Wikileaks freedom of speech on the internet


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Wikileaks freedom of speech on the internet

  1. 1.  Network of networks Information Superhighway Global Village “Medium is the message”
  2. 2.  Power is scattered There is no objective account only multiple realities The ambivalent character of information technology
  3. 3. Two technological agendas led to evolution of the internet as we know today Cold War networking of US military - 1973: ARPANET PC Revolution - 1978-1982: Apple and IBM revolutionise personal computing - Counter culture effects
  4. 4.  Issue of regulation and censorship around since internet’s inception Debates around it can be categorised under two prevailing ideologies: - Cyberlibertarianism - Cyberpaternalism
  5. 5. “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come fromCyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave usalone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather…We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different.” – John Perry Barlow, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace (1996)
  6. 6.  Internet is above geopolitical boundaries thus government regulations cannot apply to it Individuals—acting in whatever capacity they choose (as citizens, consumers, companies, or collectives)—should be at liberty to pursue their own tastes and interests online. Only alternative system of regulation is a grassroots approach relying on the consensus of internet users
  7. 7.  Reidenberg’s Lex Informatica : That the internet is an unstable environment with changing national rules and conflicting regulations and for users to thrive, a stable set rules must be put into place Cyberpaternalist perspective
  8. 8.  Lawrence Lessig’s The Code (1999) -Challenged the presumption that technology has created an inherently free environment. - Four modalities of regulation: laws, norms, market and architecture. The internet is susceptible to control by other means especially through the manipulation of the computer code i.e the architecture of the internet. Nations govern telecom firms that provide access to internet Internet traffic passes through multiple filters – search engines, ISPs etc.
  9. 9.  Unlike traditional censorship, information online is usually censored after dissemination Filtering – Black-listing, White-listing, Content Analysis Categorised under two heads : 1. Censorship by a central power directing information flow 2. Private Censorship
  10. 10.  Local level Organisational level National level – Two main approaches: - Heavy filtering of the internet. China, Saudi Arabia, Turkey - Limited no. of individuals can go online at a time and access previously approved information. Rest is filtered. Myanmar and Cuba
  11. 11.  Role of ISPs - Censorship carried out as part of a governmental recommendation - Requirement or the censorship is undertaken as part of the corporate policy - Voluntary self-regulation Legislative rules - Privacy - Defamation - Trademark - Copyright
  12. 12.  Use of pseudonyms and anonymous nature of the net Innovative productions like “Tweetspeak” in the case of Egypt Uprising Encryption Hacktivism DDoS Attacks Mirroring websites
  13. 13.  ‘Freedom of Speech’ has always been under fire on the internet Concept of Free Speech and Information continues to be debated both in the real and virtual world Wikileaks can be seen as an extension of this “war of perspectives”
  14. 14. Articles Livingstone, Sonia (2005). Critical debates in internet studies : reflections on an emerging field [online]. London: LSE Research Online. Klang, Mathias (2005) Controlling Online Information: Censorship & Cultural Protection Kim,Tae (1998). "Free Speech" in Cyberspace Heng, Michael S.H. (1998). Postmodernist Study of the Internet
  15. 15. Other references Cyber-Libertarianism: The Case for Real Internet Freedom [Ver 1.0 - Thierer & Szoka] The battle to control the internet Contribution of Internet to a Democratic Society