chief minister girls cycle scheme-review of related literature
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chief minister girls cycle scheme-review of related literature chief minister girls cycle scheme-review of related literature Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER-II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 INTRODUCTIONReview of related literature presents the comprehensive development of the problembackground. It indicates what has already been studied by others which have a bearing uponthe present study. The review of related literature stresses two aspects. The first in theconsideration of the subject matter and the second is related to methodology and design. Thereview chapter is devoted to the development of the problem statement of the object ofinquiry. The review is utilized to retain a direct relevancy to the study in hand. According to Best and Kahn (1995), “It provides evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and what is still unknown and invested. Since effective research is based upon past knowledge, this step helps to eliminate the duplication of what has been done and provides useful hypotheses and helpful suggestions for significant investigation.”The study of the related literature is been divide into two groups: 1. Indian Reviews. 2. Foreign Review. 43
  • 2.2 INDIAN REVIEWSKaushal and Patra, Sudhandhu (2011), have done a research on Elementary Education inBihar: Some Reflections From DISE (District Information System for Education) Data. Freeand compulsory education has been ensured in the Indian constitution since its inception. Itbecame a guiding force in the form of Article-45 for providing basic education for allchildren up to age of 14 years. Even after more than 60 years of independence some state inIndia are still struggling to achieve Universalization of Elementary Education for all. The methodology was based on the District Information System of Education (DISE)2006-2007, data base of its published report, flash statistics and state report cards which iscollateral and published by National University of Educational Planning and Administration(NUEPA). The article has been divided into two parts, in the first part it stresses on Bihar‟sprogress in achieving the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education. In the secondpart of the article, the educational development in two states i.e. Bihar and Kerala have beencompared in the terms of different educational indicators which are vital for providingUniversalization of Elementary Education.The findings of the study were: i. Much more needed to be done in terms of infrastructure in Bihar as it has got high student classroom ratio. ii. Bihar needs more teachers as 17% of schools have got a single teacher teaching more than 100 students. iii. Further much more needed to be done to provide technology enhanced learning in Bihar as only 3% of schools have computer facility. iv. The state also needs to make an initiative in providing electricity to all schools as the figures of the school with electricity connection is quite dismal. 44
  • Sekher (2010) had conducted a research on Special Financial Incentive Schemes for the GirlChild in India: A Review of Select Schemes. In order to improve the survival and welfare ofgirls and to reverse the distorted sex ratio at birth ,both the national and state governmentshave launched special financial incentive schemes for girls.Though most of these conditionalcash transfer schemes are good steps to enhance the status of girls, very little is known abouttheir implementation and effectiveness. this study was commissioned by UNFPA to reviewthe performance of fifteen ongoing schemes to promote the well-being of the girl child inIndia. The study was conceptualized as a two-step process consisting of review of availablescheme related information followed by a consultation with states to agree upon a more in-depth primary research and beneficiary assessment of select schemes as the second step. The methodology of the study was based on review of all the financial incentiveschemes was undertaken and decide on the criteria to short-listing those that could be takenup for secondary review. A check list for interviewing key stakeholders and a format forcollecting relevant data was prepared and finalized. This was followed by visits to the statesto interview the key informants. Determine whether financial incentives for the girl childprovided through selected schemes have had any bearing on parental attitude and behaviourwith respect to the birth and care of girls. If so, provide further recommendations forenhancing the impact of the existing schemes. The major findings were : i. Dhan Lakshmi Scheme: The introduction of this Scheme been observed that the operationalization of the scheme is facing challenges mainly due to the large number of conditions attached to the release of incentives at different stages of immunization and school attendance. 45
  • ii. Ladli Lakshmi Yojana (Madhya Pradesh): It was also observed that apart from the Anganwadi workers, the Panchayat members are also actively involved in the promotion of the scheme. Special Gram Sabha meetings were organized to create awareness about the scheme. Over the years, the implementation of the scheme has been decentralized to a large extent. The scheme also combines the conditional cash transfer for improving girls‟ education as well as popularizing the small family norm.iii. Bhagyalakshmi Scheme (Karnataka): This scheme combines incentives for school education, immunization and health insurance, restricted to two girls from BPL families. The scheme also aims at eliminating child labor and ensuring admission to Anganwadi centres.iv. Balika Samridhi Yojana (Gujarat): This is a good example of how a centrally sponsored scheme can be gradually taken over by the state government and implemented for the benefit of the girls from BPL families. v. Ladli Scheme (Delhi): This scheme is popular and has resulted in many positive changes. The officials claim that the birth registration has improved and that the enrollment of girls in schools has also picked up. In order to make it more citizen- friendly, the eligibility conditions were Girl Child Protection Scheme(GCPS) (Andhra Pradesh): It includes childhood immunization, family planning, education up to Standard 12, and marriage of girls not before 18 years of age. During the last five years, it has attracted nearly 3,67,000 beneficiaries. A detailed study of this scheme will help us understand the performance 46
  • of a girl child promotion scheme in the last 15 years and the kind of impact it has had on the beneficiaries and their familiesvii. Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana (Bihar): The beneficiary must come under the age group, 0-3 years. The family can avail themselves of the benefits for the first two girl children and on completion of 18 years, the amount equal to the maturity value will be paid to the girl child. PRIs and women‟s groups are actively involved at the implementation level. The number of applicants actually surpassed what the allocated funds could provide. The scheme has a component to cover the administrative cost . The Anganwadi workers were given incentives for promoting the scheme. An evaluation will provide useful insights into the implementation mechanism and ways to improve its effectiveness.Ministry of Human Resource Development, Dept of Elementary Education andLiteracy, New Delhi. (1999), conducted a study on Educating Adolescent Girls : OpeningWindows. Adolescents need specific attention, education and information. This study wasdone to map the experiences in educating adolescent girls in five states namely AndhraPradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The major findings were: i. In Andhra Pradesh, six organizations were studied. They successfully launched and sustained a programme for girls education. They brought together girls for vocational training and literacy and focussed on empowering adolescent girls. There was a marked difference girls showed more confidence and had greater self esteem, majority of them were Muslims. The girls were looked after with care and sensitivity. 47
  • ii. In Bihar, four Mahila Shiksha Kendras (DIET, Maria Ashram, District Sheikhpura and Fakirana) were selected. At MSK a minimum of Class 5 education was attained and it ensured that there was no relapse into illiteracy. The Bihar Education Programme provided an easy way for girls to complete Class 5 and continue with Class 6 in Government schools. MSKs educational motivation programme showed girls, who lived in different and distressing circumstances, how to live together, be well groomed, keep the surroundings clean, and participate in extra curricular activities.iii. In Rajasthan, to understand the necessary and sufficient conditions for girls enrolment and education, Balika Shikshan Vihars were organized between 1996 and 1999. Sensitivity of the programme played a role in ensuring enrolment and retention in the camps. The flexible curriculum and camp approach relieved girls from daily duties and helped them to learn faster. Social consciousness and gender sensitivity were generated. The retention of girls from varying social backgrounds in the camp was made possibleiv. In Delhi, Katha and Ankur had implemented educational programmes for adolescent girls for over 10 years. Girls reached a high level of competence in life skills, became confident, assertive and in command of their lives. They understood societal constraints, patriarchy and sexuality through analysis of their own situation. They also acquired skills in computers, stitching, beauty therapy, read newspaper regularly, and were able to interact freely with boys in classes and workshops. 48
  • v. Mahila Samakhya, a block-specific programme in Uttar Pradesh, operated in 10 districts. Major achievements of the programme were that it ensured regular attendance and built confidence among girls. Teachers noticed that girls aspirations changed and they became role models for others. Indian Institute of Education, Pune (2006), conducted a study on A Study of the Extentand Causes of Dropouts in Primary Schools in Rural Maharashtra with Special Reference toGirl Dropouts. The problem of school dropout has been continually troubling the primaryeducation system not only in India but in other developing countries too. The present studywas done to assess the factors that resulted in dropout of school children with genderdifferentials. The methodology used was based on the study conducted in 3 districts of Maharashtraviz Akola, Beed and Bhandara and covered 24 schools in 24 villages. Data was collectedthrough survey and by interviewing parents and community people. All the schools werefrom Standard I to VII. The major finding revealed in all the 3 districts, the total number of male teachers was139 which was more compared to female teachers, 68. It was found that the absence offemale teachers in rural schools was a serious obstacle to improving girls‟ participation ratesand reducing dropout rates. The study found low job satisfaction among teachers, and themain reasons were low salary and mediocre living conditions. Teachers were alsopreoccupied with the lack of equipment and the shortage of teaching materials. Anotherproblem mentioned by them was that they were not properly supported by the parents ofpupils. Another factor that seriously limited the ability of teachers to devote themselves fullyto their teaching job and to invest time in improving school functioning was the involvementof teachers in other official and other income generating activities, which led them to move 49
  • out from remote areas. Almost all parents stated lack of encouragement from the school,particularly in the case of girls which relates to lack of faith in the school as an instrument ofsocial promotion. The poor quality of schools was regularly quoted as another factor whichnegatively affected the demand for education and indirectly influenced school dropoutsbecause it led to discouragement and de-motivation of pupils. Home environment played animportant role in school failure and dropping out of children. Many people in rural areas livedwithout electricity and running water. Many children, especially girls, had to fetch firewoodand potable water. Children had little contact with the written word outside of school due topaucity of reading material and the low educational level of parents. All these factorscontributed to irregular school attendance which led to dropouts.Nayar, Usha. (1999),studied on Planning For UPE (Universalization Primary Education) OfGirls And Womens Empowerment : Gender Studies In DPEP (District Primary EducationProgram). A study was conducted in 44 low female literacy districts of 8 states of India,namely Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Haryana, Assam, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra andKerala, to identify areas of intervention for universalizing primary education among girlswith focus on women‟s equality and empowerment. The methodology was based on the interviews were conducted in 13013 households;with 2424 dropout girls; 4316 never enrolled girls; 792 teachers, 269 educationaladministrators and 416 community leaders in more than 400 villages and urban slums. Focusgroup discussions were also conducted with parents and community members. The findings of the study revealed that participation of women in educationaladministration is negligible in most districts. The provision of support services likeAnganwadis and Balwadis were absent in sample villages of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.Except for Tamil Nadu and Kerala, there was acute shortage of women teachers in rural 50
  • areas. Linkages with other Departments like Women and Child, Social Welfare, etc. were noteffective. Mahila Mandals and other women‟s groups were nearly absent in sample villagesof Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, in other states, they were ineffective, at times functioningonly on paper. Study found that parental motivation and education, followed by economicstatus of the household, were the key factors for continuance of girls in schools. The mainreasons for girls dropping out of school were found to be poverty of the household, andgender based division of labour and resources. Lack of women teachers and separate schoolsfor girls were among the most prominent factors for girls dropping out of schools in almostall the states. Poverty and social discrimination were the major hurdles faced by scheduledcaste and scheduled tribe girls; while the restrictions on women and girls, and negativeattitudes to girls‟ education were the prominent reasons for Muslim girls dropping out fromschools. In the case of non enrolled girls, domestic work and helping parents in theiroccupations, and being engaged in remunerative work, were found to be the chief reason inTamil Nadu and Maharashtra.Saxena, R.R. et al. (2000), has done a study on State Policies on Incentive Schemes inPrimary Schools and their Contribution to Girls Participation. The study reviewed thepolicies on incentives for girls participation and their implementation strategies in States andUTs. It identified factors which contributed to girls participation in primary education. The methodology was based on the data was collected on the basis of the opinion ofparents and village heads about the implementation of incentive schemes in Tamil Nadu andUttar Pradesh. The study was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, data was collected from 32States and UTs. In Phase -2, in-depth field study covered a sample of rural primary schools ofTamil Nadu and U.P. 51
  • The major findings of the study revealed that girls gross enrolment ratio (GER) atprimary stage rose from 60.5% in 1970-71 to 73.5% in 1992-93 and dropout rate decreasedfrom 70.9% to 46.7%. The gap in GER of boys and girls narrowed during the interveningperiod. The State Governments organised community awareness campaigns to enhance girlseducation and provided crèches and day care centres to free girls from babysitting theirsiblings. State Governments also introduced direct incentives like mid-day meals, free supplyof uniforms, free text books, attendance incentive and scholarships for girls. Three kilo grams(kg) of food grains per month was supplied to each student in most of the States. In TamilNadu, noon-meal is served to students throughout the year including holidays. The aboveincentives had resulted in notable progress in girls education at primary stage. Goa, Haryana,Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, TamilNadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep andPondicherry have achieved more than 90 per cent gender parity at primary stage. Biggerstates like Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh havegender parity below 80 percent. Factors pertaining to percentage of population below thepoverty line, per capita expenditure on elementary education and percentage of SCpopulation were negatively associated with GER. Increased educational facility in rural areas,number of female teachers and serving cooked meals resulted in higher girls‟ enrolment.Broader coverage under the 3 schemes, namely, free text books, free Uniform and attendancescholarship also indicated positive association.Saroja, K. (1999), has studied on School Related Factors Affecting The Female SchoolDrop-Out Phenomenon In Rural Areas: A Case Study. This article analysed the structure ofschool education and the factors influencing female school dropouts in schools in Ron Talukaof Gadag district, Karnataka. 52
  • The methodology was based on the sample comprised 6 schools. Personalobservations and interview guides were also used. The findings revealed that out of nearly 50% female population, less than 20% wereliterate.There were 92 villages in Ron Taluka, and of them 7 were without schools. Out of atotal of 162 schools, 43 were exclusively for boys, 15 were only for girls and the remainingwere coeducational. This could be one reason for girls dropping out from schools. 73% of theteachers in schools were male and this could also be a reason for girls to drop out. Anotherreason for girls to drop out was that 4 schools were located on the outskirts of the village. Inonly 3 schools educational and sports material like science kit, radio, cassettes were available.Data showed that boys enrolment in schools was higher than girls enrolment , but the totalattendance of both boys and girls was less than the enrolment. In 40 villages, schools offeredupto lower primary education, and 45 village schools provided education up to upper primarylevel. Government recommended teacher student ratio was 1:40, but it was found to be 1:66in the sample schools.Tinnari, (2002) has done a study on Impact Study of Education Incentives to School GoingGirls in Haryana. A study was carried out to investigate whether government initiatives hadan impact on girl‟s education in Haryana. Haryana‟s population was 21.0 million in 2001.Children in the age group 0-6 years numbered 3.2 million. Sex ratio decreased from 871 in1951 to 861 in 2001. The sex ratio for all ages was highest in Mahendragarh and improvedfrom 910 in 1991 to 919 in 2001. The present study investigated the education component ofthe Integrated Women‟s Empowerment Development Programme (IWEDP) under whichsome incentives were given to encourage parents to send their girls to primary schools, and tohelp them continue up to higher secondary level. This project also gave incentives to womento become regular members of the Jagriti Mandalis (women‟s empowerment groups). Kishori 53
  • Balika Yojana is a very good programme, and this programme is popular as Didi (ElderSister) Programme in the villages. A remarkable aspect of the project was the horizontalintegration of women of all castes and classes. The methodology covered 40 villages, four each in ten C.D. Blocks of districtsMahendragarh and Rewari. Inall 371 girl beneficiaries were interviewed in groups. The findings revealed that in Mahendragarh district, child sex ratio (0-6 years) hasfallen steeply from 892 in 1991 to 814 in 2001. Female literacy rate has gone up from 36.5%to 54.61% during 1991-2001. In Rewari district, women constituted 47.38% of the totalpopulation of the district. The sex ratio has fallen steeply from 927 in 1991 to 901 in 2001.The child sex ratio (0-6 years) has fallen from 894 in 1991 to 814 in2001. Female literacyrate has gone up from 46.3% to 61.45% during 1991-2001. In Rewari district, educationalincentives were given to the girls in the form of money. The incentivesencouraged mothers to attend JMs meetings and send their daughters to school. Thenumber of primary schools in Mahendragarh district has gone up from 347 to 705, and from277 to 517 in Rewari district during 1994-2000. Female enrolment has gone up in both thedistricts.In the IWEDP districts, education of girls has made substantial progress. The impactof incentive based education on attitudes to self in terms of self image and self esteem of girlshas been positive.Jay Prakash (2005), has done a study on Adolescent Girl‟s Scheme: Kishori Shakti Yojna.An intervention for adolescent girls (11-18 years) the Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) waslaunched in 2000-01 as part of the ICDS scheme. The scheme aims at breaking theintergenerational life-cycle of nutritional and gender disadvantage and providing a supportiveenvironment for self-development. 54
  • The methodology was based on the data from primary sources have been collected bymaking visit to the ICDS block/project site and interviewing CDPOs, Workers, adolescentgirls; through structured questionnaire; focused group discussions among adolescent girlsand focused group discussions among the parents of adolescent. Data from secondarysources envisages collection of information on details of scheme composition andcomponents and its implementation strategy guidelines. The major findings were: i. In the state of Uttar Pradesh, KSY has been implemented at AWC level after conducting survey of BPL families. Only 3 adolescent girls are selected for training under the scheme from one AWC for every six months. Generally those girls are preferred who have less number of years of schooling and shown interest in joining the KSY at AWC. It was stated by CDPOs that under the scheme the trainings are being provided for stitching, embroidery; and education related to the health of adolescent girls, life style and cleanliness. Specifically, the training is provided on vocational training and health education. The vocational training is provided for 60 days while the health education is provided only for 3 days. The adolescent girls receive a stipend of Rs 400 in addition to the refreshment during the training. The scheme is monitored by Sector Supervisors, CDPOs and DPOs. Reporting is done by AWC to Supervisor then CDPOs and the final report goes to DPO office. ii. In the state of Rajasthan, KSY has been implemented at 20 AWCs at a time every year 30 adolescent girls are selected from school drop-outs, orphaned and BPL families. The adolescent girls are provided knowledge and awareness about literacy, behavior related cleanliness, hygiene, environmental pollution, etc. Trainings are provided to all AWCs for 5 days at the block. The girls are provided knowledge and awareness about their own health and hygiene on fixed days of the week. Girls are 55
  • also provided IFA tablets at the AWCs. Sports activities are also organized for adolescent girls at AWCs. Girls were also taken for an exposure visit under the scheme. Two girls from each AWC under the scheme had been selected for a five day training at the block level. AWCs were also accompanied during the training as the parents of girls did not allow their daughter to go to the block alone for 5 days.Kothari, V N. (2004),Challenge of Universalization of Elementary Education in India. Thestudy was conducted by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration(NIEPA) to explain the elementary education scenario in India through the use of a variety ofdata sources such as Census, the NSS, NCERT and NFHS surveys. The overall developmentsituation was assessed with respect to gender, age, rural-urban divide, expenditure groups,village amenities, and health status of children. India was classified in the medium humandevelopment category.The findings revealed that adult literacy rate was extremely low in India 55.7% in 1998,youth literacy rate was 71%, and enrolment ratio in primary education (1997) was found to be77.2%. To conclude, it was emphasized that we are far from attaining the goal of universalenrolment of children 6 to 14 years of age. It is even possible that under-nourishment, severemorbidity and physical disability are delaying their entry into school. For girls and for firstgeneration learners school has to become more attractive. Unless we take adequate steps, weas a country are likely to remain stuck at 80%-85% enrolment rates, while most of thedeveloping countries would be heading towards 100% enrolment.Choudhury, Geeta et al. (2006) had done a research on Shiksha Sangam: Innovations UnderThe Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. 56
  • The findings showed that innovations taken by some states of India under SarvShiksha Abhiyan like boat school, video conferencing under distance education ,alternativesfor gifted girls, bridge courses for children with special needs helped in raising the literacyrate of those states as well as helped in reducing gender gap in education.Juneja, Nalini and Nandi, Nabanita (2000), have conducted a research on MetropolitanCities in India and Education of the Poor: the City of Indore: An Educational Profile. The findings showed that with help of NGOs, minority institutions, religiousinstitutions and UNICEF collaboration they started a program called Nirbhay which aimed atreaching out to slum children to make them literate and teach them some vocational skills.This was an effective program helped to reach that marginalized section of the society2.3 FOREIGN REVIEWKate Mitchell,(2012) has studied on Female Spatial Capability in Northern India. Herresearch is based on Mukhyamantri Balika cycle Yojna in Bihar. Her was to study Socio-cultural attitudes, norms and practices that shape and define female freedom of mobility inBihar and the effect it has on female freedom of movement in order to bring gender equalityand female empowerment in the region. The methodology was based on the primary interview and observational data gatheredin this project has been supplemented by various secondary sources of information includinggovernment documents, blogs, NGO generated reports and data, newspaper articles, podcasts,and both historical and cultural literature. An inductive approach was used to analysing theprimary data. The initial data collection session consisted of 34 interviews conducted in 17 57
  • rural villages as well as two focus group interviews of school going girls and marriedwomen; to verify the data collected from the primary source.The findings showed that the scheme has altered a number of female mobility patterns for thebetter, firstly by increasing access to schools for unmarried females. The provision ofbicycles also freed the time which girls would previously have spent on walking to school, aresource which unmarried women are lack. Beyond providing the means of mobility, thescheme has challenged the patriarchal spatiality of Bihar, in that though public space still ismale dominated, yet it is now completely commonplace to see young unmarried womencycling. Hosts of girls cycling in the public space presents a powerful image anddemonstrates that they are pushing into the male dominated public realm, and reveals thatgendered mobilities are not set in stone. In this regard, the Bicycle Scheme holds the promiseof a sustained change in spatial capability, at least for Bihar‟s unmarried females. However,despite these benefits, and the fact that the scheme provides access to a means of transport: abicycle, the scheme shorts falls in short in fully enabling the spatial capability of females andempowering them across their life span. The extremely poor quality of the governmenteducation provided in Bihar means that increasing female access to school is less of anachievement, as it is less likely to provide females which the ability and confidence to bringabout change in their society. Similarly, many females are not accessing the scheme, as theyare not attending school, either because they are married, working, or their families are toopoor or unwilling to invest in their education. What is particularly worrying is that thevillages which only contained zero to two schoolgirls over 9th grade, were all scheduled castevillages. As such the scheme seems to be failing to increase the spatial capability of the mostdisadvantaged sections of Bihar. 58
  • Gina Porter (2011), has studied on Gender Perspectives on Transport Infrastructure andServices in Africa: Issues, Challenges and the Potential for Positive Change. The study revolvearound transport and mobility constraints shape women and girls‟ access to services andlivelihoods.The major findings were: i. Female poverty and illiteracy has interdependent factors as lack of mobility and health and social stigmas.ii. There is gender discrimination in mobility factors especially related to education and livelihood.Karthik Muralidharan and Nishith Prakash ,(2011) have done a research on Cycling toSchool: Increasing High School Girl’s Enrolment in Bihar. A fundamental policy challengein many developing countries is therefore to identify cost-effective and scalable policies thatimprove the schooling of girls. While hundreds of schemes have been launched as pilots andthen discarded when the government changes, the bicycle programme in Bihar is one that hascaught the imagination of voters as well as political leaders and its high visibility has led tointerest in whether it can be replicated in other parts of India. This research will helppolicymakers decide on the next steps.The findings of the study were „super preliminary‟, they show that giving free bikes to girlshas helped to bridge the gap by between 20% and 25%. In many Bihari schools, there werearound 100 boys for every 60 girls. Since the bicycle programme was introduced, the studysuggests that there are now around 70 girls for every 100 boys.Stewart, A., & Chapman-Abbott, J. (2011), have done a research on Remote IslandStudents‟ Post-Compulsory Retention: Emplacement And Displacement As FactorsInfluencing Educational Persistence Or Discontinuation. The research offers insights into the 59
  • socio-spatial ambiguities experienced differently in different social contexts by students seeking a better education and the opportunities of urban living and at the same time longing for the island and island community. The methodology was based on ethnographic research using grounded theory we examined social, cultural and locational factors which result in low post-compulsory retention rates of remote island students. The research, conducted by an island “insider,” followed a cohort of Australian students from Year 10 in a small island school off the coast of Tasmania to Year 11 in a secondary college on the Tasmanian mainland. The research investigated factors, identified by the students, that influenced their transition from Year 10, the final year of compulsory schooling, through to Years 11 and 12, and their persistence or discontinuation Attachment to the island as their home place and the emplacement of their cultural ties to family and community contrasted with the displacement experienced in the urban environment. The major findings were: i. The fact was highlighted that some of the island students who were performing well academically, and whose aspirations before leaving the island were high, were among those who discontinued their study during Year 11. ii. The strength of homesickness of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, not only for family and friends but for the island itself, was exacerbated for some students by periods of ill health with associated interruptions to study, resulting in loss of confidence.iii. This was accentuated by weakening of peer networks, financial hardship exacerbated by inability to find part-time paid employment, and related sense of de-skilling.iv. Despite earlier student and family recognition of the opportunity offered by college education, a successful transition from Year 10 at the island school and an early 60
  • adjustment to Year 11 studies, this cascade of issues served to undermine students‟ sense of efficacy and identity in the city and to increase their desire to return to the island.v. Student perceptions of place and their attachment to place varied with social and spatial context as they adapted to the experience of migrating between the island and the city. The significance of cultural and social values in the home place anchored them on the island and the hopes and expectations for new lifestyle and freedoms, to which they saw education as the key, attracted them to the city Weir, Susan (2003) has done a research on The Evaluation Of Breaking The Cycle: A Follow-Up Of The Achievements Of 6th Class Pupils In Urban Schools. The aim of the Breaking the Cycle scheme is to assist selected primary schools in addressing problems associated with catering for large numbers of pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds. The scheme, which was introduced to 33 schools in urban areas in 1996/97, provides for reduced class size at junior level; grants for the purchase of books, teaching materials and equipment; enhanced capitation grants; and in career development programmes for teachers. The methodology was based on the evaluation effort directed towards assessing the scheme‟s impact on pupils, and the extent to which a range of factors such as pupil attendance, attitudes, attainments, and achievements were affected by participation in the scheme. The achievements in reading and Mathematics of 3rd and 6th class pupils were assessed using standardised tests in the first and fourth years of the scheme. The major findings indicated that the achievements of pupils on both occasions were significantly lower than those of pupils nationally, and that there was a statistically significant decrease in the average literacy and numeracy achievements of pupils in 6 th class between 1997 and 2000. The report focuses on documenting the results of follow-up testing of 6th class pupils in 2003. Unlike the 6th class cohorts tested on previous occasions, the majority 61
  • of pupils in the 2003 cohort should have benefited from the key provisions of the scheme,including junior education in small classes. However, the reading and Mathematics levels ofpupils in the 2003 cohort did not differ from those in the 2000 cohort, and were significantlylower than those of pupils in 6th class when the scheme began.Brannigan, Vincent M. et al., (2004) have done a research on Promoting AcademicAchievement And Motivation: A Discussion & Contemporary Issues Based Approach. In thecurrent context of the “No Child Left Behind Act,” schools nationwide are facing anincreased level of accountability for their students‟ academic performance. The researchfocused on exploring methods of improving the academic motivation of adolescent middleschool students and relating academic motivation to actual school performance. The methodology was designed and implemented by the team for a 4-monthparticipant-based study at a local middle school with a sample of 8th graders. During thisperiod, they established and directed an after-school program for students in which they usedan interactive discussion and contemporary issues-based approach as a way to introducestudents to various academic areas not necessarily covered in class. They also assessedwhether students attitudes toward learning were related to their academic performance. Bothquantitative survey data and open-ended qualitative questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings suggest that students‟ attitudes toward learning improved over the courseof the 4-month period, and their academic motivation increased. The relationship betweenacademic motivation and academic performance was still not clear at that point. Nevertheless,the team stressed on the importance of implementing more interactive discussions andactivities in middle school classrooms, many of which are facing increasing pressure todesign their curricula around standardized tests. 62
  • Salih Usun (2004), has done a research on Important Learning Dimensions InfluencingUndergraduate Students Learning and Academic Achievement in Higher Education. Themain aim of this study was to determine the opinions of the undergraduate students andfaculty members on factors that affect student learning and academic achievement. The methodology used to determine some of the important learning dimensionsinfluencing academic performance within the classroom environment a questionnaire as asurvey of 23 items was applied to 168 undergraduate students and 45 faculty members at theDepartment of Primary Education of Faculty of Education of Canakkale Onsekiz MartUniversity, Turkey during the fall 2003 semester. The statistical techniques were used todelve out inference from the data collected. The findings showed that in 10 instructional dimensions there was a statisticallysignificant difference between two populations. The positive t value indicated that the meanscore for the students was higher than the mean score for the faculty member. This was truefor 6 of the 10 dimensions. But both gave low importance to dimensions such as the hour ofday class meet, required or selective lectures, textbook, course supplements and facultymembers‟ concern for students as individuals. This study demonstrated that both theundergraduate students and faculty members felt that faculty member provided a major inputin the learning and teaching processes. Namely, the undergraduate students and facultymembers agreed on most factors supposed important to student learning.Nooraini Othman and Kong Bee Leng (2011), have done a research work on TheRelationship Between Self-Concept, Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Determination And AcademicAchievement Among Chinese Primary School Students. In educational setting, success ismeasured by academic achievement, or how well a student meets standards set out byeducational board or the institution itself. The main purpose of this study is to examine the 63
  • relationship between self-concept, intrinsic motivation and self-determination with academicachievement among the respondents. The methodology was based on the sample of 200 students in standard 5 and standard6 from a Chinese primary school in Johor, Malaysia. Data was collected using a self-developed set of questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach‟sAlpha and the result was 0.941. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for SocialScience (SPSS) version 17.0. Pearson correlation at the significant level of 0.05 was used inorder to determine the relationships among the measured variables. This findings showed that there is a weak significant relationship between self-concept and academic achievement among the students, a weak and negative significantrelationship between students‟ intrinsic motivation and their academic achievement and aweak significant and negative relationship between students‟ self-determination and theiracademic achievement. Apart from such relationship, there are other factors considered to besalient in nature but relevant and contribute to the success of the students‟ performance.These factors include the role of significant others such as family support, teachers‟ attitudeand peers understanding which have been found by this research.2.4 CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE In the above reviews the researcher has studied 20 reviews out of which 12 are Indianreviews and 8 are foreign reviews. The researcher has taken related literature concerned notonly with Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna, but research done on the other governmentscheme of various states in India. The researcher has studied the review of research based onthe government and school schemes providing transportation and aid to education in different 64
  • countries. The researcher has also taken into account the review of the researches based onacademic achievement and motivation.Kaushal, S. and Patra, Sudhandhu S. ( 2011) found that though Bihar has worked hard onproviding all basic necessities for a school it is still lacking quality in education.Sekher‟s (2011) found that various schemes for girl given by state governments. But it hasnot been conducted for Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna. Though the schemes ofgovernment are good on paper but only few get the benefit of these. The complication lies inthe implementation of the schemes.Ministry of Human Resource Development, Dept of Elementary Education and Literacy,New Delhi (1999) found that in educating younger generation non profit organisation alsoplays a vital role. The study was conducted in five different states and the result of each NGOwas positive. The girls had not only done academically well but had also gained confidencein most of the cases. The NGOs helped adolescent especially girls by providing themvocational education as stated by the research of Juneja, Nalini and Nandi, Nabanita (2000).Indian Institute of Education, Pune (2006) found that the most important problems behinddrop out of girls like helping hand at home , poverty early marriages etc. This research is veryimportant as to make further policy to eradicate all problems that lead to drop out of girlsfrom schools.Usha, Nayar (1999) found that in 44 districts with low female literacy to know the causesbehind it. The research showed that the deficit government machinery and poorimplementation of the schemes were the root cause of low female literacy in thesedistricts.The research only taken account the data provided by the government machinerywhereas the actual cases may be larger than stated in the data. 65
  • Saxena, R.R. et al.(2000) found that the schemes of government did help to increaseenrolment on retention of girls in the school and reduced gender parity ratio. However itlacked the implementation effect of the schemes.Saroja, K.(1999) found that the results of her research oppossed the government norms. Thestudent–teacher ratio was quite high and schools were far away from the villages which led tothe lesser enrolment of the girls in the school.Tinnari (2003) found that Haryana has lowest gender ratio in India as well very low femaleliteracy rate. The study revealed that the schemes providing for the girl child helped theparents to send them to school.Jay Prakash (2005) found a contrast between UP and Rajasthan. In UP where girls werefreely allowed to joined schemes and get benefit of it grew more self confident, whereas inRajasthan fewer girls opted for schemes and even less if it required to go out of station.Kothari, V N. (2004) found that the elementary education scenario in India through the use ofa variety of data sources such as Census, the NSS, NCERT and NFHS surveys. Hence itlacked actual numbers. The study revealed the marginalised section of the society likefemale, disable person and so called low caste people are yet to gain under Universalizationof elementary education.Choudhury, Geeta et al. (2006) found that use of modern technology not only helps in qualityeducation e.g. in audio visual aids but also helps in reaching out many more students inremote places.Kate Mitchell (2011) found a positive increase in female mobility especially in Bihar after thescheme was introduced. But such mobility did not last for life span as the female liberties arecurbed once they are married. 66
  • Gina Porter (2011) found that the female mobility in respect to livelihood and education didincrease in the rural areas of Africa by the use of cycles. This ethnographic research touchedvarious aspects of the life of an African woman and showed that the cycle was a boon forthem both socially and economically.Karthik Muralidharan and Nishith Prakash (2011) found that MBCY increased the mobilityof girls in Bihar as compared to Jharkhand.Stewart, A., & Chapman-Abbott, J. (2011) found environment plays a vital role in theacademic achievement and further studies of the students, especially in those who come fromculturally different background.Weir, Susan (2003) found that giving grants for books, school fees etc and reducing class sizedoes increase the academic achievement of the students. In India they cause may be differentbut such schemes do increase attendance and enrolment of the students.Brannigan, V. M. et al. (2004), found that the child based curriculum, discussion, interactionsin classroom etc does increase the academic achievement of students. Such could be achievedeven in the short time period of 4 months.Nooraini Othman and Kong Bee Leng (2011) found that the primary school children were notguided by intrinsic motivation or self esteem. The extrinsic factors much influenced theirachievement scores.Salih Usun (2004) found that there is a difference in motivational factors of grown upstudents . They value have their studies and faculty more. They have more intrinsicmotivation than extrinsic motivation. 67
  • The reviews of the literature especially on Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna showedthat the scheme is beneficial for the girls. The results of research agree that it helps in femalemobility and helping girls to come to school. Whereas in other researches we saw that there islack of quality education in Bihar. In this research, the researcher differs from the above researches in the following way: i. The area of research taken under the study is not specifically studied by any other researcher. ii. The sample of the research is a contrast between government school and minority-aided school girls which is not studied by any other researcher. iii. The effect of motivation on the academic achievement of the girls under MBCY is not studied by any other researcher earlier. iv. The study of MBCY with respect to parents education, habitation and family income has not been studied earlier. 68