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Migration And Demography

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  • 1. Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 2. Migration and Health Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 3. Migration and Health Health Impact Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 4. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 5. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Flawed Assumptions Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 6. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Flawed Assumptions Contributory Factors Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 7. Health Impact Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 8. Health Impact Individual Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 9. Health Impact Individual Community Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 10. Health Impact Individual Community Epidemiological Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 11. Health Impact Individual Community Epidemiological Service Demands Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 12. Internal Migration Out In Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 13. Internal Migration Out In Manchester Liverpool Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 14. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 Liverpool Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 15. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 16. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 6.8 Lancaster 8.0 S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 17. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 6.8 Lancaster 8.0 4.5 S. Lakeland 5.3 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 18. International Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 19. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 20. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 21. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Refugees Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 22. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Refugees Economic Migrants Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 23. Immigration and re- emigration Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 24. Immigration and re- emigration Between half and two thirds of immigrants from the EU, North America and Oceania re-emigrate within 5 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 25. Immigration and re- emigration Between half and two thirds of immigrants from the EU, North America and Oceania re-emigrate within 5 years. 15% of those from the Indian Subcontinent re emigrate within 5 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 26. Neo Classical Economic Theory Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 27. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 28. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Push and pull factors: Place of origin- poverty, unemployment Destinations - high standard of living standard, job opportunities. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 29. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Push and pull factors: Place of origin- poverty, unemployment Destinations - high standard of living standard, job opportunities. Individual decides whether or not to emigrate: maximise of income and skills perceived financial and psychological costs Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 30. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 31. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 32. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 33. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 34. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 35. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 36. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 37. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Emigration helps to diversify income sources Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 38. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Emigration helps to diversify income sources Remittances provide a steady source of income. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 39. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 40. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 41. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 42. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Shortage of labour in low status/low income jobs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 43. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Shortage of labour in low status/low income jobs. Objective of host population is upward mobility away from low status/ low income jobs (then filled by immigrants) Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 44. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 45. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 46. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 47. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Introduction of modern means of production pushes unskilled workers out of jobs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 48. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Introduction of modern means of production pushes unskilled workers out of jobs. Market penetration in poor countries affects local aspirations increasing emigration motivation. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 49. The European response to migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 50. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 51. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 52. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 53. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 54. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 55. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 56. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 57. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Implementation of harsher national legislative frameworks both on immigration and asylum Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 58. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Implementation of harsher national legislative frameworks both on immigration and asylum Greater co-ordination of European immigration policies Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 59. Irish Mental Health Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 60. Irish Mental Health Highest suicide rate for all BME and host population in England and Wales Overall 53% excess suicide Males 20- 29- 75% excess Females almost 3 x higher suicide rates Hospital admissions 1996- 22:1000 for Irish women compared to 6:1000 for white women and 7:1000 for black women Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 61. Demographic Change Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 62. Why demography is important Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 63. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 64. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 65. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 66. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 67. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 68. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 69. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Migration Future trends Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 70. ‘The demographic time bomb’ Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 71. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 72. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 73. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 74. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. • One in five people between 45-64 provided care for someone else in 1995/6 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 75. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. • One in five people between 45-64 provided care for someone else in 1995/6 • Only 9.6% of households where the oldest adult was between 75-84 yrs. received home care from local authorities in 1997. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 76. Households % living alone lone parent Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 77. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 78. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 12 11 8 4 6 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 79. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 12 11 10 10 8 4 6 6 4 4 3 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 80. UN Migration Scenario To maintain the ratio of 15-64 year olds to 65+ year olds constant requires: Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 81. Health and Illness Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 82. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 83. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 84. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia • But prevalence rises to10-13% for 80-84 year olds and reaches 32- 38% amongst adults over 90. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 85. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia • But prevalence rises to10-13% for 80-84 year olds and reaches 32- 38% amongst adults over 90. • Less than 7% of adults over 65 have dementia. Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 86. Images of older people Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 87. Images of Older People Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 88. Social and Cultural Factors Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 89. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 90. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: – Personal and social expectations about work, exercise levels, dependency and autonomy Saturday, February 21, 2009
  • 91. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: – Personal and social expectations about work, exercise levels, dependency and autonomy – The political and social influence of older people in society Saturday, February 21, 2009