NATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF
FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA.
Babalola, Funmilayo Blessing
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology,
The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
• Food security is the ability of countries, regions or
households to meet target levels of food consumption
on a yearly basis
• Food security is a state of affairs where all people at all
times have access to safe and nutritious food to
maintain a healthy and active life
• Similarly, according to the committee on world food
security, it connotes physical and economic access to
adequate food for all household members, without
undue risk of losing the access.
• While food security for individuals is often the main
focus of attention, there are also household, national
and international dimensions of food security.
Both developed and less developed countries, as well as
international organizations have paid greater attention to food and
nutrition matters in the recent past because of the greater
awareness of the important roles which food and nutrition play in
economic growth and development.
In consideration of these roles, the position of less developed
countries is rather uncertain because food and nutrition problems
have recently increased and have constituted constraints on their
One unfortunate fact is that the proper dimensions of food and
nutrition problems are either not known or not properly
Therefore, this study is designed to identify determinants of food
security at national level,
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study would be to find
out the determinants of food security
as it affects Nigeria’s economic growth
for the period of 1980-2010.
• What is the situation of food security in the country?
• What are the determinants of food security?
• What are the policy options and prospects for food
security in Nigeria?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• To analyze the national determinants of food
security in Nigeria
Specific objectives : to
• examine the food security situation in Nigeria
• identify determinants of food security at national
• to make a policy recommendation as related to
prospects for food security in Nigeria.
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
The study would test the following hypotheses.
• H0: There is no significant relationship between agricultural gross
domestic product and food security.
• H0: There is no significant relationship between food import and food
• H0: Population does not have any significant impact on food security.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
• This research project would be useful in knowing
the situation of food security in the country and to
also know the actual determinants of food security.
• It would also be useful to the government in
making impactful decisions on issues concerning
food and agriculture in our nation.
STUDY AREA: NIGERIA
SOURCES OF DATA: Secondary data ;National Bureau of Statistics
publications, Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, Food and
MEASUREMENT OF FOOD SECURITY
Major variables which can serve as indicators of food security
include the following:
• Net food availability per capita.
• Index of food price inflation.
• Per capita calorie and protein intake.
• Percentage of the population (or of households) with energy
intake that is below the national average requirement.
• Food gap which may be measured as the percentage short fall
in the actual average energy intake relative to the average
Net food availability is defined as:
FAt = Qt + Mt + Vt – Nt – Xt – Lt……………………………………….(1)
FAt: Net food availability (in gram equivalent) in year t.
Qt: Domestic output of food in year t.
Mt: Quantity of food imported in year t.
Vt: Change in national food stock carry-over in year t.
Nt: Total quantity of food required as inputs and non-food
industrial use in year t.
Xt: Quantity of food exported in year t.
Lt: Quantity of post- harvest food loss in year t.
When FAt is divided by population size, we have net food
availability (for human consumption) per capita.