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  • 1. Perceived Autonomy Support: The Climate Questionnaires Scale Description One of the central tenets of SDT is that the quality of social contexts influences the motivation, performance, and well-being of individuals who operate within them. The theory uses the concept of autonomy support versus control to characterize the quality of social environments, hypothesizing that autonomy-supportive social contexts tend to facilitate self-determined motivation, healthy development, and optimal functioning. In much of the SDT field research, we are concerned with the degree to which the social context is autonomy supportive for target individuals such as students, employees, patients, or athletes. These scales concern the degree to which the target individuals perceive people in positions of authority--their teachers, managers, health care providers, or coaches--to be autonomy supportive. Thus, whereas the Motivator’s Orientation Scales are complete by people in positions of authority about themselves, the Climate Questionnaires are completed by the individuals over whom they have authority. The Climate Questionnaires yield a score on a 7-point scale which indicates the degree to which health care providers, instructors, managers, or coaches are perceived to be autonomy supportive. Higher scores indicate greater perceived autonomy support. Each questionnaire can be used either in a long, 15-item version, or a short 5-item version. Across domains, the alpha coefficient of internal consistently is virtually always above 0.90. The short form may be slightly less but has always been good. There are four Climate Questionnaires presented here, each on its own page. * The Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ) * The Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) * The Work Climate Questionnaire (WCQ) * The Sport Climate Questionnaire (SCQ)
  • 2. The Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ) The HCCQ has a long form containing 15 items and a short form containing 6 of the items. There are also variants to the questionnaire. Specifically, depending on the issue being examined, the HCCQ can be used to assess patients’ perceptions of the degree to which their specific doctor is autonomy supportive, or it can be used to assess patients’ perceptions of the degree to which their team of health care providers is autonomy supportive. The latter would be more appropriate for example, if patients are seeing several providers within a clinic to deal with a particular problem. For example, patients with diabetes may see a physician, a nurse educator, and a dietician, all working together to treat the disease. If a researcher were interested in the relation between physician’s interpersonal style and their patients’ motivation, behavior, and health, the questionnaire is best used with respect to the individual doctor. If the research question concerns the interpersonal climate of a clinic or group of providers, the word “providers” or “practitioners” is substituted for “physician” or “doctor.” Below, you will find the 15-item version of the questionnaire, worded in terms of “my physician.” If you would like to use the 6-item version, simply reconstitute the questionnaire using only items # 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14. Scoring: Scores on both the 15-item version and the 6-item version are calculated by averaging the individual item scores. However, for the long version, before averaging the item scores, you must first “reverse” the score of item 13 (i.e., subtract the score on item 13 from 8 and use the result as the item score for this item--for example, the score of 3, when reversed would become 5). Higher average scores represent a higher level of perceived autonomy support. ************ Health-Care Climate Questionnaire This questionnaire contains items that are related to your visits with your doctor. Physicians have different styles in dealing with patients, and we would like to know more about how you have felt about your encounters with your physician. Your responses are confidential. Please be honest and candid. 1. I feel that my physician has provided me choices and options. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 2. I feel understood by my physician.
  • 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 3. I am able to be open with my physician at our meetings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 4. My physician conveys confidence in my ability to make changes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 5. I feel that my physician accepts me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 6. My physician has made sure I really understand about my condition and what I need to do. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 7. My physician encourages me to ask questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 8. I feel a lot of trust in my physician. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 9. My physician answers my questions fully and carefully. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 4. strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 10. My physician listens to how I would like to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 11. My physician handles people's emotions very well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 12. I feel that my physician cares about me as a person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 13. I don't feel very good about the way my physician talks to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 14. My physician tries to understand how I see things before suggesting a new way to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 15. I feel able to share my feelings with my physician. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree ************
  • 5. Articles that have Used the Health Care Climate Questionnaire (or an earlier version). Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Kouides, R., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Presenting the facts about smoking to adolescents: The effects of an autonomy supportive style. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 959-964. Kasser, V. M., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The relation of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness to health, vitality, well-being and mortality in a nursing home. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 935-954. Williams, G. C., Rodin, G. C., Ryan, R. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Autonomous regulation and adherence to long-term medical regimens in adult outpatients. Health Psychology, 17, 269-276. Williams, G. C., Freedman, Z. R., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Supporting autonomy to motivate glucose control in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 21, 1644-1651. Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126. Williams, G. C., Gagné, M, Ryan, R, M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Facilitating autonomous motivation for smoking cessation. Manuscript under editorial review. ************ The HCCQ as a rating device. The HCCQ was designed to be used by patients to report their perceptions of their doctors or their team of health care providers. However, it has also been used effectively for having trained observers rate the autonomy supportiveness of a provider, based on listening to tape recorded interactions between providers and patients. Observers have some initial training until they are able to achieve high inter-rater reliability with other observers. The rater listens to the tape and responds to each item as if he or she were the patients. The score for the provider’s rated autonomy support is the average of the 15 ratings. Typically, in studies that involve ratings, there are at least two raters so as the assure reliability. These can be used in two ways. Either the scores of two or
  • 6. more raters can be averaged, or, if the analyses are being done by Structural Equation Modelling, the average rater score for each of three raters can be used as indicators of the latent variable “rated provider autonomy support.” This method was used in the following study. Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Activating patients for smoking cessation through physician autonomy support. Medical Care.
  • 7. The Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) The LCQ has a long form containing 15 items and a short form containing 6 of the items. The questionnaire is typically used with respect to specific learning settings, such as a particular class, at the college or graduate school level. Thus, the questions are sometimes adapted slightly, at least in the instructions, so the wording pertains to the particular situation being studied--an organic chemistry class, for example. In these cases, the questions pertain to the autonomy support of an individual instructor, preceptor, or professor. If, however, it is being used to assess a general learning climate in which each student has several instructors, the questions are stated with respect to the autonomy support of the faculty members in general. Below, you will find the 15-item version of the questionnaire, worded in terms of “my instructor.” If you would like to use the 6-item version, simply reconstitute the questionnaire using only items # 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14. Scoring: Scores on both the 15-item version and the 6-item version are calculated by averaging the individual item scores. However, for the long version, before averaging the item scores, you must first “reverse” the score of item 13 (i.e., subtract the score on item 13 from 8 and use the result as the item score for this item--for example, the score of 3, when reversed would become 5). Higher average scores represent a higher level of perceived autonomy support. ************ Learning Climate Questionnaire This questionnaire contains items that are related to your experience with your instructor in this class. Instructors have different styles in dealing with students, and we would like to know more about how you have felt about your encounters with your instructor. Your responses are confidential. Please be honest and candid. 1. I feel that my instructor provides me choices and options. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 2. I feel understood by my instructor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree
  • 8. 3. I am able to be open with my instructor during class. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 4. My instructor conveyed confidence in my ability to do well in the course. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 5. I feel that my instructor accepts me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 6. My instructor made sure I really understood the goals of the course and what I need to do. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 7. My instructor encouraged me to ask questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 8. I feel a lot of trust in my instructor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 9. My instructor answers my questions fully and carefully. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree
  • 9. 10. My instructor listens to how I would like to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 11. My instructor handles people's emotions very well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 12. I feel that my instructor cares about me as a person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 13. I don't feel very good about the way my instructor talks to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 14. My instructor tries to understand how I see things before suggesting a new way to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 15. I feel able to share my feelings with my instructor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree ************ Articles that have Used the Learning Climate Questionnaire Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and
  • 10. students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756. Williams, G. C., Saizow, R., Ross, L., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Motivation underlying career choice for internal medicine and surgery. Social Science and Medicine, 45, 1705-1713. Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779. Williams, G. C., Wiener, M. W., Markakis, K. M., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (1994). Medical student motivation for internal medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 9, 327-333.
  • 11. The Work Climate Questionnaire (WCQ) The WCQ has a long form containing 15 items and a short form containing 6 of the items. The questionnaire is typically used with respect to specific work settings, such as teams or work groups that have one manager, and the wording can be changed slightly to specify the particular situation being studied. In these cases, the questions pertain to the autonomy support of the respondent’s manager. If, however, the WCQ is being used to assess a general work climate that goes beyond a particular work group, the questions are stated with respect to the autonomy support in general of the managers of that company, department, or organization. Below, you will find the 15-item version of the questionnaire, worded in terms of “my manager” (or supervisor). If you would like to use the 6-item version, simply reconstitute the questionnaire using only items # 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14. Scoring: Scores on both the 15-item version and the 6-item version are calculated by averaging the individual item scores. However, for the long version, before averaging the item scores, you must first “reverse” the score of item 13 (i.e., subtract the score on item 13 from 8 and use the result as the item score for this item--for example, the score of 3, when reversed would become 5). Higher average scores represent a higher level of perceived autonomy support. ************ Work Climate Questionnaire This questionnaire contains items that are related to your experience with the manager who is your most immediate supervisor. Managers have different styles in dealing with employees, and we would like to know more about how you have felt about your encounters with your manager. Your responses are confidential. Please be honest and candid. 1. I feel that my manager provides me choices and options. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 2. I feel understood by my manager. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree
  • 12. 3. I am able to be open with my manager at work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 4. My manager conveyed confidence in my ability to do well at my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 5. I feel that my manager accepts me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 6. My manager made sure I really understood the goals of my job and what I need to do. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 7. My manager encouraged me to ask questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 8. I feel a lot of trust in my manager. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 9. My manager answers my questions fully and carefully. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 10. My manager listens to how I would like to do things.
  • 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 11. My manager handles people's emotions very well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 12. I feel that my manager cares about me as a person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 13. I don't feel very good about the way my manager talks to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 14. My manager tries to understand how I see things before suggesting a new way to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 15. I feel able to share my feelings with my manager. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree ************ Articles that have Used the Work Climate Questionnaire Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Intrinsic need satisfaction as a motivational basis of performance and well-being at work. Unpublished manuscript, Fordham University.
  • 14. (Available from any of the authors.)
  • 15. The Support Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) The SCQ has a long form containing 15 items and a short form containing 6 of the items. The questionnaire is typically used with respect to specific coaches or individuals in comparable positions with respect to a sport or physical activity. The wording can be changed slightly to specify the particular situation being studied. The questions then pertain to the autonomy support of the respondent’s coach, trainer, or sport/exercise instructor. Below, you will find the 15-item version of the questionnaire, worded in terms of “my coach” (or trainer). If you would like to use the 6-item version, simply reconstitute the questionnaire using only items # 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14. Scoring: Scores on both the 15-item version and the 6-item version are calculated by averaging the individual item scores. However, for the long version, before averaging the item scores, you must first “reverse” the score of item 13 (i.e., subtract the score on item 13 from 8 and use the result as the item score for this item--for example, the score of 3, when reversed would become 5). Higher average scores represent a higher level of perceived autonomy support. ************ Support Climate Questionnaire This questionnaire contains items that are related to your experience with your coach (trainer). Coaches have different styles in dealing with athletes, and we would like to know more about how you have felt about your encounters with your coach. Your responses are confidential. Please be honest and candid. 1. I feel that my coach provides me choices and options. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 2. I feel understood by my coach. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 3. I am able to be open with my coach while engaged in athletics.
  • 16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 4. My coach conveyed confidence in my ability to do well at athletics. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 5. I feel that my coach accepts me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 6. My coach made sure I really understood the goals of my athletic involvement and what I need to do. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 7. My coach encouraged me to ask questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 8. I feel a lot of trust in my coach. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 9. My coach answers my questions fully and carefully. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 10. My coach listens to how I would like to do things.
  • 17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 11. My coach handles people's emotions very well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 12. I feel that my coach cares about me as a person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 13. I don't feel very good about the way my coach talks to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 14. My coach tries to understand how I see things before suggesting a new way to do things. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree 15. I feel able to share my feelings with my coach. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 strongly neutral strongly disagree agree