Late 1980s: Richard Stallman starts the GNU ( G nu's N ot U nix) project out of frustration with proprietary Unix software; GNU released under GNU General Public License (GPL); aims to produce a free OS
Early 1990s: BSD project completes a free version of their Unix variant
Mid 1990s: Open Source systems start to enter wide use, partly driven by Internet boom
Late 1990s: the Open Source Definition, as more companies start to see Open Source as a useful approach (Netscape, et al.)
'Open source … is a mode of production, a social movement, and a way of life all rolled into one. It is also, today, very big business, as companies such as IBM, Novell, and Sun, among many others have fostered the movement and build large-scale, important software applications on top of open source platforms.'
[email_address] John Palfrey, Jr. 'Global Innovation and Licensing Opportunities on the Internet' in Goldscheider & Gordon, Licensing Best Practices 2006.
"As a user of open source software you may go forth and live free. None of the licenses in this book restricts in any way your use of open source software. But if you are more directly involved in the creation, modification, or distribution of software, or if you manage or advise the in-licensing of software into your company, you should at the very least consult your attorney to make sure you don’t commit to more than you’re willing to deliver. This book may help you ask your attorney the right questions."
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work -- provided that you -- cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works .
But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
[email_address] Quoted in [Streicher 2]
Free Software Foundation’s Definition of Free Software
Freedom to run the program, for any purpose
Freedom to study how the program works and adapt it to your needs
Freedom to distribute copies so you can help your neighbor
Freedom to improve the program and release your improvements to the public
‘ Actually we [the GNU project] encourage people who redistribute free software to charge as much as they wish or can. If this seems surprising to you, please read on.
‘ The word “free” has two legitimate general meanings; it can refer either to freedom or to price. When we speak of “free software”, we're talking about freedom, not price. (Think of “free speech”, not “free beer”.) Specifically, it means that a user is free to run the program, change the program, and redistribute the program with or without changes.
‘ Free programs are sometimes distributed gratis, and sometimes for a substantial price. Often the same program is available in both ways from different places. The program is free regardless of the price, because users have freedom in using it.’
TiVoisation sets up the software so that only they can update the software (you get the source code but using digital signatures on hardware chips, the software running on the machine is checked to be theirs and only theirs)