Working With Children

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Overview of psychological theories related to working with obese children and adolescents.

Presentation given at the In Form project interim conference, Villach Austria, 22 March 2010.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others

  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources







































  • Working With Children

    1. 1. Working with Obese Children and Adolescents Psychological Background and Therapeutic Interventions Vincent O’Brien Lorenzo Gios and Sara Carbone 1
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. Lifestyle choices, perceptions, and ways of thinking are strong influences on health and health behaviours. Many of these develop during childhood and adolescence and have a long term influence on our health. 2
    4. 4. In this presentation I want to look at how an understanding of social cognition and other theories can help us to understand and work with obese children and adolescents. 2
    5. 5. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health 3
    6. 6. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. 3
    7. 7. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. 3
    8. 8. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. We can divide this into: 3
    9. 9. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. We can divide this into: Person Perception 3
    10. 10. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. We can divide this into: Person Perception making sense of others 3
    11. 11. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. We can divide this into: Person Perception making sense of others Self Regulation 3
    12. 12. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Social Behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. Social Cognition is how we make sense of social situations. We can divide this into: Person Perception making sense of others Self Regulation making sense of ourselves 3
    13. 13. Health Behaviour Why do people adopt positive health behaviours? 4
    14. 14. 5
    15. 15. A number of theoretical models have been suggested to explain how we make decisions about health behaviours. The health belief model focuses on three aspects of decision making. Threat perception (What is the risk to me?) Behavioural Evaluation (What do I need to do?) Cues to action (Why should I do this?) 5
    16. 16. Health Belief Model 6
    17. 17. Health Belief Model 6
    18. 18. Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Health Belief Model 6
    19. 19. Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Health Belief Model 6
    20. 20. Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Health Belief Model 6
    21. 21. 7
    22. 22. Planned Behaviour Theory suggests that factors such as attitudes, social conformity and drivers and opportunities for behavioural change are a at the centre of of personal decision making 7
    23. 23. Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    24. 24. Attitudes Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    25. 25. Attitudes = Consequences Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    26. 26. Value Attitudes = Consequences Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    27. 27. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    28. 28. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Subjective Norms Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    29. 29. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    30. 30. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others + Compliance Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    31. 31. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others + Compliance Behavioural Control Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    32. 32. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others + Compliance Behavioural Control = Resources Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    33. 33. Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others + Compliance Behavioural Control = Resources + Opportunity Planned Behaviour Theory 8
    34. 34. 9
    35. 35. Antonovsky has argued that when things make sense to us we are more able to manage our lives and are more likely to take positive actions To enhance our well being. He calls this our ‘sense of coherence’. 9
    36. 36. Sense of Coherence Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    37. 37. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Life is structured, predictable and explainable Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    38. 38. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Manageable Life is structured, Personal and predictable and external resources explainable are available Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    39. 39. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Manageable Meaningful Life is structured, Personal and Fits with sense of predictable and external resources self explainable are available Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    40. 40. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Manageable Meaningful Life is structured, Personal and Fits with sense of predictable and external resources self explainable are available It makes sense to me Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    41. 41. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Manageable Meaningful Life is structured, Personal and Fits with sense of predictable and external resources self explainable are available I have It makes what it takes sense to me to do this Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    42. 42. Sense of Coherence Comprehensible Manageable Meaningful Life is structured, Personal and Fits with sense of predictable and external resources self explainable are available I have It makes what it takes It’s worth it! sense to me to do this Antonovsky, A. (1979) Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 10
    43. 43. Sense of Coherence It makes sense Resources It makesworth it! me It’s sense to Meaningful Manageable Comprehensible 11
    44. 44. 12
    45. 45. According to Personal Construct Theory, we divide the world and our lived experiences of it, into similar and dissimilar constructs. We form our impressions, make our decisions based on these, largely pre constructed, general impressions. 12
    46. 46. According to Personal Construct Theory, we divide the world and our lived experiences of it, into similar and dissimilar constructs. We form our impressions, make our decisions based on these, largely pre constructed, general impressions. George Kelly (1955) developed the Repertory Grid interview technique to help therapists understand how their 12
    47. 47. According to Personal Construct Theory, we divide the world and our lived experiences of it, into similar and dissimilar constructs. We form our impressions, make our decisions based on these, largely pre constructed, general impressions. George Kelly (1955) developed the Repertory Grid interview technique to help therapists understand how their Clients understand and make sense of their world. 12
    48. 48. Personal Constructs Me as Ideal Me me others see me Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 13
    49. 49. Personal Constructs Open Reserved Me as Ideal Me me others see me Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 13
    50. 50. Personal Constructs Me Open Reserved Me as Ideal others me see me Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 13
    51. 51. Personal Constructs Me as Me others see me Open Reserved Ideal me Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 13
    52. 52. Personal Constructs Ideal Me as me Me others see me Open Reserved Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 13
    53. 53. Personal Constructs Make our Lives Predictable Grow and Change Influence Perceptions and Expectations Represents ‘Personal Truths’ Not always internally consistent Understanding another person’s construct is a measure of empathy Kelly, G (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (vols. 1 and 2). N.Y.: Norton 14
    54. 54. 15
    55. 55. Our recent work with 9 and 10 year old children gave us an interesting insight into how children think. 15
    56. 56. Our recent work with 9 and 10 year old children gave us an interesting insight into how children think. We found they were strongly influenced by parents and peers. 15
    57. 57. Our recent work with 9 and 10 year old children gave us an interesting insight into how children think. We found they were strongly influenced by parents and peers. Even if they new some of the ‘technical’ information about healthy living, they didn’t always understand how to fit it in to their own lives. 15
    58. 58. 16
    59. 59. Young children are often very concerned that they fit 16
    60. 60. Young children are often very concerned that they fit in with others. 16
    61. 61. Young children are often very concerned that they fit in with others. Family and friends, are important influences. 16
    62. 62. Young children are often very concerned that they fit in with others. Family and friends, are important influences. But children are constantly looking to see what is normal 16
    63. 63. Young children are often very concerned that they fit in with others. Family and friends, are important influences. But children are constantly looking to see what is normal how to fit in. 16
    64. 64. Young children are often very concerned that they fit in with others. Family and friends, are important influences. But children are constantly looking to see what is normal how to fit in. And this can distort and disrupt ‘rational’ thinking. 16
    65. 65. How children think 17
    66. 66. How children think What kinds of food are least healthy? “Pasta isn’t very healthy because it’s got calories..... 17
    67. 67. How children think What kinds of food are least healthy? But we need “Pasta isn’t very calories don’t we? healthy because it’s got So it must be healthy.” calories..... 17
    68. 68. How children think What kinds of foods are least healthy? 18
    69. 69. How children think What kinds of foods are least healthy? “My mum says...” 18
    70. 70. How children think What kinds of foods are least healthy? “Chinese “My mum says...” food isn’t very healthy.... because you always get too much to eat.” 18
    71. 71. What’s important? 19
    72. 72. What’s important? Listening to children- (Understanding how they think) 19
    73. 73. What’s important? Listening to children- (Understanding how they think) Working with them not on them 19
    74. 74. What’s important? Listening to children- (Understanding how they think) Working with them not on them Working with families, groups, communities. 19
    75. 75. What’s important? Listening to children- (Understanding how they think) Working with them not on them Working with families, groups, communities. Take into account social and environmental factors that inform and support health behaviours. 19
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