drum plotters, also called upright plotters,Drum plotters, also called upright plotters,
this type of plotters are vertically positioned.this type of plotters are vertically positioned.
Printing image is on a drum where paperPrinting image is on a drum where paper
rolls on it and making a fine image, text orrolls on it and making a fine image, text or
design as large scale printing.design as large scale printing.
Printer CharacteristicsPrinter Characteristics
Color printers are more expensive toColor printers are more expensive to
operate since they use two inkoperate since they use two ink
cartridges one is colored and other iscartridges one is colored and other is
black ink, these are important for mapsblack ink, these are important for maps
Printer resolution (sharpness) is usuallyPrinter resolution (sharpness) is usually
measured in dots per inch (dpi),measured in dots per inch (dpi),
standard resolution is 300 - 600 dpi.standard resolution is 300 - 600 dpi.
Printer CharacteristicsPrinter Characteristics
Speed of printer is based on page sent,Speed of printer is based on page sent,
Color printers are slower.Color printers are slower.
Latest and expensive printers areLatest and expensive printers are
much faster.much faster.
Memory used to store print commandsMemory used to store print commands
sent by computer, Most printers comesent by computer, Most printers come
with a small amount of memory thatwith a small amount of memory that
can be expanded by the user.can be expanded by the user.
Portable printersPortable printers
Portable printers arePortable printers are
lightweight using alightweight using a batterybattery
instead of powerinstead of power from thefrom the
Usually they maintainsUsually they maintains
basic print resolutionsbasic print resolutions
suitable for plain textsuitable for plain text
Digital Photo PrintersDigital Photo Printers
Many middle rangeMany middle range
printers print photoprinters print photo
quality images.quality images.
Usually color printers,Usually color printers,
specially photo printspecially photo print
with greater resolutionwith greater resolution
& image quality.& image quality.
Network printerNetwork printer
This type of printer isThis type of printer is
installed in LAN orinstalled in LAN or
Wireless LAN (WLAN)Wireless LAN (WLAN)
environment andenvironment and
common printing facilitycommon printing facility
to all network users.to all network users.
Multifunction printers:Multifunction printers:
This type of printer containsThis type of printer contains
High-quality colorHigh-quality color
printing, Fax machine,printing, Fax machine,
Color copier,Color copier,
facilities in one device.facilities in one device.
3D Printers3D Printers
This type of printerThis type of printer
creates computer-aidedcreates computer-aided
design 3-D applications.design 3-D applications.
The printer is fast,The printer is fast,
versatile and simple,versatile and simple,
allowing engineers toallowing engineers to
produce a range ofproduce a range of
concept models andconcept models and
functional test parts offunctional test parts of
any design.any design.