P E O P LE ’S R E P U BLIC O F C H IN A VS . R E P U BLIC O F C H IN A Propaganda Warfare since 1949-Present Day Vincy Davis Roll No.128
Geo-political History 17th century – Taiwan (Republic of China) colonised by PRC (mainland China) 1895 – 1st Sino-Japanese War results in Taiwan being ceded to Japan. Taiwan Chinese refuse to leave Taiwan. Disillusioned by Quing Dynasty, mainland Chinese call for the creation of a Republic. 1912 – First Republic headed by Sun Yat-Sen establishes Kuomintang (KMT) in mainland China to unite fragmented country. Builds alliance with fledging Communist Party of China (CPC)
1925 – Chiang Kai-shek takes over KMT 1945 – World War II. Japan hands over Taiwan to ROC. Internal fight between KMT and CPC 1949 – Chinese Civil War. People’s Republic of China formed with CPC at helm headed by Mao Zedong. Chiang Kai-shek takes KMT and his army to Taiwan. Claims it’s the true China. Turf war ensues 50’s-70’s – Cold War. UN recognises ROC as sole representative of China.USA supports propaganda against the Communist PRC 1971 – UN recognises PRC as representative of China. Cultural Revolution on in PRC. 2000 – ROC democratised ending KMT rule. Present day – PRC continues to claim Taiwan as part of mainland China. ROC’s stand remains the same
From left:Chiang KaiShek, leaderof ROC andMao Zedong,leader of PRC
The View: PRC vs. ROC For Beijing, Taiwan is a rebellious province whose ultimate destiny must be political and economic unification with the mainland. In Taipei, the ROC government neither races toward reunion nor utterly forswears it but embraces instead an uneasy status quo. Cross-Straits Relations – Term given to the relations between PRC and ROC. Military stalemate to diplomatic war from ’49-’79. China calls it “hot war”, Taiwan - “cold war”
Propaganda Employed By PRC Plans to ‘liberate’ Taiwan on since before mainland China’s independence Propaganda machinery extremely strong part of enforcing supremacy. Historically, propaganda work by CCP divided into internal and external categories Central Propaganda Department oversees internal propaganda Media tightly controlled and censorship is a norm
Key Propaganda Media China Central Television or CCTV (2,262 tv stations of which 2,248 were "local") “People’s Daily” and other newspapers (2,119 approx.) Periodicals (9,074 approx. and 1,123 publishing houses) Film Xinhua, national news agency Posters Cultural arts – Music, Plays Educational Curricula and Research
US interventionFrom 50’s onwards, the Cold Warb/w Eastern and Western Bloc wasat its heyday. US’ “support” to Taiwan wasviewed by PRC as the spread ofimperialism which had to bequashed so as to truly “liberate”Taiwan.US took advantage of the situationto control the spread ofcommunism in mainland China.
1950 – First Taiwan Straits Crisis. US intervenes. PRC launches propaganda campaign to ‘liberate’ Taiwan from the hands of imperialists. “We must liberate Taiwan, 1958”
“Uncles from the Peoples LiberationArmy! Quickly go and liberate our littledistressed friends in Taiwan”, 1955
“Resolutely liberate Taiwan, save the Taiwanese people from their misery!” 1955 “We will definitely free Taiwan” 1971“We will certainly liberate Taiwan”1955
1958 – Great Leap Forward. Mao Zedong convinces East wind was prevailing over the West wind‘. Quemoy and Matzu bombed. This was the first step in the campaign to take the island. “Smash the pact between the United States and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek), persevere in the liberation of Taiwan” 1955
•Copies of Mao’sLittle Red Bookwas set overboardfishing vessels likethe Gospel inTaiwan in plasticpacks.•Attempt to showthe magnanimity ofthe ‘motherland’failed to convinceTaiwan “The loving care of the mother country”1976
“Red Crag” a very famous 1961 Chinese novel featuring underground communist agents fighting an espionage battle against the Kuomintang.
Propaganda sign in Xiamen, China facing Kinmen, ROC "Peaceful Unification. One country two systems“ 2010
The Online Propaganda Battle PRC-based Internet sites remain a leading source of Chinese language and China-related news for overseas Chinese. PRCs Internet repression is considered more extensive and more advanced than in any other country in the world. The governmental authorities can block website content and also monitor individual users China now known for its internet "spin doctors", trained internet users who comment on blogs, public forums or wikis to influence public opinion relating to PRC-ROC relations and otherwise Sites hosted by KMT and major newspaper and television media and other sites with information on Taiwanese independence are banned
External Propaganda The Office of Foreign Propaganda CCTV describes itself as "the mouthpiece of the Party and the government“ Communist Party of China embarked on a multi billion dollar global media expansion including a 24 hour English news channel “People’s Daily” has an international edition Cultural soft power in the form of setting up Confucius Institutes globally Special centers set up in PRC to train online spin doctors who spread propaganda through Twitter, Facebook, Youtube etc.
Propaganda Tools Employed by ROC Government Information System main disseminator of propaganda till recently After fleeing from the mainland, propaganda through “public education” has mainly helped establish strong nationalist sentiments KMT’s chief propaganda message throughout was to maintain that it was “Free China” with a personality cult built around Kai- shek Democratic Taiwan passed a law to abolish the Government Information Office and replace it with a National Communications Commission, styled after the FCC in the United States. The Kuomintang still controls many media properties, though its influence is much less than before
Key Propaganda Media Propaganda machinery involved extensive use balloons to dispatch leaflets and booklets (213 million approx.), food, toys, household goods, daily commodities, national flags, cassettes of famous Taiwanese singers, "passports" promising good treatment to defectors till ’79 Free China Journal and numerous other publications
• Balloonsbearing flags,ribbons,propagandaleaflets andother itemslaunched fromQuemoy tomainland China,20.9.1965•“The Chinese-Chinese Psywar”: In1979 both sides sendout their propagandaby radio, balloons,artillery shells, seafloats andloudspeakers. Smallgifts were sent too; hementioned underwear,toys and cooking oil.
Souvenir booklets like this one carried detailed the successful activities of Taiwanese and derided PRC
“Anti-Maoism is righteous!” Leaflets most popular medium for spreading propaganda
• Above Mao: He is our real enemy! On Mao’s torch: Cultural Revolution Below: China’s innate historical culture At right: The United Front denouncing Mao and saving the country
“The mighty National Air Force guarantees the rescue of ourcompatriots on the mainland! “ Many leaflets designed to impress mainland Chinese with the power of the Taiwanese military forces This leaflet depicts a Taiwan flight line of F-104 Starfighters
“Celebrating the 100thAnniversary of the Birth of the Father of our Country”“ Build up Taiwan; Restore the Mainland” Most leaflets carried “Three Guarantees” on the back to potential defectors – Life of dignity, social security and “freedom”
“Mr. Sun Yat-sen, founder of theRepublic of ChinaTo commemorate the birth of SunYat-sen, the father of our country,we must overthrow the dictatorial,despotic Mao regime;We must endeavor to achieve: acountry jointly possessed by thepeople, an administration runjointly by the people and aneconomy jointly enjoyed by thepeople as set down in the ThreePrinciples of the People.” Sun Yat-sen is considered the father of the Chinese nation. His image appears on pre-Communist Chinese stamps, currency, and numerous leaflets during the Cold War.
“President Chiang is the savior of the Chinese people.”“Possession of this leaflet is proof of anti-communist intent and guarantees special treatment”
Many of the leaflets depict young people getting married. This seems to be a favorite theme of the Nationalists and one wonders if the Mainland Chinese were tempted to defect to Taiwan to find love!
Many of the leaflets that encouraged red Chinese pilots to defect to Taiwan had maps giving them course and distance to fly because the Chinese Communists had removed the Island of Taiwan from the maps that they were given for security reasons. These leaflets were very successful.
Propaganda sign at Kinmen facing Mainland China "Three Principles of the People Unites China“ 2003
Other propaganda media Bookmarks Leaflets Match Boxes Food bags with messages Actual Magnolia leaves with messages
“Brothers both overseas and domestic all care about our mainland compatriots.Food and clothing are being prepared for delivery to people enduring hardship on the mainland.” Real magnolia leaves were subjected to a chemical process to remove all the juice and sap and leave only the skeleton veins. They were then colored according to the seasons and overprinted with an anti-Communist slogan or message.
India’s stance Recognised PRC as legitimate China since 1950 Diplomatic relations with ROC improved post 1990 through economic and commercial links Disputed claims of Arunachal Pradesh/South Tibet b/w India, PRC and ROC
Analysis Unequal political rivals hence inequity in propaganda. PRC has more advantage as it receives benefits of international recognition Relations b/w PRC and ROC characterised by limited contact, instability and tensions. Both used propaganda to legitimise state policies and popularise national leaders ROC’s description of mainland China has throughout been negative. Overarching messsages of ROC propaganda –7. Decidedly anti-Mao8. Emphasis on the ‘glory’ of Taiwan9. Emphasis on big brother nature of mainland China Overarching messages of PRC propaganda –11. Portrayal of Mao as patriarch of China12. Need for unifying the ‘motherland’
Recent Developments China’s has mellowed its “one country, two systems” stance to letting the uncomfortable status quo carry on Both sides appreciate complexity of situation especially since democratisation and economic rise of ROC Economic links have been established. Talks on political relations however remain stalled
References http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/25/rabbit-cartoon-chinese-new- http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/china/china-taiwan.html http://chineseposters.net/themes/taiwan-liberation.php http://www.psywarrior.com/NationalistChinesePropaganda.html http://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/gdr/exhibits/5/Microsoft_Word_-_Offshore_pr Taiwans Propaganda Cold War: The Offshore Islands Crises of 1954 and Rawnsley http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_in_the_Republic_of_China http://www.india.org.tw/003/download/com1_annual%20trade%20report_w http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_the_Republic_of_China Ravi Velloor, “China and India Reaffirm Claims to Disputed State,” Straits Times, November 15, 2006, http://www.taiwansecurity.org/ST/2006/ST-151106.htm.