PERT Chart Background∞PERT stands for Program Evaluation & Review Technique.∞PERT chart is a task and event oriented technique.∞PERT was developed by consultants at Booz Allen Hamilton for the U.S. Navy in 1957 to support the development of missile programs.
PERT Chart Uses∞To plan, analyze and coordinate tasks within a project.∞PERT is used in projects where time rather than cost is the major consideration.∞Useful for organizing tasks and establishing time frames, and for showing tasks that depend on other tasks.
PERT Chart Merits∞Gives a clear way of representing the dependencies and order of work/tasks to be completed.∞PERT is helpful to plan what tasks can go on simultaneously to reduce time.∞Allows identification of the critical path and the minimum time needed to complete the total project.∞Provides for potentially reduced project duration due to better understanding of dependencies.
Project Network∞ Activity-on-node (AON) - Nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence Node relationships∞ Activity-on-arrow (AOA) - Arrows represent activities and 1 2 3 nodes are events for points in time∞ Event Branch - Completion or beginning of an activity in a project
Critical PathDefinition The longest path through a PERT chart/Network diagram and determines the shortest time to complete the project
Slack/ Float The amount of time an activity can beTOTAL SLACK delayed without delaying the project end date The amount of time an activity can beFREE SLACK delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor(s)PROJECT SLACK The amount of time a Project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by the customer
Slack/Float Calculation Forward ES EF Pass Slack/FloatBackward LS LFPassES: Early Start Slack/Float= LS-ESLS: Late Start Slack/Float= EF-LFEF: Early FinishLF: Late Finish
Critical Path Example D=4 2 5 A=1 H=6 E=5 B=2 F=4 J=3 1 3 6 8 I=2 C=3 4 7 G=6Path 1: A-D-H-J Length=1+4+6+3=14 day Since the critical path is the longest pathPath 2: B-E-H-J Length=2+5+6+3=16 day through the network diagram, Path 2,Path 3: B-F-J Length=2+4+3=9 day B-E-H-J, is the critical path.Path 4: C-G-I-J Length=3+6+2+3=14 day
Gantt Chart Background∞A Gantt chart is a graphical representation of the duration of tasks against the progression of time.∞A Gantt chart is a useful tool for planning and scheduling projects.∞The chart is named after Henry Gantt, who developed it between1910 and1915.
Gantt Chart Uses∞A Gantt Chart helps to visualize and plan project tasks with start and finish dates.∞ A Gantt chart is helpful when monitoring a projects progress.∞Gantt Charts are able to show the dependency relationships between tasks, the critical path, and the current completion status.
Gantt Chart Merits∞Gives a clear way of representing the dependencies and order of work/tasks to be completed.∞Gantt is helpful to plan what tasks can go on simultaneously to reduce time.∞Allows identification of the critical path and the minimum time needed to complete the total project.∞Allows both planning and monitoring/control.
Gantt ChartExample Sample Work Breakdown Structure Immediate Activity Duration Predecessor A 14 Start of Project B 3 Start of Project 14 C 3 A,BTask A D 7 B 3 E 4 C,DTask B F 10 E 3Task C 7 31Task D 4Task E 10Task F . . . . . . . . . Time
Setup MS Project 2010∞ Select File, Options, click on “Schedule” tab∞ For Calendar options for this project: “Select “All New Projects”∞ For Scheduling options for this project: select “All New Projects”∞ For New Tasks Created: select “Auto Scheduled”∞ For Duration is entered in: select “weeks”∞ For default task type: select “fixed duration”∞ Make sure New tasks are effort driven is NOT checked∞ Click OK when finished
Creating First Project∞ Click on Project, Project Information, select 10/3/11 as the Start date, click OK∞ Click on Save as, type in project name such as Demo, click OK∞ Your project is saved as Project1.mpp
Example ProjectTask, Duration, and Immediate Predecessor Information for Construction Project IMMEDIATE DURATIONTASK DESCRIPTION PREDECESSORS (WEEKS)1 START -- 02 Excavate and Pour Footers 1 33 Pour Concrete Foundation 2 14 Erect Rough Wall & Roof 3 45 Install Siding 4 66 Install Plumbing 4 37 Install Electrical 4 48 Install Wallboard 6,7 59 Lay Flooring 8 610 Do Interior Painting 8 311 Install Interior Fixtures 9,10 312 Install Gutters & Downspouts 5 213 Do Grading & Landscaping 12 314 FINISH 11,13 0
Entering Task Information∞ Default view, Entry table on left, Gantt Chart on right∞ You can delete the two left-most columns, “i” and “task mode” by highlighting these columns and pressing the “delete” key (not needed by us) - Task numbers now in left-most column∞ Enter task name and duration in their field - The default is weeks or “w” - “d” for days and “h” for hours can be used∞ Enter predecessor task number(s) in the “Predecessors” field∞ MS Project automatically gives start and finish dates based on critical path analysis
Task InformationDouble-clicking on a task name opens the Task Information” screen
Project Charts∞ The Gantt Chart view shows task linkages - Since START and FINISH are dummy activities with 0 duration, they are milestones in MS Project (black diamonds) - Right-click on dates in the chart and then “zoom” as desired∞ Change view to Network Diagram by clicking on “View” in the menu and then select “Network Diagram” (zoom as desired)
Analysis Critical Path∞ MS Project 2010 automatically computes the critical path and the earliest and latest start and finish times and slack∞ Project, Project Information, Statistics shows the critical path is 26 weeks in our project
Analysis Critical Path∞ Use the “Detail Gantt” to best display the critical path - Select “View”, “Other Views”, “More Views”, “Detail Gantt” then “Apply”∞ Use the “Schedule Table” to display all of the early and late start and finish information, along with total and free slack - Again from “View”, select “Table”, and then “Schedule”
Analysis Critical Path∞ Critical path tasks can be identified as those have zero total slack (TS) or float - TS = LF – EF = LS – ES - The TS of only 1 task can be used if we want to be certain about not delaying the project∞ Free slack (FS) of a task is the difference between the smallest of the ES’s of the task’s immediate successors and the task’s EF. - Using FS does not affect the start times of a task’s successors - FS <= TS - FS of multiple tasks can be used without delaying the project∞ FS is shown on the Detail Gantt
Analysis Critical Path∞ Notice that tasks 12 and 13 both have 7 weeks of total slack∞ However, if task 12 uses this slack, it is not available to task 13, so its slack is not free - Tasks 12 and 13 are linked, so delaying the start of 12 delays the start of 13 by the same amount
Summary Tasks∞ Summary tasks can be used to better organize a project (see constructions.mpp)∞ We add three summary tasks: Structure, Interior, and Exterior∞ Structure includes current tasks 2 – 4, Interior includes 6 – 11, Exterior includes 5, 12, 13∞ Example: highlight “Excavate and Pour Footers,” click on “Tasks”, click on” Summary,” enter “Structure” - Indent first three tasks under “Structure” by highlighting them and selecting “indent” (thick green arrow going to the right)
Video TutorialsIntroduction to Microsoft Project 2010 Part 1 of 2 [OPEN]Introduction to Microsoft Project 2010 Part 2 of 2 [OPEN]Microsoft Project 2010 Video Training Tutorial - Creating a Project [OPEN]Microsoft Project 2010 Video Training Tutorial - The Workspace - Part 1 [OPEN]Microsoft Project 2010 Video Training Tutorial - The Workspace - Part 2 [OPEN]Microsoft Project 2010 Video Training Tutorial - Tracking Costs [OPEN]Project 2010 - Create a Project Plan [OPEN]Tour of the Microsoft Project 2010 Interface [OPEN]