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Energy aware networking

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A survey on energy aware networking

A survey on energy aware networking

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  • 1. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Energy aware networkingSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxying Vincenzo De Maio1approachesNIC proxying 1External proxying Distributed and Parallel Systems Universitaet InnsbruckInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing 13/06/2012 / Masterseminar 2Energy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 2. Introduction Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Volume of CO2 emissions produced by ICT sector is anEnergy EfficientEthernet approximate of 2%Rate AdaptationProxying Actual power usage in the U.S. network infrastructure isapproachesNIC proxying between 5 and 24 TWh/yearExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 3. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing Figure: Energy consumption of network devicesEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 4. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 5. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 6. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 7. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 8. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 9. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 10. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 11. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 12. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 13. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 14. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 15. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 16. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 17. What we expect Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproaches Figure: A sleep-mode approachEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 18. On-off algorithm Notations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroduction B : the output buffer size at the upstream interface.Link levelapproaches w : the number of the most recent inter-arrival times.Sleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet λ : the mean inter-arrival timeRate Adaptation τ = α B is the buffer occupancy threshold, α < 1 (authorsProxyingapproaches use α = 0.1 in their experiments)NIC proxyingExternal proxying m is the number of packets in the bufferInfrastructurelevel δ is the time required for the transition between on/off andapproachesEnergy aware routing resynchronizationEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 19. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 20. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 21. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 22. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 23. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 24. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  • 25. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 26. Energy efficient ethernet Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxying Figure: Energy Efficient EthernetInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 27. Energy Efficient Ethernet Importance of Refresh signal Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode 1 Ensure that both partners know that the link is present andEnergy EfficientEthernet allows for immediate notification following a disconnection.Rate AdaptationProxying 2 Can be used to test the channel and create an opportunity forapproachesNIC proxying the receiver to adapt to changes in the channel characteristicsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 28. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 29. Rate adaptation Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Use the existing ethernet data ratesEthernetRate Adaptation Find a tradeoff between packet delay and time spent in lowestProxyingapproaches rates.NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 30. Rate adaptation Problems Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches How to choose the right moment to adjust the link rateSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet down/up in order to minimize the packet drops?Rate Adaptation Which is the correct rate that gives us the energy-savingProxyingapproaches opportunity without degrading the link performance?NIC proxyingExternal proxying How do we negotiate the rate?InfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 31. Rate adaptation Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink level 1. if (link data rate is high)approachesSleeping mode 2. if (queue length is less than low queue thrEnergy EfficientEthernet 3. if (link utilization is less than link utilRate Adaptation 4. set the link data rate to lowProxyingapproaches 5. elseNIC proxyingExternal proxying 6. if(link data rate is low)Infrastructure 7. if(queue length is greater than high queuelevelapproaches 8. set the link data rate to highEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 32. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 33. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 34. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 35. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 36. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 37. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 38. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 39. NIC Proxying The main idea Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode NIC may drop the chatter and handle the traffic requiringEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation minimal computationProxying Main system will be woken up only when non-trivial packetsapproachesNIC proxying comeExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 40. NIC Proxying The main idea Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode NIC may drop the chatter and handle the traffic requiringEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation minimal computationProxying Main system will be woken up only when non-trivial packetsapproachesNIC proxying comeExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 41. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 42. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 43. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 44. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 45. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 46. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 47. Energy Aware Routing Problem Energy aware networking Vincenzo De ERP-1: Assume there is a tuple of input parameters, (G, T , K ) Maio WhereIntroduction G denotes the topology of data center network,Link levelapproachesSleeping mode T denotes the traffic matrixEnergy EfficientEthernet K denotes the predefined threshold of network throughput.Rate AdaptationProxyingapproaches 1 L(R1) = minL(R ), R ∈ R +NIC proxyingExternal proxying 2 M (R1) ≥ KInfrastructure R + is the space of all possible routings for TlevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy aware L(R1) denotes the number of switches involved in R1applicationsGreen TCP/IP M (R1) is the network throughput of T under R1.Green bittorrentConclusions
  • 48. An heuristic solution Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio Route Generation: Select the routing for each flow in trafficIntroduction matrix so that the network throughput is as high as possible.Link level They select the path with the fewest overlapping flows overapproachesSleeping mode the bottleneck link in the path.Energy EfficientEthernet Throughput Computation: The module of throughputRate AdaptationProxying computation is to calculate the network throughput in a givenapproaches topology.NIC proxyingExternal proxying Switch Elimination: A greedy algorithm for the eliminationInfrastructurelevel process. First, they compute the traffic carried by each activeapproachesEnergy aware routing switch in topology G, which is the total throughput of flowsEnergy aware traversing the switch. Then, they select the active switchesapplicationsGreen TCP/IP carrying the lightest traffic.Green bittorrentConclusions
  • 49. An heuristic solution The algorithm Energy aware networking HRA(G0, T, PR) Vincenzo De Maio beginIntroduction 1 set G := G0;Link level 2 //Route GenerationapproachesSleeping mode 3 set R := RG(G, T);Energy EfficientEthernet 4 //Throughput ComputationRate Adaptation 5 set Tht1:= TC(G, T, R);Proxyingapproaches 6 do beginNIC proxyingExternal proxying 7 //eliminate the switches carrying the lightesInfrastructure 8 set G := SE(G, T, R);levelapproaches 9 set R := RG(G, T);Energy aware routing 10 set Tht2:= TC(G, T, R);Energy awareapplications 11 set P := Tht2 / Tht1;Green TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 12 end while(P>=PR )Conclusions 13 return (R, G); End
  • 50. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet Problem: Robustness of the network. . .Rate Adaptation What happens in case of hardware failures?ProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 51. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 52. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 53. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 54. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 55. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing Figure: A green TCP/IPEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 56. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  • 57. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 58. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 59. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 60. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 61. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroduction Unknown: a peer that has been given to this peer by theLink levelapproaches tracker, and it is unknown if the peer is sleeping or awake.Sleeping modeEnergy Efficient Connected: a peer that this peer has an active TCPEthernetRate Adaptation connection with. File pieces can be uploaded andProxying downloaded on the connection.approachesNIC proxyingExternal proxying Sleeping: a peer that has disconnected its TCP connectionInfrastructure with this peer. The TCP connection must be re-establishedlevelapproaches before file pieces can be uploaded or downloaded.Energy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 62. Energy aware networking Event 1: Detection of TCP disconnect of a peer Vincenzo De 1. on (detection of TCP disconnect of peer p) Maio 2. p.state = sleepingIntroduction Event 2: Time out of connection timerLink level 1. on (timeout of connection timer)approachesSleeping mode 2. check with tracker for new peers as neededEnergy EfficientEthernet 3. for (all new peers in peer list)Rate Adaptation 4. p.state = unknownProxying 5. while (count of connected peers < max_connecapproachesNIC proxying 6. p = randomly selected peer in my peer listExternal proxying 7. if (have tested all peers) exit this loopInfrastructurelevel 8. if (wake-up condition == true)approaches 9. send wake-up message to peer pEnergy aware routing 10. try to connect to peer pEnergy awareapplications 11. if (TCP connection established)Green TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 12. p.state = connectedConclusions 13. else 14. remove peer p from my peer list
  • 63. Energy aware networking Event 3: Timeout of inactivity timer Vincenzo De Maio 1. on (timeout of inactivity timer)Introduction 2. send not interested message to connected peLink levelapproaches 3. send choke message to connected peersSleeping modeEnergy Efficient 4. close all of my TCP connectionsEthernetRate Adaptation 5. my.state = sleepingProxyingapproaches 6. enter sleep stateNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructure Event 4: Detection of my wake-up triggered by plevelapproachesEnergy aware routing 1. on (detection of my wake-up triggered by peeEnergy awareapplications 2. if (TCP connection is established from peerGreen TCP/IP 3. my.state = connectedGreen bittorrentConclusions 4. send my file contents bitfield to peer p 5. run choking algorithm
  • 64. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 65. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 66. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 67. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 68. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 69. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 70. Conclusions Infrastructure approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Reducing number of active devices is not the best solutionEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Multiple robustness and connectivity issuesProxying We need further investigations in modeling and find a goodapproachesNIC proxying tradeoffExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 71. Conclusions Software level Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode TCP/IP will be beneficial for every software relying on it.Energy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Higher level approaches like green bittorrent seems alsoProxying promisingapproachesNIC proxying Main lack in this area is about existing toolsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 72. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproaches Questions?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  • 73. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxying Thanks for your attention!approachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions