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Perceptions Of Health

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Introduction to thinking about lifestyle and health

Introduction to thinking about lifestyle and health

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  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • HBM uses two aspects of representations of health: perception of illness threat and evaluation of counter measures.
    Internal cues: physical symptoms
    external: campaigns, advice from others
  • Associated with fear of ill health
    how effective is the proposed action?
    how likely is it that I can do this?

  • Associated with fear of ill health
    how effective is the proposed action?
    how likely is it that I can do this?

  • Associated with fear of ill health
    how effective is the proposed action?
    how likely is it that I can do this?

  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Connor and Sparks 1991
    Attitudes to health behaviour
    Will follow a health behaviour if
    It leads to valued outcomes
    supported by people who’s views they value
    access to necessary resources
  • Bandura (1977)
    What will happen if I take no action?
    How likely is it that the behaviour will be beneficial?
    How realistic is this behaviour for me?


  • Bandura (1977)
    What will happen if I take no action?
    How likely is it that the behaviour will be beneficial?
    How realistic is this behaviour for me?


  • Bandura (1977)
    What will happen if I take no action?
    How likely is it that the behaviour will be beneficial?
    How realistic is this behaviour for me?


  • Bandura (1977)
    What will happen if I take no action?
    How likely is it that the behaviour will be beneficial?
    How realistic is this behaviour for me?
















Transcript

  • 1. Perceptions of health and well being Lived experiences, health, illness and disease. Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 2. Lifestyle and health Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 3. Lifestyle and health How we live, how we think about and understand our lives influences our behaviour. How we behave affects our health Our health is determined, to a large extent, by the decisions we make in our everyday lives. Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 4. Physical Activity, Fatness and Health Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 5. Physical Activity, Fatness and Health • In addition to allergic diseases, educational level and physical activity are associated with adult onset asthma, which indicates a role for factors associated with life style. (Huovinen et al 2001) • There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. (Peters et al 2001) • Relationships between C-R fitness and CHD risk status in adolescents are mediated by fatness, whereas the observed relationships with fatness are independent of fitness. Primary prevention of CHD during childhood should therefore concentrate upon preventing or reversing undue weight gain. (Boreham et al 2001) Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 6. Diet and Cancer Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 7. Diet and Cancer • Cancer is mostly a preventable disease. The chief causes of cancer are use of tobacco and inappropriate diets • Current data support previous findings that inappropriate diets cause around one-third of all cancer deaths • Substantial and varied amounts of vegetables and fruits will prevent 20 per cent or more of all cases of cancer. • Keeping alcohol intake within recommended limits will prevent up to 20 per cent of cases of the aerodigestive tract, the colon and rectum and breast • Cancers of the stomach and colon and rectum are mostly preventable by appropriate diets and related factors. Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 8. Health Behaviour Why do people adopt positive health behaviours? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 9. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 10. Social Behaviour, Cognition and Health • Social behaviour is a consequence of perceptions of reality. • Social cognition is concerned with understanding how individuals make sense of social situations. • We can divide this into: Person Perception • making sense of others Self Regulation • making sense of ourselves Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 11. Health Belief Model Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 12. Health Belief Model Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 13. Health Belief Model Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 14. Health Belief Model Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 15. Health Belief Model Threat Behavioural Cues to Action Perceptions Evaluation Benefits Internal Susceptibility Efficacy External Costs Health Severity Barriers Motivation Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 16. Protection Motivation Theory Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 17. Protection Motivation Theory Threat Appraisal Coping Appraisal Adaptive health Action-outcome behaviour is a Susceptibility efficacy consequence of- Severity Self-efficacy Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 18. Protection Motivation Theory Threat Appraisal Coping Appraisal Adaptive health Action-outcome behaviour is a Susceptibility efficacy consequence of- Severity Self-efficacy Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 19. Protection Motivation Theory Threat Appraisal Coping Appraisal Adaptive health Action-outcome behaviour is a Susceptibility efficacy consequence of- Severity Self-efficacy Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 20. Planned Behaviour Theory Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 21. Planned Behaviour Theory Attitudes Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 22. Planned Behaviour Theory Attitudes = Consequences Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 23. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 24. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 25. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Subjective Norms Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 26. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = Others Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 27. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = + Compliance Others Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 28. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = + Compliance Others Behavioural Control Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 29. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = + Compliance Others = Behavioural Control Resources Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 30. Planned Behaviour Theory Value Attitudes = Consequences Efficacy Views of Subjective Norms = + Compliance Others + = Behavioural Control Resources Opportunity Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 31. Self Efficacy Theory Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 32. Self Efficacy Theory Situation Evaluation of Outcome Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 33. Self Efficacy Theory Situation Action Evaluation of Outcome Outcome Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 34. Self Efficacy Theory Situation Action Self Evaluation of Efficacy Outcome Outcome Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 35. Self Efficacy Theory Situation Action Self Evaluation of Motivation Action Efficacy Outcome Outcome Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 36. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 37. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 38. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Is this harmful, beneficial, threatening or challenging? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 39. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Is this harmful, beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about this? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 40. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Is this harmful, beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about this? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 41. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Is this harmful, Can I cope? beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about this? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 42. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Is this harmful, Can I cope? beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about What are the this? alternatives? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 43. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Is this harmful, Can I cope? beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about What are the I can cope this? alternatives? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 44. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal Is this harmful, Can I cope? beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about What are the I can cope this? alternatives? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 45. Stress Appraisal: Lazarus Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal I can’t cope Is this harmful, Can I cope? beneficial, threatening or challenging? How do I feel about What are the I can cope this? alternatives? Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 46. Stressful Events Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 47. Stressful Events • Salient : What is most important? • Work, Family, Status, Money • Overload • Not just one event but the general background of stressful events • Ambiguous Events • Events that are not clearly defined may be more stressful • Uncontrollable Events • Surprise or shock • Predictability may be important Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 48. Self Efficacy Lazarus and Folkman 1987 I can do this I can’t do this Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 49. Self Efficacy Lazarus and Folkman 1987 I can do this I can’t do this Less Stressful More Stressful Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 50. Other Theories Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 51. Other Theories • Hardiness (Kobasa 1982) • Feelings of control • Desire to accept challenges • Commitment • Mastery (Karasek and Theorell 1990) • The degree to which I think I can manage stressful events. Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 52. Physiological Consequences of Stress Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 53. Physiological Consequences of Stress Sympathetic Nervous System Activation increase in: • Heart rate • Blood pressure • Sweating • Pupil dilation • Respiration Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 54. Some Questions Sunday, February 22, 2009
  • 55. Some Questions • Are some people more stress sensitive? • If so does this mean they suffer more physical consequences? • Does gender make a difference? • If we talk about negative stress more (cultural predisposition) do we suffer more? • Do we learn to be stressed? • What factors increase stress in contemporary society? Sunday, February 22, 2009