Globalisation and
    Health
Starting points
Starting points
 Although globalisation is not just about economics it is
worth taking a couple of minutes to consider som...
Starting points
 Although globalisation is not just about economics it is
worth taking a couple of minutes to consider som...
Regulated Markets
Regulated Markets


In a regulated market the price and cost of
 goods sold in the market is controlled by
               ...
Regulated Markets
Almost all economies have some form of
               regulation.
Regulated Markets
 Almost all economies have some form of
                regulation.

Some parts of the economy are more ...
Regulated Markets
  Almost all economies have some form of
                 regulation.

Some parts of the economy are mor...
Free Markets
Free Markets
A free market is the opposite of a regulated market.
Free Markets
A free market is the opposite of a regulated market.

    In a free market it is competition between
   selle...
Free Markets
A free market is the opposite of a regulated market.

    In a free market it is competition between
   selle...
What’s the difference?
What’s the difference?
  Essentially the difference is a matter of
ideological interpretation of the degree of
regulation/...
What’s the difference?
   Essentially the difference is a matter of
 ideological interpretation of the degree of
 regulati...
What’s the difference?
   Essentially the difference is a matter of
 ideological interpretation of the degree of
 regulati...
Basic Features
Basic Features
          Regulated
                                              Free Market
           Market
           ...
What is globalisation?
What is globalisation?
Many people think of globalisation as the extension of
   economic markets across national boundari...
What is globalisation?
Many people think of globalisation as the extension of
   economic markets across national boundari...
What is globalisation?
Many people think of globalisation as the extension of
   economic markets across national boundari...
What is globalisation?
What is globalisation?
A couple of definitions:
What is globalisation?
 A couple of definitions:

•ʻthe flow of information, goods, capital and people across
 political and...
What is globalisation?
 A couple of definitions:

•ʻthe flow of information, goods, capital and people across
 political and...
Benefits of Economic Globalisation
Benefits of Economic Globalisation



  • Increased trade opportunities for poorer
    countries
Benefits of Economic Globalisation



  • Increased trade opportunities for poorer
    countries
  • Cheaper goods for weal...
Benefits of Economic Globalisation



  • Increased trade opportunities for poorer
    countries
  • Cheaper goods for weal...
Three Dimensions
Three Dimensions
In addition to economic globalisation we can also
         think of globalisation in terms of:
Three Dimensions
In addition to economic globalisation we can also
         think of globalisation in terms of:
 • Space- ...
Three Dimensions
In addition to economic globalisation we can also
         think of globalisation in terms of:
 • Space- ...
Three Dimensions
In addition to economic globalisation we can also
         think of globalisation in terms of:
 • Space- ...
Economic Globalisation
Economic Globalisation
      Generally involves:
Economic Globalisation
           Generally involves:

• Liberalisation of Trade Regulations
Economic Globalisation
           Generally involves:

• Liberalisation of Trade Regulations
• Increased competition betwe...
Economic Globalisation
           Generally involves:

• Liberalisation of Trade Regulations
• Increased competition betwe...
Other views
Other views
Economic globalisation generally emphasises
 the need to open up markets, moving them
       closer to the fre...
Other views
Economic globalisation generally emphasises
 the need to open up markets, moving them
       closer to the fre...
The Impact of Economic Transformation
The Impact of Economic Transformation

     What happens when things go wrong?
The Impact of Economic Transformation

     What happens when things go wrong?

   • The collapse of western banking model...
The Impact of Economic Transformation

     What happens when things go wrong?

   • The collapse of western banking model...
The Impact of Economic Transformation

     What happens when things go wrong?

   • The collapse of western banking model...
The Impact of Economic Transformation

     What happens when things go wrong?

   • The collapse of western banking model...
The health impact
The health impact
     Globalisation, in its economic, temporal,
   communicative and cultural forms can have an
influence ...
The health impact
      Globalisation, in its economic, temporal,
    communicative and cultural forms can have an
influenc...
The health impact
      Globalisation, in its economic, temporal,
    communicative and cultural forms can have an
influenc...
Growth in the Number of Refugees

 People displaced due to war, economic collapse or natural disaster (millions)
Growth in the Number of Refugees

 People displaced due to war, economic collapse or natural disaster (millions)



      ...
Availability of Toxic Goods
Availability of Toxic Goods


• Tobacco
Availability of Toxic Goods


• Tobacco
• Alcohol
Availability of Toxic Goods
                          Tobacco related deaths



               2000                       ...
Health and Safety Issues
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit

      • weak health and safety regulation
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit

      • weak health and safety regulation

      • ...
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit

      • weak health and safety regulation

      • ...
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit

      • weak health and safety regulation

      • ...
Health and Safety Issues

 • Transnational corporations

   • Exploit

      • weak health and safety regulation

      • ...
Global Health Influences
Global Health Influences
 • Changing Conditions

   • Increased Travel

     • Climate Change

     • Transmission of infec...
Health in Transition

 Global factors are increasingly recognised as
important influences of population health status.


We...
Burden of Disease (DALY’s)
Burden of Disease (DALY’s)
              1990                                2020

   Lower respiratory infections        ...
Winners and Losers
Winners and Losers

• Winners
  • Transnational Corporations
  • Wealthy Developed Countries
  • Countries with large low ...
Bibliography


•Daulaire N (1999) Globalization and Health Development 42: 4;
 22 – 24
•Lee K (2000) Globalization and hea...
Globalisation and Health
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Globalisation and Health

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An introduction to globalisation and it's influence on population health.

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  • More than 1 Million people a week travel between the developing and the developed world.

  • More than 1 Million people a week travel between the developing and the developed world.

  • More than 1 Million people a week travel between the developing and the developed world.

  • More than 1 Million people a week travel between the developing and the developed world.















































  • Globalisation and Health

    1. 1. Globalisation and Health
    2. 2. Starting points
    3. 3. Starting points Although globalisation is not just about economics it is worth taking a couple of minutes to consider some basic economic ideas.
    4. 4. Starting points Although globalisation is not just about economics it is worth taking a couple of minutes to consider some basic economic ideas. Economic markets- the environments and systems by which we trade an do business with each other can be divided into two basic types.
    5. 5. Regulated Markets
    6. 6. Regulated Markets In a regulated market the price and cost of goods sold in the market is controlled by governments.
    7. 7. Regulated Markets Almost all economies have some form of regulation.
    8. 8. Regulated Markets Almost all economies have some form of regulation. Some parts of the economy are more closely regulated than others.
    9. 9. Regulated Markets Almost all economies have some form of regulation. Some parts of the economy are more closely regulated than others. In many European countries, health and education are mostly funded through taxation within a heavily regulated market.
    10. 10. Free Markets
    11. 11. Free Markets A free market is the opposite of a regulated market.
    12. 12. Free Markets A free market is the opposite of a regulated market. In a free market it is competition between sellers/providers which determines the price and cost of goods.
    13. 13. Free Markets A free market is the opposite of a regulated market. In a free market it is competition between sellers/providers which determines the price and cost of goods. There are few, if any, examples of completely free market economies operating at a significant level.
    14. 14. What’s the difference?
    15. 15. What’s the difference? Essentially the difference is a matter of ideological interpretation of the degree of regulation/non regulation within a market
    16. 16. What’s the difference? Essentially the difference is a matter of ideological interpretation of the degree of regulation/non regulation within a market A third proposition is the ‘mixed economy’. In this model services and goods are offered by both state and private sector providers.
    17. 17. What’s the difference? Essentially the difference is a matter of ideological interpretation of the degree of regulation/non regulation within a market A third proposition is the ‘mixed economy’. In this model services and goods are offered by both state and private sector providers. Health services in the UK, for example, are provided largely by the state with a small, but growing, private sector offer.
    18. 18. Basic Features
    19. 19. Basic Features Regulated Free Market Market Competition promotes efficiency Control of market competition and reduces costs Subsidies to industries at risk from Only efficient producers survive external competition Trade barriers to reduce market for Market forces determine trade external competitors agreements Social conditions assumed to Social and business impact improve when there is increased considered competition
    20. 20. What is globalisation?
    21. 21. What is globalisation? Many people think of globalisation as the extension of economic markets across national boundaries.
    22. 22. What is globalisation? Many people think of globalisation as the extension of economic markets across national boundaries. Initial concerns focused on the extension of markets and the lifting of trade barriers between different countries and regions
    23. 23. What is globalisation? Many people think of globalisation as the extension of economic markets across national boundaries. Initial concerns focused on the extension of markets and the lifting of trade barriers between different countries and regions More recently attention has also focused on global communication, cultural and demographic movements.
    24. 24. What is globalisation?
    25. 25. What is globalisation? A couple of definitions:
    26. 26. What is globalisation? A couple of definitions: •ʻthe flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and economic boundariesʼ (Daulaire 1999)
    27. 27. What is globalisation? A couple of definitions: •ʻthe flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and economic boundariesʼ (Daulaire 1999) •ʻthe process of closer interaction of human activity across a range of spheres, including the economic, social, political and cultural, experienced along three dimensions: spatial, temporal and cognitiveʼ (Lee, K 2002)
    28. 28. Benefits of Economic Globalisation
    29. 29. Benefits of Economic Globalisation • Increased trade opportunities for poorer countries
    30. 30. Benefits of Economic Globalisation • Increased trade opportunities for poorer countries • Cheaper goods for wealthy countries
    31. 31. Benefits of Economic Globalisation • Increased trade opportunities for poorer countries • Cheaper goods for wealthy countries • Expansion of markets
    32. 32. Three Dimensions
    33. 33. Three Dimensions In addition to economic globalisation we can also think of globalisation in terms of:
    34. 34. Three Dimensions In addition to economic globalisation we can also think of globalisation in terms of: • Space- travel and movement of people
    35. 35. Three Dimensions In addition to economic globalisation we can also think of globalisation in terms of: • Space- travel and movement of people • Time- the increased ease and speed of communication between people living in different regions
    36. 36. Three Dimensions In addition to economic globalisation we can also think of globalisation in terms of: • Space- travel and movement of people • Time- the increased ease and speed of communication between people living in different regions • Ideas- the exchange of ideas and subsequent cultural exchange that takes place
    37. 37. Economic Globalisation
    38. 38. Economic Globalisation Generally involves:
    39. 39. Economic Globalisation Generally involves: • Liberalisation of Trade Regulations
    40. 40. Economic Globalisation Generally involves: • Liberalisation of Trade Regulations • Increased competition between providers
    41. 41. Economic Globalisation Generally involves: • Liberalisation of Trade Regulations • Increased competition between providers • Increased movement of people and goods
    42. 42. Other views
    43. 43. Other views Economic globalisation generally emphasises the need to open up markets, moving them closer to the free market model
    44. 44. Other views Economic globalisation generally emphasises the need to open up markets, moving them closer to the free market model But there are increasing numbers of dissenting voices. Even in the rich countries.
    45. 45. The Impact of Economic Transformation
    46. 46. The Impact of Economic Transformation What happens when things go wrong?
    47. 47. The Impact of Economic Transformation What happens when things go wrong? • The collapse of western banking models as a result of poor regulation
    48. 48. The Impact of Economic Transformation What happens when things go wrong? • The collapse of western banking models as a result of poor regulation • Financial Volatility (Mexico, Iceland, Greece, SE Asia)
    49. 49. The Impact of Economic Transformation What happens when things go wrong? • The collapse of western banking models as a result of poor regulation • Financial Volatility (Mexico, Iceland, Greece, SE Asia) • Marginalisation of poor countries
    50. 50. The Impact of Economic Transformation What happens when things go wrong? • The collapse of western banking models as a result of poor regulation • Financial Volatility (Mexico, Iceland, Greece, SE Asia) • Marginalisation of poor countries • Employment insecurity in all regions
    51. 51. The health impact
    52. 52. The health impact Globalisation, in its economic, temporal, communicative and cultural forms can have an influence on the social context that influences health status.
    53. 53. The health impact Globalisation, in its economic, temporal, communicative and cultural forms can have an influence on the social context that influences health status. Improvements in communication, travel and the opening up of economic markets influences local and regional political relations.
    54. 54. The health impact Globalisation, in its economic, temporal, communicative and cultural forms can have an influence on the social context that influences health status. Improvements in communication, travel and the opening up of economic markets influences local and regional political relations. Here are a few examples of health related changes linked to globalisation
    55. 55. Growth in the Number of Refugees People displaced due to war, economic collapse or natural disaster (millions)
    56. 56. Growth in the Number of Refugees People displaced due to war, economic collapse or natural disaster (millions) 50 48 40 30 30 20 10 0 1990 2000
    57. 57. Availability of Toxic Goods
    58. 58. Availability of Toxic Goods • Tobacco
    59. 59. Availability of Toxic Goods • Tobacco • Alcohol
    60. 60. Availability of Toxic Goods Tobacco related deaths 2000 2010 • Tobacco 2 million 10 million • Alcohol • Addictive Drugs
    61. 61. Health and Safety Issues
    62. 62. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations
    63. 63. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit
    64. 64. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit • weak health and safety regulation
    65. 65. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit • weak health and safety regulation • poor working conditions
    66. 66. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit • weak health and safety regulation • poor working conditions • political instability
    67. 67. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit • weak health and safety regulation • poor working conditions • political instability • corruption
    68. 68. Health and Safety Issues • Transnational corporations • Exploit • weak health and safety regulation • poor working conditions • political instability • corruption • conflict
    69. 69. Global Health Influences
    70. 70. Global Health Influences • Changing Conditions • Increased Travel • Climate Change • Transmission of infectious diseases • Common Needs • Interdependency • Health impact of conflict • Epidemiological Transition
    71. 71. Health in Transition Global factors are increasingly recognised as important influences of population health status. We can see some of the changes taking place already
    72. 72. Burden of Disease (DALY’s)
    73. 73. Burden of Disease (DALY’s) 1990 2020 Lower respiratory infections Ischaemic heart disease Diarrhoeal Diseases Depression Perinatal conditions Road Traffic Accidents Depression Cerbero-Vascular Disease Ischaemic Heart Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cerebro-Vascular disease Lower Respiratory Infections TB War Measles Diarrhoeal Diseases Road traffic accidents HIV Congenital Abnormalities Perinatal conditions
    74. 74. Winners and Losers
    75. 75. Winners and Losers • Winners • Transnational Corporations • Wealthy Developed Countries • Countries with large low paid workforce (China, India) • Losers • Geographically Isolated Poor Countries • Low paid workers • Developing Countries • Politically Isolated Countries
    76. 76. Bibliography •Daulaire N (1999) Globalization and Health Development 42: 4; 22 – 24 •Lee K (2000) Globalization and health policy: a review of the literature and proposed research and policy agenda In: Health Development in the New Global Economy PAHO: Washington •WHO www.who.int/topics/global_burden_of_disease/en/
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