STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION IN A DENTAL CLINIC ppt

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One of the basic things you need to know before starting a dental clinic. This presentation covers the basics of sterilization and disinfection in a dental setting.

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STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION IN A DENTAL CLINIC ppt

  1. 1. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION -DENTAL INSTRUMENTS -DENTAL UNIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES -DENTAL LABORATORY BY VINEETHA.K FINAL YR BDS
  2. 2. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION OF DENTAL INSTRUMENTS
  3. 3. DENTAL INSTRUMENTS CLASSIFICATION BASED ON RISK OF TRANSMISSION AND NEED OF STERILIZATION -CRITICAL -SEMI-CRITICAL -NON-CRITICAL
  4. 4. CRITICAL INSTRUMENTS • Penetrate MUCOUS MEMBRANES or CONTACT BONE, BLOODSTREAM, or other normally sterile tissues • HEAT STERILIZE between uses or use sterile single- use, DISPOSABLE devices • Examples include SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, SCALPEL BLADES, PERIODONTAL SCALERS, AND SURGICAL DENTAL BURS
  5. 5. SEMI-CRITICAL INSTRUMENTS • Contact MUCOUS MEMBRANES but do NOT PENETRATE SOFT TISSUE • HEAT STERILIZE or HIGH-LEVEL DISINFECT • Examples: DENTAL MOUTH MIRRORS, AMALGAM CONDENSERS, AND DENTAL HANDPIECES
  6. 6. NONCRITICAL INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES • Contact intact SKIN • Clean and disinfect using a LOW TO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL DISINFECTANT • Examples: X-RAY HEADS, FACEBOWS, PULSE OXIMETER, BLOOD PRESSURE CUFF
  7. 7. ULTRASONIC CLEANER
  8. 8. METHODS OF STERILIZATION • THE STEAM AUTOCLAVE • CHEMICLAVE • DRY HEAT OVENS • OTHERS -EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS -BOILING WATER -IONIZING RADIATION
  9. 9. AUTOCLAVE • Sterilization with STEAM UNDER PRESSURE • Time required at 1210 C is 15 mins at 15 lbs of pressure. Advantages • Rapid and effective • Effective for sterilizing cloth surgical packs and towel packs Disadvantages • Items sensitive to heat cannot be sterilized • It tends to corrode carbon steel burs and instruments
  10. 10. CHEMICLAVING Sterilization by CHEMICAL VAPOR UNDER PRESSURE • operates at 1310 Cand 20 lbs of pressure. • They have a cycle time of half an hour. Advantages • Carbon steel and other carbon sensitive burs, instruments and pliers are sterilized without rust or corrosion Disadvantages • Items sensitive to elevated temperature will be damaged • Instruments must be very lightly packed. • Towel and heavy clothing cannot be sterilized.
  11. 11. DryHeatSterilization Conventional dry heat ovens: • Achieved at temperature above 1600 C. • Have heated chambers that allow air to circulate by gravity flow. • 6-12minsis required for sterilization • Disadvantages • Without careful calibration, more chances sterilization failures • The most accurate way to calibrate a sterilization cycle is by using external temperature gauge (pyrometer) attached to a thermocouple wire.
  12. 12. Sterilization Monitoring Types of Indicators • Mechanical –Measure time, temperature, pressure • Chemical –Change in color when physical parameter is reached • Biological (spore tests) –Use biological spores to assess the sterilization process directly
  13. 13. DISINFECTION OF DENTAL UNIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES
  14. 14. DENTAL UNIT •Cleaned by DISPOSIBLE TOWELING •EPA-ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIVE AGENCY •use an EPA registered hospital disinfectant •Cleaning Agents Like PHENOLICS, IODOPHORS, CHLORINE CONTAINING compunds
  15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES • CLINICAL CONTACT SURFACES –High potential for DIRECT CONTAMINATION from spray or spatter or by contact with gloved hand. • HOUSEKEEPING SURFACES –Do not come into contact with patients or devices –LIMITED RISK of disease transmission
  16. 16. CLINICAL CONTACT SURFACES
  17. 17. CLEANING CLINICAL CONTACT SURFACES • Risk of transmitting infections greater than for housekeeping surfaces. • Surface barriers can be used and changed between patients. OR • Clean then disinfect using an EPA-registered low- (HIV/HBV claim) to intermediate-level (tuberculocidal claim) hospital disinfectant.
  18. 18. HOUSEKEEPING SURFACES
  19. 19. Cleaning Housekeeping Surfaces • Routinely clean with SOAP AND WATER or an EPA- REGISTERED DETERGENT/HOSPITAL DISINFECTANT routinely • Clean MOPS AND CLOTHS and allow to dry thoroughly before re-using. • Prepare FRESH CLEANING AND DISINFECTING SOLUTIONS daily and per manufacturer recommendations.
  20. 20. DISINFECTION AND THE DENTAL LABORATORY
  21. 21. BASICS OF LABORATORY IC • Need COORDINATION between DENTAL OFFICE AND LAB • Use of proper methods/materials for handling and decontaminating soiled incoming items • All contaminated INCOMING ITEMS should be cleaned and DISINFECTED before being HANDLED BY LAB PERSONNEL, and before being returned to the patient
  22. 22. • a sign and monitor system be implemented stating “Only Biologically Clean Items Permitted”
  23. 23. INCOMING ITEMS • Rinse under running tap water to remove blood/saliva • Disinfect as appropriate • Rinse thoroughly with tap water to remove residual disinfectant • No single disinfectant is ideal or compatible with all items
  24. 24. OUTGOING ITEMS • Clean and disinfect before delivery to patient • After disinfection: rinse and place in plastic bag with diluted mouthwash until insertion • Do not store in disinfectant before insertion • Label the plastic bag: “This case shipment has been disinfected with ______ for _____ minutes”

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