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Social  Change
 

Social Change

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  • Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community. Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a worldview and are the basis for communication. Training for health professionals in the UK emphasises the need for a participatory relationship between professionals and their clients reflecting an emphasis on cultural values such as individuality, choice and autonomy. Over the last twenty years medical practice in diagnostic disclosure has slowly shifted from non-disclosure to full disclosure at the patient’s request. However in other cultures diagnostic disclosure to patients, especially where there is a poor prognosis, is considered to be undesirable. In Singapore, Chinese patients may hold a strong preference for non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Families often request that the patient is not informed and some patients will actively avoid discussion about their diagnosis if they suspect cancer. Discussion of treatment options and involvement in decision-making is considered to be the responsibility of family members rather than patients. For Chinese patients cancer may be “attributed to bad luck, punishment for sins committed in this life or a previous one, an unbalanced ‘yin-yang’ or the will of a supreme being” The use of the term cancer by clinicians could bring about a family crisis due to the social stigma associated with cancer.
  • Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community. Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a worldview and are the basis for communication. Training for health professionals in the UK emphasises the need for a participatory relationship between professionals and their clients reflecting an emphasis on cultural values such as individuality, choice and autonomy. Over the last twenty years medical practice in diagnostic disclosure has slowly shifted from non-disclosure to full disclosure at the patient’s request. However in other cultures diagnostic disclosure to patients, especially where there is a poor prognosis, is considered to be undesirable. In Singapore, Chinese patients may hold a strong preference for non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Families often request that the patient is not informed and some patients will actively avoid discussion about their diagnosis if they suspect cancer. Discussion of treatment options and involvement in decision-making is considered to be the responsibility of family members rather than patients. For Chinese patients cancer may be “attributed to bad luck, punishment for sins committed in this life or a previous one, an unbalanced ‘yin-yang’ or the will of a supreme being” The use of the term cancer by clinicians could bring about a family crisis due to the social stigma associated with cancer.

Social  Change Social Change Presentation Transcript

  • Population Health and Social Change How do changing social conditions influence health?
  • • Social change is a normal process that occurs throughout human society • It occurs over time in response to complex environmental, political and social factors.
  • Pressure for Change CHANGE
  • Pressure for Change Social CHANGE
  • Pressure for Change Social CHANGE Economic
  • Pressure for Change Social CHANGE Political Economic
  • Why Demography is important
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs.
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality • Migration
  • Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality • Migration • Future trends
  • Largest Cities 2015 Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
  • Largest Cities 2015 Tokyo 35.4 Mumbai 21.8 Mexico City 21.5 Sao Paulo 20.5 New York 19.8 Delhi 18.6 Shanghai 17.2 Calcutta 16.9 Dhaka 16.9 Jakarta 16.8 London (29) 8.6 0 10 20 30 40 Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
  • Global Urbanisation Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
  • Global Urbanisation 3,000 2,414 2,400 1,800 1,363 1,200 579 644 600 522 542 394 249 332 276 294 234 21 29 109 70 32 7 0 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 ica pe n ia a ia ric a an As be ro er Af ce Eu ib Am O ar /C th or ica N er Am tin La Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
  • Household Trends % living alone % lone parent Source: ONS Census 2001
  • Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
  • Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 12 11 4 8 6 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
  • Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 12 11 10 10 4 8 6 6 4 4 3 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
  • Cultural Change
  • Cultural Change  Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community.
  • Cultural Change  Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community.  Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a world view and are the basis for communication.
  • The extent of cultural influences
  • The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other
  • The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other Values are pervasive, not equally shared by individuals within a community
  • The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other Values are pervasive, not equally shared by individuals within a community The degree of commitment to cultural values varies according to age, gender, social layer etc.,
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
  • Values, customs and traditions
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.)
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.)
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things Tradition: Historical ways of doing things
  • Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things Tradition: Historical ways of doing things Value sets: Collection of values adopted by a cultural group or sub group
  • Acculturation Resistance/Receptiveness Duration & Intensity Variables Cultural Similarity of Contact Degree of Integration