Elephant apple

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DILLENIA INDICA L. …

DILLENIA INDICA L.
Family: Dilleniaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Chalta, Chalita.
Tribal name: Ulugach, Dabrusi (Chakma); Kra Aning (Marma); Jhaipola (Tipra); Thabru, Dabru, Chauralei (Murong).
English name: Elephant apple.

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  • 1. www.natureherbs.org 2012 DILLENIA INDICA L. Family: DilleniaceaeBengali/vernacular name: Chalta, Chalita.Tribal name: Ulugach, Dabrusi (Chakma); Kra Aning (Marma); Jhaipola (Tipra); Thabru, Dabru,Chauralei (Murong).English name: Elephant apple.Description of the plant:A medium-sized, semi deciduous tree, branches spreading. Leaves fascicled at the end of thebranches, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 20-30 cm long, sharply serrate. Flowers white, large,up to 15 cm diam., solitary, towards the end of each branchlets. Fruit large, 7.5-10 cm diam.,subglobose.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 2. www.natureherbs.org 2012Indian Catmon is a more or less deciduous tree growing up to 10 meters or more in height, witha few wide-spreading branches. Leaves are alternate, mostly terminal, oblong or broadlylanceolate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, 6 to 12 centimeters wide, stiff, curving outward, withtoothed margins, and beautifully ribbed, with 30 to 40 pairs of side veins. Flowers are verylarge, 15 to 20 centimeters across, solitary at the ends of the twigs, are facing downward.Sepals are rounded and yellowish green, while the petals are white, free, obovate, and 5 to 7.5centimeters wide. Fruit, which is made of ripened carpels and enclosed by greatly enlarged andthickened imbricating sepals, is large, somewhat rounded or broadly ovoid, 12.5 to 15centimeters in diameter, yellowish green hard, and tough. Seeds are numerous andcompressed, with a hairy margin.Using information:The fruits are tonic and laxative; used in diarrhoea, dysentery and burns in Khagrachari. Thefruit juice is used as a cooling beverage in fevers and as an expectorant in cough mixture. Thebark and leaves possesses astringent properties (Yusuf et al. 2009).Seed extract possesses antimicrobial activity.Chemical constituents:Chief contents of the fleshy sepals are tannins, malic acid, arabinogalactan and glucose. Theyalso contain an arabinogalactan, betulin, betulinic acid and flavonoids. Bark and wood containflavonoids, betulin, betulinic acid, betulinaldehyde, lupeol, β-sitosterol, myricetinhydroxy-lactone, dihydroisorhamneti, dillentin and glucosides. Leaves contain flavones, cycloartenone,betulinic acid, n-hentriacontanol and β-sitosterol. Stem bark contains betulinaldehyde, betulin,natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 3. www.natureherbs.org 2012lupeol, β-sitosterol, myricetin, a new hydroxylactone, dihydro-isorrhamnetin, dillentin andglucosides.Constituents- Fruit is very watery, 86.4% water, with 10% insoluble matter, and very little of that isnutritious.- Calyces of the fresh ripe fruit yields: moisture 86.40%, alcohlic extract 3.0 %, water extract0.37%, and insolubles 10.23%.- Composition of an alcoholic extract was: Moisture 8.20, tannin 1.40, glucose 12.15, mallic acid2.21, petroleum ether solubles (fats, etc.) 0.72, albuminoids 0.85, ash 12.63, and pectousmatter, etc., 61.84.- Kernel of D. indica yielded antioxidant compounds 1-Dotriacontano and BHT.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 4. www.natureherbs.org 2012- Phytochemical screening have yielded lupeol group of triterpene-like betulinic acid andbetulin, and flavonol such as myricetin.- Yields flavonoids: kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, naringenin and phenolic materials.- Stem extract yielded four compounds: lupeol, betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid andstigmasterol.- A phytochemical screening yielded steroids, terpenoids, saponins, fatty acids, flavonoids,phenolic compounds, glycosides and carbohydrates.Properties- Bark and leaves are astringent.Parts utilizedFruit, bark, leaves.UsesEdibility- In Malaya, fruit is used as flavoring with curries. Also made into jam.Folkloric- Bark and leaves are astringent.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 5. www.natureherbs.org 2012- Fruit is slightly laxative; in excess, may induce diarrhea.- Fruit used for relieving abdominal pains.- Mixed juices of leaf and bark taken orally for treatment of cancer and diarrhea.- Juice of the fruit, mixed with sugar and water, used as a cooling beverage in fevers and as acough mixture.- In Sabah, young leaves or stem bark pounded and applied as paste on swellings and wounds.- In Thailand, fruit pulp used in washing the hair.- Fruit juice used as cardiotonic.Others• Red dye: A red dye is obtained from the tree bark.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 6. www.natureherbs.org 2012• CNS Depresssant: Alcoholic extract has shown central nervous system depressant activity.• Chemical Constituents / Triterpenoids / Flavonoids: (1) Study isolated four compounds fromthe n-hexane and chloroform fractionates: 3,5,7-trihydroxy-34-dimethoxy flavone, betulinicacid (dillenetin), ß-sitosterol and stigmaterol. Results indicate Dillenia indica may provide arich source of triterpenoids and flavonoids. (2) Contains the lupeol group of triterpene(betulinic acid, betulinaldehyde, betulin) and flavonol (myricetin). Stem bark contains myricetin,isorrhamnetic, dillenetin and glucosides.• Betulinic Acid / Anti-Leukemic: The methanolic extract of D indica fruit showed significantanti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines. Betulinic acid, the major compound isolated,could explain the anti-leukemic activity.• Anti-Inflammatory: The anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Dillenia indicaleaves were observed in various models related to inflammation. The findings support thefolkloric use of Dillenia indica in diseases related to inflammatory processes.• Antioxidant: Study of extracts of Dillenia indica fruits antioxidant activity to be highest in themethanol extract, followed by ethyl acetate and water extracts. Results indicate the extent ofantioxidant activity correlated with the amount of phenolics present and that D. indica is rich inphenolics and may provide a good source of antioxidants.• Anti-Diabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: It also showed significant reduction in serum cholesterol,triglycerides, and serum transaminases levels, with improvement in HDL levels.• Antimicrobial: Study of methanolic extracts and fractions of the bark of DI showedremarkable activities against all test bacteria. An n-Hexane fraction showed highest activityagainst Shigella dysenteriae. A methanol extract showed highest activity against fungus Candidaalbicans.enhanced serum insulin levels in diabetic rats.• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Crude methanolic extracts showed weakantimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Extractives exhibited significant cytotoxicactivity on brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Extractives also exhibited significant free radicalscavenging activity.• Anxiolytic: Study of a hydroethanolic leaves extract showed prominent anxiolytic activity inmice. Diazepam was used as the standard drug.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555
  • 7. www.natureherbs.org 2012• Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic leaves extract showed significantreducing power and concentration-dependent free radical scavenging effect. Total phenoliccontents of the leaves extract were gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoids were catechinequivalents.natureherbs@ymail.com | +91 841 888 5555