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Vincent chibueze c. full it report
 

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SIWES PRESENTATION FOR INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCE UNDERTAKEN AT NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC IBADAN

SIWES PRESENTATION FOR INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCE UNDERTAKEN AT NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC IBADAN

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    Vincent chibueze c. full it report Vincent chibueze c. full it report Document Transcript

    • DEPARTMENT OF AGRIC. ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AKURE, ONDO STATE AN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT BY VINCENT CHIBUEZE CHIMELUE AEE/O8/2835 PLACE OF ATTACHMENT: NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC EGBEDA LGA. ALAKIA IBADAN.OYOSTATE ECONOMIC PLANNING/PURCHASES DEPARTMENT PERIOD OF ATTACHMENT: 18th June, 2012 – 2nd November, 2012. IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOG (B.TECH) DEGREE IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION 1
    • DECEMBER, 2012 Dedication This report is dedicated to the glory of God, for his goodness and for his wonderful works to us children of men. I also dedicate it to my families and other well wishers for their wonderful love. May God bless you all (amen). 2
    • Acknowledgement My sincere and profound gratitude goes to almighty God, the author and finisher of my faith who made the SIWES a reality. I am grateful to my loving mother Mrs. Vincent Nkechi for her financial and moral support and also for her assistance in getting the placement. I cannot but appreciate the other members of my family for their king gestures towards me. My unalloyed gratitude also goes to the entire staff of Nigerian breweries plc Ibadan. Most especially the members of economic planning, finance, public relations and sales departments For their moral support and for making my SIWES training period worthwhile. Lastly, I want to appreciate all my departmental lecturers for what they have invested in me, most especially Mr. Awolala for taking us through computerization and operations research. 3
    • Preface This report serves as my personal experience during the students’ industrial work experience scheme programme at Nigerian breweries plc economic planning department Egbeda local government area Alakia Ibadan. This report can be of great help to students of agricultural economics and extension both in this FUTA and even outside the school who may wish to undertake their training in a similar establishment and to any general reader who is most likely to gain one two things from my experience. The methodology of this report was based majorly on practical observation and active participation in most of these activities. However, I will not deny the fact that some of the details in this report were from the organizational framework and laid-down or documented texts within the organization. The overall activities in the organization includes, production, sales, distribution, distillation, training, purchases, job creation, education etc. the company is highly responsible socially and economically. The students’ industrial work experience scheme is a skill training programme designed to expose and prepare students for the industrial situation they are likely to meet after graduation. It is therefore to involve employers in the entire education process of preparing students for employment in industries. Therefore, this report gives details of all activities I undertook during my 5 months training at NBPLC Ibadan. 4
    • SECTION ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Just as the saying goes,” don’t blame them if you don’t train them”, training is a very essential part of every part of every life at every level. In order to improve the skills of students and also to widen their knowledge base on their various fields of specialization, there is the need to educate them outside their learning environment (universities or institutions). This can simply be achieved through students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) which was established by the federal government of Nigeria in 1973. The students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is an integral part of some degree and diploma programme in some instructions of higher learning in Nigeria. It is designed to take place outside the school to expose the students to practical work experience on their field of study during the period of the training. The scheme is a technology manpower training programme set up as a part of the federal government policy on education in Nigeria. It is organized by the industrial training fund (ITF) in collaboration with tertiary institutions in the country. SIWES is an important pre requisite for graduation of students during the five-year course period in the federal university of technology, Akure (FUTA). The university being a technology oriented one places emphasis on the practical aspect of the academic programme. The motto of the university which is technology for self reliance is aimed at producing graduates that are self reliant in their field of specialization. These graduates, the university 5
    • hope will be job producers rather than job seekers to bring about systematic eradication of unemployment in the country. It usually takes place in companies or establishments where students are exposed to the industrial working situations they are likely going to meet after graduation. This programme was designed to provide students with the needed experience to cope with work in the outside world. 1.2 NATURE AND DURATION OF SIWES. The SIWES programme of the federal university of technology, Akure is meant for the fourth year students in the second semester of their academic session. It is designed to provide individual students for practical experience through the attachment to industrial establishment, companies, research institutions, etc. At the commencement of the SIWES programme, individual students are provided with a logbook where daily activities are to be recorded. At the end of the attachment, the student is required to submit the logbook together with a comprehensive report on training received for the purpose of evaluation and documentation. The FUTA SIWES programme is for a period of six (6) months within an academic year. 6
    • 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES The objectives of the SIWES programme of the Federal University of Technology Akure are as follows: To enable students acquire industrial skills and experience needed as regards their course of study To equip the students with various work experiences which will enable them to cope with future challenges they are likely to meet after graduation. To train students about the methods of handling work equipments and how to operate machineries that may not be available for them in the institution. To enable students to apply the theoretical knowledge gained in school to real work situations; thereby making it a real for them and also making up for the practical knowledge which has not been given much attention to within the university curriculum To enlighten the students more about relationship skills, that is to broaden or widen their relationship skills. 7
    • 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THIS REPORT The general objective of this report is to give a summary of the skills, knowledge and experience I was privileged to gather at Nigerian breweries plc (Economic planning department) throughout my five months of industrial training. I also write to offer useful suggestions based on experience to both the programme centre and the university on ways of improving the programme. 8
    • SECTION TWO 2.1 ORIGIN, HISTORY AND GROWTH OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC Nigerian Breweries Plc is the pioneer and largest brewing company in Nigeria. It was incorporated in 1946. In June 1949, the company recorded a landmark when the first bottle of STAR lager beer rolled off its Lagos Brewery bottling lines. This first brewery in Lagos has undergone several optimization processes and as at today boasts of the most modern brew house in the country. In 1957, the company commissioned its second brewery in Aba. Kaduna Brewery was commissioned in 1963 while Ibadan Brewery came on stream in 1982. In 1993, the company acquired its fifth brewery in Enugu. In October 2003, a sixth brewery, sited at Ameke, in Enugu State was commissioned and christened Ama Brewery. Ama Brewery is today, the biggest and most modern brewery in Nigeria. Operations in the Old Enugu Brewery were however discontinued in 2004, while the company acquired a malting Plant in Aba in 2008. In October 2011, Nigerian Breweries acquired majority equity interests in Sona Systems Associates Business Management Limited, (Sona Systems) and Life Breweries Limited from Heineken N.V. This followed Heineken’s acquisition of controlling interests in five breweries in Nigeria from Sona Group in January 2011. Sona Systems’ two breweries in Ota and Kaduna, and Life Breweries in Onitsha have 9
    • now become part of Nigerian Breweries Plc, together with the three brands: Goldberg lager, Malta Gold and Life Continental lager. Thus, from the humble beginning in 1946, the Nigerian Breweries now has eight operational breweries from which its high quality products are distributed to all parts of Nigeria, in addition to the ultra modern malting plant in Aba and Kaduna. 2.2 PRODUCTS Nigerian Breweries Plc has a rich portfolio of high quality brands. The brands include:  Star Lager Beer, the first in its portfolio launched in 1949  this was followed by Gulder lager beer in 1970;  Maltina, the nourishing malt drink, was introduced in 1976,  Legend Extra Stout in 1992.  Amstel Malta was launched in 1994  Heineken lager Beer was relaunched into the Nigerian market in 1998.  Maltina Sip-it, packaged in Tetrapaks was launched in 2005  Fayrouz was launched in 2006.  In 2007, the company introduced Star, Heineken and Amstel Malta in Cans.  Life Continental lager became part of the family in October 2011 10
    • 2.3 ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITY. As a major brewing concern, the company encourages the establishment and growth of infant businesses, ancillary partners, suppliers and contractors. Many of these organizations and individuals depend largely on the company for their means of livelihood. These include manufacturers of bottles, crown corks, labels, cartons, plastic crates and such service providers as hotels/clubs, Distributors, Transporters, Event Managers, Advertising and Marketing Communication Agencies etc. 2.4 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Nigerian Breweries Plc is a socially responsible corporate organization with a good track record of corporate social initiatives in identified and strategic areas. The Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility is driven by a vision to always “Win with Nigeria”. Over the years, Nigerian Breweries Plc has been very active in supporting our national development aspirations in line with our commitment to “Winning with Nigeria”. We have continued to identify and respond to major challenges confronting our nation through our huge corporate social investments especially in the areas of education, the environment, water, youth empowerment, talent development and sports, amongst others. The company in 1994 established an Education Trust Fund with a take-off grant of N100 million to take more active part in the funding of educational and research activities in institutions of higher learning, all in an effort to provide and encourage academic excellence in Nigeria. This is in addition to its secondary and university scholarship programmes for 11
    • children of its employees. Nigerian Breweries Plc is the foremost sponsor of sports in the country with sponsorship covering football, athletics, tennis, cycling, chess, golf, squash, dart, Sailing and Ayo, among others. The aim is to develop Nigerian sportsmen and women to participate in national and international sports, and boost the sports profile of the country. Nigerian breweries continued to play very active part in the development of sports in Nigeria. In 2010, they sustained their sponsorship of various sporting activities across the country. These include Golf, Lawn Tennis, Polo, Chess and squash. The company is also involved in the development of leadership, musical and movie talents, through various programmes. Some of these activities are captured in the company’s Social and Environmental Report. The company’s other social responsibilities include Infrastructural development Health development Promotion of safety on Nigerian roads. 2.5 AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS Nigerian Breweries Plc has won several awards as a mark of its good performance in various spheres. The company has won the prestigious Nigerian Stock Exchange President’s Merit award for several years. For three consecutive years (2001, 2002 and 2003) Nigerian Breweries Plc won the Nigerian Stock Exchange Quoted Company of the year award. It has 12
    • also won the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) awards for its various products. Also for four years (1999, 2000, 2004 and 2005), the company won Gold in the keenly contested Africa Beer Award organized by Heineken for its operating companies in Africa and the Middle East. In 2002, Nigerian Breweries Plc won the Heineken Business Challenge Award (also known as the Heineken World Cup), a major competition organized for all Heineken operating companies in the world. In 2003, the company was declared Excise Trader of the year, an award given by the Nigerian Customs Service for a company’s contribution to government treasury. In 2010, Nigerian Breweries won the prestigious Pearl award for Sectoral Leadership in the Brewery sector. In the same year, Star, Nigeria’s favorite lager and Maltina, the nation’s No 1 malt drink, were awarded prizes for their innovative Television Commercials at the Lagos Advertising Ideas Festival organized by the Association of Advertising Agencies of Nigeria, AAAN. These are in addition to several awards from philanthropic organizations, clubs, institutions and government agencies. 13
    • SECTION THREE 3.1 THE ECONOMIC PLANNING DEPARTMENT. The economic planning department is the core or power house of any Nigerian breweries plc nationwide. It is otherwise referred to as the purchases department or simply called planning. This is that arm of the organization where majour decisions about issues of economic significance to the company are discussed and trashed out. Issues that are taken care of by the planning department include;  Sourcing of raw materials and other inputs  Purchasing of raw materials  Organization for improved productivity of inputs  Payment of bills incurred by the whole organization  Reduction of production cost by lessening cost of raw materials  Planning an organization of majour company activities (i.e. Parties, workshops, seminars).  Awarding of contracts within the organization  Disposal of unused or out used materials or inputs within the company (i.e. Scrap items)  Total efficiency/productivity maintenance of inputs 14
    •  Ensuring that the supply/production figures significantly measures up to the production figures  Disposal of company wastes as at when due  Other ad hoc roles 3.2 SECTIONS WITHIN THE PLANNING DEPARTMENT INCLUDES; Weighbridge section Raw material/ general store Silo/grain storage complex Planning office 3.3 GROUPS WITHIN THE ECONOMIC PLANNING DEPARTMENT These groups are meant for achieving strategic goals. They include;  Cost optimization team (COT)  Production distribution and sales team (PSD)  Total productivity maintenance group (TPM)  General audit unit  Operations research team (ORT). 15
    • 3.4 3.5 ORGANOGRAM OF THE ECONOMIC PLANNING DEPARTMENT WEIGHBRIDGE SECTION: 16
    • This section is headed/ controlled/ managed by the weighbridge clerk (Mr. Dele Ilugbaro). He is directly accountable to the planning manager (Mr. MacaulayOkezie.) operations in this section are not so numerous. This section oversees the weighing of inputs that comes into the organization (e.g. grains chemicals etc.) and outgoing materials from the organization likewise (scrap items). These items are weighed for basically three purposes 1. Payment 2. Documentation 3. Auditing 3.6 RAW MATERIAL STORE: 17
    • This is also referred to as general store. It is being supervised by the general store keeper (Mr. OjoAlaba). This section is very important to the organization because it handles vital aspect of production as warehousing of majour company inputs. Materials kept by the general store includes  Production chemicals  Paper for printing and photocopy  Stationary items  Provisional items like tea, coffee, milk, sugar etc.  Safety items like rubber boots, gloves etc  Preservatives e.g. Phostoxin  Production items like crown corks, labels, empty cans etc. Activities carried out in the raw material store includes o Filling of documents (i.e. store issue vouchers) o Preparation of gate passes for entry of trucks o Report writing (i.e. critical items report , store house report) o Stock counting of store items o Delivery of items to production quarters o Receipts of items o Store house cleaning and sanitation 18
    • o Endorsement of documents (SIVs) o Sending of mails (E-mails) The store house is also closely monitored and supervised by the planning manager. The idea of the general store is such a lucrative one as materials are gotten more easily than when they are being procured when needed. More over the company saves more by buying in bulk than buying in units as the later is quite wasteful and extravagant for a big company like Nigerian breweries. 3.7 FARM SILO/ GRAIN STORAGE COMPLEX. The farm silo complex is controlled /headed by the farm silo supervisor (Mr. Femi Salami). It is an undisputable fact that the major raw material in every brewing company is the grains. The silo complex is therefore the most important part of the whole brewing company. A silo is a place where grains are stored and preserved. Malted barley is the main grain used in brewing along with some adjuncts which increases yield such as malted sorghum and raw or white sorghum. The silo complex consists of the silos where grains are stored, the control room which has the control panel for all the silo operations, the equipment room where all instrument are stored and the transistor room. The operations in the silo are: Grain intake 19
    • Inter-silo transfer Fumigation Forwarding to other branches of Nigerian breweries Milling of grains OTHER ACTIVITIES INCLUDE. 20
    • Weighing of full trucks (i.e. coming in and going out) Preparation of gate passes for outward movement of mobile silos from the Nigerian breweries. Dozing of stored grains Cleaning of silos Control room maintenance Silo maintenance Grain quality testing Weighbridge integrity testing Milling of grains The Nigerian breweries silo complex comprises of 10 large storage silos and 18 brewing silos. The storage silos are built in the silo complex, there are still the operational small sized silos located close to the brew house for immediate supply of grains to be used. The Nigerian breweries Ibadan silo complex houses 10 large silos that can each house 38 trucks of grains but for convenience of operations and for air and drug space has been standardized to 35 trucks per silo.The brew house silo is located at the rear end of the Nigerian breweries Ibadan. It is overseen by Mr. Omolayo and Omotayo. It has 18 strong silos each having a capacity of 300tons of grains but for air spaces and Phostoxin decomposition, it has been standardized to 270tons. The grains have specified contents at every time 21
    • Silos 1 & 18 always house raw white sorghum Silos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8&9 houses malted barley while Silos 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16&17 houses malted sorghum. 3.3.1 Majour grains housed by our silos are  Malted barley(HordeumPoaceae). This grain is the majour grain used in the brewing process. It usually is imported from Holland and collected at the seaports in Lagos. Transported in large mobile silo trucks. It is brought over to Ibadan silo house to be stored in the silos for continuous availability.  Sorghum(SorghumSudanese): (malted and unmalted) Sorghum is that popular grain used 22
    • in Nigeria (Okababa in Yoruba) often white or red for making pap and feeding birds especially pigeons. At Nigerian breweries the main type of sorghum used is the white sorghum because we don’t want the grain colour to affect the colour of our output as fermentation doesn’t change the extract colour. Sorghum is rich in essential carbohydrates and vitamins. Malted sorghum is more costly than raw sorghum because of the cost of malting and transporting of malted grains. Note: Malting is the addition of water and warmth to a seed till it gets so excited and ready to germinate (burst forth). It is unarguably true that at that point, more nutrients will have been released to the grains and the grain is extra fortified and mature. At that point, the grain is bigger and more nutritious than the unmalted grain. At Nigerian breweries, our grains are sourced locally and malted at the Aba malting plant also owned by Nigerian breweries then transported back to base for storage. 23
    •  Maize (zeamay): This is not stored in the silo for long because it is not a majour brewing input but is more like an adjunct in the brewing process and has a shorter shelf life than other grains and as such is less preferable to sorghum and barley. Procurement of maize is strictly for immediate consumption. White grains of maize is used if need be. 3.3.2 MAJOUR OPERATIONS CARRIED OUT IN THE SILO COMPLEX 1. Grain intake: This process bringing in of grains from our numerous suppliers or branches of Nigerian breweries nationwide that has excess of grains supplied. Malted grains (barley and malted sorghum) and unmalted grains (raw sorghum) are delivered to the brewery in either loosed (container mostly barley) or sacks packed in a truck. The truck is positioned in a way that allows trucks to empty the grains into the intake pits, while the container is positioned with the bottom opening valve at the center of the intake pit. A truck of malted sorghum is about 30 tons, barley 23 tons while raw sorghum is about 23 tons. 24
    • CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES AND FLOW DIAGRAMS The movement of grains from the intake pits to the storage silos is by mechanical conveyors (chain and bucket conveyors). Cleaning of the grains is done by the drum screen, which removes foreign substances that are bigger than the size of the grain via mesh, and shaker/flat screen removes foreign substances smaller than the size of grains by vibrating the grains on a mesh and metallic objects .the sloppy design of the intake pit wall allow the easy emptying of the grist to the conveyors .The chain conveyor uses its scrappers to move horizontally while the bucket elevator uses its buckets (cups) to scoop the grains and move it vertically. The chain conveyor at the top of the silo moves the grains to the opened top valves of the silo (net capacity 300 tons, operating capacity 270 tons).the scale quantifies the grains. GRAIN INTAKE PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS 25
    • SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. 1. Dust is hazardous and breathing in dusts can cause respiratory problems hence we operators of the silo always wear nose masks. 2. No smoking is allowed in the silo area. 3. Fire extinguisher must be functional and available at all times and whoever the operator is must know how to operate it. 4. Safety boots and other preventive equipments are worn at all times. 5. Females with long hairs must always wear the approved caps or scarves to avoid entanglements of their hairs with moving gears. 6. Technicians must obtain a duly signed authorization before they commence any welding job. 7. All moving parts of machines should be properly guided 8. Good housekeeping must always be maintained at all time because of (5-s) auditing. 9. No grease on the floor and should be prevented from entering the intake pit. 10.Nobody is allowed to stay under a parked truck 11.Do not touch any moving machine. 12.Phostoxin is poisonous and should be handled with care. 2. Inter-silo transfer: -This is the movement of grains from a silo to another one. It is basically done for the following reasons: 26
    • 1. As a result of infestation of the silo which leads to increase in temperature (norm not more than 35oc) 2. For the purpose of re-cleaning of the grains (i.e. dust/ foreign materials remover) 3. Transfer of low balance quantity to empty the silo for use. Concept, principles and flow diagram The grains are moved from the silo by opening the discharge valve to the chain conveyors for horizontal movement to the bucket. The bucket elevator moves the grains vertically to the drum screen and shaker for cleaning. Thereafter, the grains move to the scale and Phostoxin is dosed for the treatment of infestation. Chain conveyor moves it to another bucket elevator which feed the last chain conveyor and finally to the receiving silo via opened inlet valve. 27
    • Phostoxin carryover Phostoxin dosing Improper dosing of Phostoxin Ensure that Phostoxin is dosed at the right quantity and a record maintained Conveyors (redler, screw, bucket) : Oil and grease contamination Lubrication from conveyors Make sure lubrication of the conveyor is done at the right time with the right time with the right type (food grade) and quantity of grease (oil). Magnet: Foreign objects (stones, metals etc.) Phostoxin carryover Improper functioning Storage silo’s Not allowing the standard 3-4 days contact time after use of Phostoxin for fumigation. Clean the magnets regularly to trap metals from the grains. Ensure that the 3-4 days contact time after use of Phostoxin is observed Processes involved. 1. The process starts by opening the outlet valve of the silo to be transferred and the grain drops on the moving chain conveyor. 2. The flight of the conveyor carries the grain by scrapping and feeding the moving bucket elevator. 3. The bucket elevator with its cups scoops the grains and lifts them to another moving chain conveyor for horizontal movement. 4. With the inlet valve of receiving silo opened, the chain conveyor scraps the grains and the grain drops into the receiving silo. 5. If the transfer is for infection control, then it will be dozed with Phostoxin. 28
    • 3. Fumigation: - This is the treatment done to an empty silo to keep away pests and germs before filling it with grains or before an intake operation. The aim of this is to disinfect, decontaminate, delouse, smoke and cleanse the silo from microorganisms and germs. OPERATION PROCEDURES. 1. Open the side manhole of the silo to confirm that it is actually empty with the aid of a search light 2. Open the top manhole and insert the air pressure holes 3. Open the pressurized air valves to blow down dust inside 4. Close the manholes and allow the suspended dusts to settle down for 45 minutes. 5. Open the bottom side manhole for about 5 minutes to allow the dusty air out. 6. Enter the silo through the bottom manhole with a searchlight on and use a long brush to remove dust from sidewalls down to the cone bottom of the silo. 7. Pack all the dust at the base into a sack and weigh 8. Call the shift brewer for inspection. 9. After the inspection, the silo is free to be fumigated. FUMIGATING THE SILO. 1. Open a can of Phostoxin, which contains 16 tubes each tubes with 30 tablets (1 tablet = 3g) 2. Remove the tablets into a jute bag. 29
    • 3. Close the jute bag by tying with a long rope. 4. Keep the bag in suspension with the rope inside a cleaned silo. 5. Tie the rope to the manhole of the silo and close it. 6. Remove the bag after 72 hours and bury into soil. Note: - Aside from being highly poisonous, Phostoxin is very explosive if it comes in contact with water. This I didn’t believe earlier until I have experimented with a little quantity of Phostoxin residue. The explosion could be comparable if in large quantity to a bomb blast hence that is the reason for the burying of the Phostoxin residue. Such that it is deep enough to prevent future blasts. 4. Milling of grains: - Milling is the mechanical process of crushing grain to expose starchy endosperm for starch to sugar conversion by enzymes. This operation is been done by the hammer mill and the grist (milled grain) composition size, which is determined by the beaters in the hammer mill, is controlled and monitored. Before the grist is milled, foreign objects are removed and the grain is weighed. Concepts, principles and flow diagrams. The grains are discharged from the storage silo via an opened pneumatic sliding valve at the bottom of silo to the chain conveyors. Then, to the bucket elevator, which feed the grains to the shaker for dust removal for oscillatory vibration. From the shaker, grains moves from the 30
    • bucket elevator and pass through a permanent magnet for removal of iron objects and thereafter to dry destoner. The de stoner does removes stones that are left in the grains because they are of the same size by oscillatory vibrations lifts the grains upwards with the aid of stream of air on inclined plane mesh. Whereas, the heavier stones are carried further upwards by vibrating sieve thus discharges stone at outlet. Clean grains now move to the hammer mill. Replaceable steel beaters in hammer mill rotates at high speed and thereby crush the grains until the grist are small enough to pass through the mill sieve and drops to a screw conveyor. The grist moves to pipe and the blower uses compressed air to move the grist in the stream of air o the cyclone at the top of the grist bin thus separate air from grist and discharges grist to the grist bin. 31
    • 5. Forwarding of grains to other branches: This is the process by which grains are moved out of the silo complex to other branches using the mobile silo/trucks. The trucks are loaded from the previously loaded hoppers .and weighed when full. This operation is usually carried out when there is shortage of grains in any of the production silos or other branches of Nigerian breweries plc nationwide. The outgoing trucks are weighed before leaving and the weighbridge reading is recorded for documentation and audit purposes. 6. Silo maintenance: This is a maintenance practice done to keep the silo clean and free from dirt that will deteriorate the quality of the grains. Under silo maintenance we have the following practices. Silo and silo parts cleaning. Collection of grain dusts (i.e. barley dust and sorghum dust) Note: - Barley dust is of grain importance to the agricultural sector because it is a majour nutritional requirement (input) for majour feed mills within the region. It has often been said that livestock fed with it fattens quickly. Cleaning of silo complex Patching of leaking silos. 32
    • 3.4 PLANNING OFFICE: - This is the control room of all economic planning activities in the organization. It comprises of the planning supervisor, sourcing officer, planning manager and at most two industrial trainees (i.e. me).Majour activities in the office includes Liaisons with contractors, suppliers scrap buyers and distributors Preparation of purchase orders Analysis of quotations Conversion of PR’s ( purchase requests) to PO’s (purchase orders) Preparation of other documents, minutes of cot meetings etc. The ultimate authority in the planning office is the planning manager, closely followed by the sourcing officer then the planning supervisor. 33
    • 34
    • Documents handled by the planning department includes  Purchase orders  Analysis of quotation  Store issue vouchers  Fuel issue vouchers  Fuel stock report  Raw materials truck movement tracking forms  Quotations  Gate passes  Scrapped items report Purchase orders :- just as the name connotes, a purchase order is a request written by a company to a supplier or a contractor requesting for goods to be supplied or services rendering with an agreed sum of money to be paid on delivery of goods or discharge of duties. It consists of the description of the goods or service in question. The PR number (traceable to the department and personnel that requested for it). On it we can also find the amount agreed upon by the cot as payment for the said goods or services. SEE THE DIAGRAM BELOW. 35
    • 36
    • 37
    • From the above purchase orders it is apparent the endorsement is very vital to ensure the validity of the document. A valid purchase is the one that has been correctly printed and has the signature of the planning manager (or sourcing officer) and the brewery manager (or head brewer). The PO’s are collected at various points majorly gate house II, finance department and sales department. Occasionally PO’s are collected in the department especially if they have been delayed for quite a while. It takes an average period of 48hrs to complete a PR processing to a valid PO. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE OVERALL PROCESS INCLUDES 1. Detection of work or works to be done/ detection of diminished or depleting stock of inputs. This can be done by anyone and a report is filled to that effect. 2. Rising of purchase request. This is done by somespecific people often managers or H.O.D s and d pr is in form of 8 groups of digits. 3. Approval of PRs. The request raised earlier has to be approved by the concerned individuals related to the work or input. This is still done online trough the lotus note. 4. Forwarding of pr to the sourcing officer or the planning department. 5. Rising of adverts for supply or contract. This step may be skipped for regular events, supplies or maintenance. 6. Analysis of quotation. 7. Playback of quotations (if necessary, often optional) 8. Endorsement of playback by the cost optimization team (COT). 38
    • 9. Conversion of PR to PO. 10.Printing of corrected pos 11.Endorsement of POs by the PM and BM. 12.Photocopying of PO’s for back up keeping. 13.Dispatching of PO’s to the collection point ANALYSIS OF QUOTATIONS Analysis of quotation is both a task and a document handled within the planning office. It is the plotting of tasks to be done or items to be supplied or received from contractors, suppliers and scrap buyersalong side with the prices (quoted) received from the various suppliers and contractors. The main analysis done with these quotations is to get the least possible price for the highest possible quality and standard (quantity). The analysis of quotation done for disposal of scrapped items looks out for the highest possible prices for the quoted item and declare the scrap buyer that quoted highest as the winner of the item (highest bidder principle). Like every other analysis of quotation, a valid AOQ must have the endorsement of the cost optimization team and should be duly signed by the cot. 39
    • SECTION 4 4.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This report so far shows that the students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) programme is a gateway towards exposing the students to the industrial culture for which they are basically being trained. The practical approach of the programme attests to this assertion. In this report, all activities taken during my SIWES programme have been discussed. Nigerian breweries plc being a production company and an active member of the Nigerian industrial sector, all the training that I have received in that place were centered on production economics which is an integral part of our departmental works. Furthermore, my training at Nigerian breweries also includes business and project management. Also included in this report are the knowledge, experiences and skills acquired through the activities on site. Finally, in this report, the organizational structure of the complete organization and that of my department of attachment (Organogram) were present. In conclusion, with my exposure to this company and department has endowed me with enough knowledge in purchases and production economics. I can hereby attest to it 40
    • that the main objective of the students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) programme was met and I will say the (SIWES) programme was a big success after all. I have immensely benefited from the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) because it has provided me with an opportunity to apply my theoretical knowledge in real work situation, thereby bridging the gap between university work and actually practices. 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS In order to improve the efficiency of students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES), the following recommendations are made for the establishment Nigerian breweries plc, (Economic planning department), the industrial training fund (ITF) and the school, the federal university of technology, Akure (FUTA). 1. NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC The cost optimization team has (from my observation) not being so cost effective in their bargains with the suppliers and contractors. They often pay those people more than the cost of the actual items they are buying or more than the worth of their service for contractors. From this observation, I will suggest that proper and more detailed investigation needs to be done by the cost optimization team on the actual price of commodities before they are purchased and paid for. 41
    • Agric economists should also henceforth be considered for attachment in the organization as they have not always been considered before by the company owing to their limited level of knowledge about the proficiencies of agric economists. They should cease to be regarded ad peasant farmers. SIWES students should henceforth be considered as trainees and people of dignity and prestige and as such not be looked down on as messengers, slaves or a cheap source of labour. They should be utilized for challenging and mind bugging tasks and not for laborious and drudgery duties like is often inherent within this organization. Furthermore I want it to be that students are considered for attachment within the organization based on availability,, qualifications, exposure, comport ability, knowledge possessed or other reasonable or quantitative criteria and not by a trivial reason as connection (man know man). Finally, the period of training granted by the human resources department of NBPLC should be based on the duration specified by the student’s letter or ITF’s recommendation and not by some unreasonably rigid company policy of three months moreover whenever an extension letter is written by a student for the duration of training, it should be considered favorably. 42
    • 2. THE INDUSTRIAL TRAINIG FUND The school in collaboration with the Industrial training fund should urge the federal government to prevail on business establishment to be more magnanimous in provision of placements for students’ trainees. The industrial sector needs to be enlightened on the immense effect or contribution they have on the educational sector and as such be encouraged to absorb more industrial trainees. The industrial training fund should investigate curiously the activities of these students during their training. This is because during my training period, I was never visited by anyone from the industrial training funds. Lastly and most importantly, the ITF should see to it that the students on training should be paid their allowance as soon as they complete their training probably, when they come to the ITF to sign their complete logbooks at the ITF office. Furthermore, the ITF should consider an upward review of the it allowance from the usual 15000 naira to 30000 owing to the increasing cost of commodities in Nigeria including transport. 3. THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE. The academic staff of FUTA should visit the student on site often during the programme. This will bridge the information gap between the student and the school. Moreover, they should endeavor to always sign their column in the logbook regularly in as much as there is a space for that there. 43