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Modelama Exports - Apparel Manufacturing Internship Report
 

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Modelama Exports - Apparel Manufacturing Internship Presentation by Vinay Prajapati, Atul & Navneet

Modelama Exports - Apparel Manufacturing Internship Presentation by Vinay Prajapati, Atul & Navneet

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    Modelama Exports - Apparel Manufacturing Internship Report Modelama Exports - Apparel Manufacturing Internship Report Document Transcript

    • APPAREL PRODUCTION REPORT [A Report based on three months internship at Modelama Exports Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana]Under the Guidance of Report Prepared byMrs Vasundhara Chaudhary Atul DwivediAssociate Professor Navneet Kumar YadavNational Institute of Fashion Technology Vinay PrajapatiGandhinagar M.F.Tech, Sem-III National Institute of Fashion Technology Gandhinagar
    • INDEX SR. NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1 PREFACE i 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii 3 COMPANY PROFILE 1 4 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE 2 5 FACTORY LAYOUT 3 6 ABOUT THE COMPANY 4 7 MAJOR OVERSEAS CUSTOMERS 6 8 FLOW DIAGRAM OF WORKING IN AN EXPORT HOUSE 7 9 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT 8 10 MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT 12 11 SAMPLING DEPARTMENT 19 12 FABRIC SOURCING DEPARTMENT 22 13 FABRIC STORE 25 14 FLOW FOR ORDER PROCESSING 27 15 FABRIC INSPECTION 28 16 TESTING LAB 30 17 ACCESSORIES STORE 37 18 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT 40 19 MACHINE MAINTAINANCE DEPARTMENT 44 20 CAD DEPARTMENT 47 21 WORK FLOW OF SPREADING & CUTTING 51 22 SPREADING DEPARTMENT 52 23 CUTTING DEPARTMENT 54 24 TICKETING, FUSING, CHECKING & BUNDLING 56 25 PRODUCTION, PLANNING & CONTROL DEPARTMENT 58 26 SEWING DEPARTMENT 60 27 WASHING DEPARTMENT 62 28 FINISHING DEPARTMENT 64 29 PACKAGING DEPARTMENT 66 30 DETAILS OF STYLE STUDIED DURING INTERNSHIP 68
    • PREFACEThis report is an account of hard work done and experience gained in the company having areputed stand in the international market and policy of keeping itself updated with thechanging times. This hard work is original in style and method & no pains have been sparedtoo make it as compact, perfect and reliable as possible. The report mainly deals in theapplication of theoretical knowledge into a practical experience.This report attempts to present our experience in Modelama Exports Ltd. India’s premierexport house. It gave us an opportunity to be a part of an esteemed organization and getthe first hand knowledge of working of various departments under various heads.It covers the basic structure of an export house and working. It also includes various formatsthat are used in firms to maintain the records. Overall, this report covers the individualstudy of each department that a garment undergoes.As such, this report is not sufficient to pen down what we have gained from this in planttraining. So, it should not be compared with the experience that is learned by working in anexpert house.
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAt the very outset, we find ourselves fully engulfed in immense pleasure in expressing oursincere and profound gratitude to Mr. Lalit Gulati (Owner Modelama Exports Ltd.) forproviding us an opportunity to do this momentous internship in this prestigiousorganization.Secondly, we will be failing if we do not express our heartfelt gratitude to Mr. S. S. Bedi(Manager Personal Department & Administration), Mr. Arvind Rai (G.M Personal) for theircontinuous support, and encouragement and valuable guidance in doing fruitful andchallenging project, which would be an unforgettable experience to us. Our overriding debtcontinuous to be for Mr. Dushyant (G.M Fabric), Mr. Ilias (Cutting Manager) and his cuttingteam & CAD team, Mr. Deepak Gupta (Head IE Department) for their support and helpduring the Internship period.We would like to extend our particulars thanks to Mr. Biraj Narula (G.M Production) for hisstrong and continuous support all the way through our project.Back at our institute we would like to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Pranav Vora(Course Coordinator M.F.Tech) and Mr. Pavan Godiawala (Chair Person, MFT) all the staffmembers of Department of Garment Manufacturing Technology for allocating us thisorganization and helping us out in the best possible ways during the period of internship.A special thanks to Mrs. Vasundhara Chaudhary (Course Coordinator, DFT) for her valuableguidance during our Internship.
    • COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY NAME MODELAMA EXPORTS LTD ADDRESS PLOT NO. 105/106, UDYOG VIHAR, PHASE-1 GURGAON, HARYANA- 122015 HEAD OFFICE B-57 OKHLA INDL. AREA PHASE-1 NEW DELHI- 110020 INDIA TELEPHONE 0124-4008105 FAX 0124-4008108 E-MAIL info@modelamaexports.com WEBSITE www.modelamaexports.com YEAR ESTD. 1979 OWNER MR. LALIT GULATI DIRECTORS MR. SANJAY GULATI MR. GAGAN GULATI MR. GAURAV GULATI ANNUAL TURNOVER 60 MILLION (OF ALL FACTORIES) MARKET 100% EXPORT TOTAL COVERED AREA 4,00,000 SQ. FT. TOTAL WORKING FORCE 5500 IN HOUSE/FABRICATION/BOTH BOTH PRODUCTION CAPACITY 6 MILLION/YEAR 1
    • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE MR LALIT GULATI (Chairman) MR SANJAY GULATI (Managing Director)MR GAGAN GULATI MR BIRAJ NARULA MR GAURAV GULATI MR ARVIND RAI (Director) (GM Production GF) (Director) (GM P&A) MS SHALU BAGGA MR SAMEER SOOD MR DINESH MR JP SARAF(Home Furnishings) (GM production FF) (EDP) (Manager Accounts)MS SUMAN MALHOTRA MR SUNNY KUMAR MR DUSHYANT MR RN SHARMA (Merchandising) (Production SF) (Fabric Store) (Manager EXIM) MR SANTOSH KUMAR MR PRAVEEN RAI (Production U200 & U201) (Sampling) 2
    • FACTORY LAYOUT 1. BASEMENT a. Fabric Testing Lab b. Fabric Store c. Accessories Store d. General Store e. Cutting/CAD/CAM 2. GROUND FLOOR a. Reception b. Conference Room c. Personal Department d. Human Resource e. Production Floor f. Finishing Department g. Packing h. Machine Maintenance Department i. Washing Section 3. FIRST FLOOR a. Production floor b. Finishing c. Packing d. Quality control 4. SECOND FLOOR a. Merchandising b. Product development c. R & D d. Production plan & control e. Sampling f. Export documentation g. EDP(Electronic Data Processing) h. Accounts i. Surplus fabric & accessory store 3
    • ABOUT THE COMPANYWith a vision to lead, Modelama emerged in the horizons of garments manufacturing industry inthe year 1979. Led by business acumen of the founder and the competence of the workforce, itestablished itself as a name to reckon with not only in India but also in the overseas destinations.Today, it is one of the leading garment manufacturers and exporters in India with state-of-the art,professionally run, production units covering about 400,000 sq. ft. of area.Ever since its inception, Modelama has never looked back. Growing with strength as well as value ithas achieved the production capacity of 6 million garments per year and a turnover of 60 millionUSD.The management of Modelama Export always believed that quality should be the top most priority.The incessant efforts to provide consumer satisfaction could only be achieved through enhancingthe capabilities of manufacturing high quality products.At Modelama, obligations involving human resource development, social & environmental issuesare a part of the day-to-day chores. We take pride in the human resource that we have. Modelamaboasts of one of the most experienced and well-trained technicians belonging to the fields likeapparel engineering, textile technology, electronic data processing, designing and so on. 4
    • PRODUCT MIXModelama uses a wide array of fabrics to create distinct styles for its buyers. From naturals (cotton,linen, silk, wool) to synthetics (viscose, polyester, polyamide) and their blends, various fabrics arehandled with the care they demand. Looking at the growing buyer demands and the fast pace atwhich fashion moves today Modelama has developed a diverse and futuristic product mix.AESTHETICS AND FUNCTIONALITYWith a strong design team which gets its inspiration from global sources and a global technicalteam providing manufacturing and infrastructure know how, we have achieved the perfect blend ofaesthetics with functionality.HOW THEY CREATEWork at Modelama happens very closely with the fashion forecast the design team visit a no. offashion forums, seminars and exhibitions like the premier vision, heimtex etc. the designers arestationed in the US as well as UK who constantly feed with retail information, retailing trends,market share analysis, brand evaluation and other retail information.Apart from the keen interest they take in making the products, they also try to induce what India asa source can offer in terms of embroideries, hand work, light weight fabrics and the various accentsof our culture as an inspiration.Their range has a wide array of fabric from natural - cotton, linen and wool, silk to synthetics –viscose, polyester, polyamide, blends, microfibers and much more.Apart from the constant feed of the fresh concepts in the product mix, there products also have adistinct genre of style complimenting individual buyer needs. They were very closely with thebuyers design team and satisfy the certain buyer beyond expectations.OTHER FACILITIESIn house comprehensive washing facilities for all kinds of washing, like enzyme, bleach, caustic, acidwash, ice wash. Sand blast/faded effect and AZO free overdyeing in house.MAIN PRODUCTSHigh fashion and basic garments covering all segments:  Ladies: Dresses, Skirts, trousers, tops, blouses, scarves, jackets etc.  Kids: dresses, Skirts, trousers, tops, scarves, jackets, shorts and overall etc.  Men: shirts, shorts, pants, jackets etc. 5
    • SPECIALISATIONDenim wear, prints, embroideries, cut works appliqué and other intricate trims andembellishments; basically all form of value addition, novelty washes and quick turnaround time.TYPES OF FABRICAll types of Indian and imported woven fabrics viz. cotton viols, cambric, poplin, twill, corduroy,dobby’s/jacquards, canvas, denim, viscose/rayon, linen, nylon/polyester, madras plaids etc.MAJOR OVERSEAS CUSTOMERSUSA: Aeropostle, American eagle outfitters, Anthropology, American Rug, Belk International Inc,Benetton, Bonton, Club Monaco, CSI industries, DDP(France), Disney, Explosion, Forth & town, GAPMen’s outerwear, GAP women denim division, GAP women out let, Gyomboree, INC men’s, Urbanoutfitters, Wool rich, Old navy, Karan scoot, Material London, JMC, Mervyns.EUROPE: J.Jill, Diesel, Calvin Klein, Top shop, Next, We.CANADA: Eatons, Hudson Bay, Marmaxx, Sears Roebuck & Co.AUSTRALIA: Country Road.UK: Laura Ashley, GVS, Freeman’s, Grattan. 6
    • WORK FLOW BUYER PRODUCT DEVELOPER MERCHANT SAMPLING FABRIC TESTING MARKER PLANNING SPREADING CUTTING BUNDLING & TICKETING RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION WASHING FINISHING & PRESSING PACKING & FINISHING 7
    • PRODUCT DEVEVELOPEMENTThis department is not buyer specific and work for all the buyers that company caters to. The majorrole of department is to getting business for the company. Foundation of all other departments, itassists in converting their ideas into reality.First interaction of the buyers is with PD department, but in some cases PD is directly done by themerchandising department, there is showroom for meeting as well as presentation for newdevelopment/line adoption to buyer, Samples/mocks developed are just for style and designpurpose and measurement do not play a major role. If buyer select any of their style then furtherdevelopment will be done by PD department, once order is been booked further follow up andcommunicating regarding that style will be the responsibility of the concerned merchandiser.CLASSIFICATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT INTERNAL DESIGNING EXTERNAL DESIGNINGOWN DESIGN LINE INSPIRATIONAL TECH PACK 8
    • INTERNAL DESIGNINGDesign development done in house. Product development is done on the following basis: MOCK OR SAMPLES WILL BE PREPARED FOR SELECTION IF SELECTED THEN MEETING SAMPLES WILL BE MADE COSTING AND NEGOTIATIONS SALESMAN SAMPLE GRADING ORDER CONFIRMATION PASSED BY MERCHANDISER THEN FOR PD 9
    • EXTERNAL DESIGNING LINE ADOPTION WITH BASIC DETAILS SAMPLES WILL BE MADE (2 Pcs) APPROVAL/COMMENTS BUYER SENTS A TECH PACK THEN AGAIN PROTO SAMPLE MADE (3 Pcs) FIT SAMPLES MADE (3 Pcs) APPROVAL/COMMENTS BUYER WILL SENT FIT SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS SIZE SET ARE MADE APPROVAL REVISE FIT OR SEALER SAMPLE IS MADE ORDER CONFIRMATION 10
    • IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY  PCD (Plan cut date)  YELLOW TAG SAMPLE (means sealer  GPT (Garment package test) sample)  FPT (Fabric package test)  WINDOW DATE  CUT OFF DATE  PPM (Pre-production meeting)  GREEN TAG SAMPLE (means  Minutes of meeting (for any important production sample) discussion related to any particular issue)TYPES OF SAMPLES  Proto sample  Reference sample  Costing meeting sample  Resample TOP sample  Catalogue sample  Pilot run sample  Salesman sample  Size set sample  Fit sample  Testing sample  AD sample/photo shoot sample  Named above are the different types  Sealer sample of samples used by different buyers.  Preproduction sampleA TECH PACK CONTAINS  A pictorial representation of the  Garment description garment  Style number  Make up details  Date sent  Sample size  Date required  Fabric type  Supplier name  Colour of fabric  Season or phase  Placements of buttons, zippers,  Fabric sample embroideries etc. 11
    • MERCHANDISINGMerchandising or merchandise means commodities or goods dealt in by merchant. A merchant isthe person who acts as a link between a buyer and vendor; he is the one who is central or integralpart of a garment industry.Merchant is a trader, an exporter or importer of a garment he is basically a employee of a vendor’scompany who is being responsible to the buyer and coordinate the full manufacturing process ofgarment right from getting the order, approving the design, ordering fabric, cutting, production andup to the shipment of the order i.e., he is the whole sole of the company. Thus a merchant is afulcrum of the organization which involves coordinating and follows up against tight schedules. Hehas to take care of quality, delivery on time and simultaneously the price of garment and due towhich the merchant is liable for some percentage in the company profile.MERCHANDISING ACTIVITIES  Receive detailed information from buyer like style details, fabric type, quality and fibre content, trim requirements and quality, colour details and various other details like washing, printing, embroideries etc.  Make proto types, coordinate with research & development team, find fabric costing and initial costing, send sample with price code and various other job works at sampling stage etc.  Receive the PO and accepted L/C, amendments if any, confirm price, category, delivery schedule and the required lead time etc.  Get the approval for samples and trims, prepare the time and action calendar, prepare the fabric and trim indent.  Coordinate with R & D and I E for further detailed R & D reports; coordinate with PPC for production planning, send order status to the buying office at every stage.  Call for the production meeting, prepare the production file and take care of budget at each stage.Another important task for merchandiser is lot approval so therefore from every roll and lot swatchis taken firstly, it is observed in-house and then dispatched to buying house for approvals and afterapprovals cutting go head will be given to the factory.Denim approvals are taken in blanket pattern and approved samples will be used in packagingMerchandiser has to do the entire above task for each style but before starting, merchant has to docosting and plan the whole process from fabric ordering till ship cancel date and it is called as Timeand action calendar (T&A Calendar). 12
    • Before starting the costing for a style merchandiser should consider the following:  Fabric consumption  Margin  Labour Expenses (Calculated with the  Exchange Rate help of SMV)  Finishing  Thread Consumption  Packaging  Trims and Accessories cost  CMP (Cut Make Pack)Merchandiser prepares two T & A Calendar, one external for buyer and supplier which is compactlyprepared to get approvals from buyer and to receive ordered fabric and trims/accessories to geton-time deliveries, from suppliers in house and other T & A is for Internal working for promptworking for style.Simultaneously merchandiser works with shipping department for banking vessel and othermediums for transporting shipment till vessel and export documentation for preparing necessarydocument for custom clearance and payments and also for importing fabrics and accessory. Atsame time Account Department assist for payments. 13
    • PROCESS FLOW OF MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT TECH PACK COMES FROM THE BUYER INITIAL SAMPLING AND COSTING GET ORDER FROM THE BUYER ORDER CONFIRMATION BUDGETING INTERNAL WITH BUYER MATERIALINDENT RE SAMPLE/PROTO (TRIMS DETAILS) TYPE APPROVAL FABRIC PROGRAM FIT SAMPLE APPROVAL (FABRIC DETAILS) FPT APPROVAL PP SAMPLE GPT SAMPLE LOT APPROVAL TOP SAMPLE APPROVAL SIZE SET SAMPLE APPROVAL Contents SHIPMENT INSPECTION No table of contents entries found. FINAL SHIPPING AND 14
    • MERCHANDISING FILE OF A STYLE INCLUDES 1. Order confirmation 13. Size set samples 2. Purchase order 14. Sealer/comments 3. 1st lab dip/comment 15. PP samples 4. 2nd lab dip/comment 16. Initial bulk against approved lab dip 5. Approved colour standard 17. Lot comment and approved 6. Important communications 18. Trim 7. Final GSS and BOM received 19. Approved trim card 8. 1st approval/comments 20. Costing 9. Revised GSS 21. Budget 10. 2nd approval/comments 22. Test report (Trim, FPT, GPT) 11. Revised GSS 23. Fusing 12. Approved fit and commentPRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES OF MERCHANDISER  Chase for fabric/trims prior to PCD date  Size sets/PP/TOP samples-Monitoring and delivering  Coordinating buying agency QA InspectionOC GENERATIONOC stands for ORDER CONFIRMATION, is an internal document and should be generated byconcerned merchandiser against PO within 24-48 hrs of order confirmation from buyer. It isinformation as well as an alarm to all departments that company has received an order.OC includes the following information:  Purchase Order (PO) Number  Delivery Date  Quantity  Fabric with tentative consumption  FOBPURCHASE ORDERPO is an external document which is issued by buyer in the name of Modelama Exports; it is anevidence as well as support of order confirmed in the favour of company. 15
    • PO includes the following information-  Delivery Date  Terms of sale  FOB  Currency  Ship cancel date  L/C  Destination  Quantity  Ship mode  Size Break up/colour Break upFABRIC PROGRAM (FP)It is an internal document issued to fabric department, for sourcing the required fabric required forthe style.MATERIAL INDENTIt is an internal document issued to Accessory Department, for sourcing the required accessory andtrims for style.INTERNAL BUDGETIt is the internal document of the company which is a deviation between the actual costing given tothe buyer and company’s costing.MODELAMA uses EDI software for downloading:  PO’s,  DCPO’s and  CD’s (for price tickets and shipment tickets)Buyer directly sends PO on this software and it is further followed by the merchandisersaccordingly. Until company receives any written mail from buyer no action will be taken bymerchandisers.PCD DATE MONITERINGPCD date should be followed by head right from the order confirmation, production manager canrefuse to take the file from concerned merchandiser if the PCD date slides drastically and unitmanager approach to management if concerned merchant tries to put pressure on unit, but if aparticular style has been taken over by unit head then the deliverance of style in terms of quality/deliver date has to meet by unit head. 16
    • PAYMENT TO VENDERSIt is a policy of the company that all the venders such as fabric/trim suppliers, embroidery jobworkers, handwork contractors, finishing job workers would be done after shipping of a particularorder and the payment would be done only of the actual shipment quality.COSTINGThe most important function of the merchandising department is to calculate the total cost ofgarment. It is the job of the merchandiser to estimate the initial cost correctly and also negotiatethe cost of production with the buyer before he sends his PO. The costing should be such that itsuits the buyer and also the export house. At the pre-production stage initial costing is done so asto get an idea of the cost likely to be incurred. This cost includes raw material cost; manufacturingcost, washing cost, make up cost, overhead expenses and the margin of the company. After thebuyer has placed his order and production sample is approved then the final costing is done. Thefinal costing uses fabric average from CAD, cost of fabric & trims etc.A cost sheet includes:  Buyer’s name  Quantity  Style  Budget  Garment  Fabric descriptionTotal cost fabric includes:  Greige fabric cost  Finishing  Brushing  Shrinkage  Calendaring  Freight  Cartage  Wastage  Dyeing/printing  Average consumption  Embroidery  Total fabric consumption  WashingAccessories cost includes:  Main label  Poly bags  Wash care label  Stitching threads  Price ticket  Embroidery threads  Tags  Beads, sequins, elastic, mobilon tape  Cartons etc. 17
    • Total cost of a garment:  Fabric cost  Fabrication  Accessories cost  Finishing  CM (cost of manufacturing)  Packaging  Dyeing  Beads, sequins  EmbroideryCost of company:  Margin  Overheads  Quota  Shipping cost 18
    • SAMPLINGA sample is a proto type of a product to be manufactured in future course of production. It is alsocalled mock-up of a product and is made to check the design effectiveness and fit of the garment.Sampling is a set of procedure follow to produce various sample style. It contains activities likemaking of pattern for proto type according to measurement of produce sample with the help ofmachinery and getting buyers approval for the sample produce.In an export house, the sampling department laced a vital role in the up-lifting of a unit. Thisdepartment directly coordinates with the merchandising dept. and production dept. sampling isdone to see how the product will look like when produce in bulk and to check discrepancies in thepattern are. Patterns are made according to the buyer specification.STEPS OF SAMPLING: PROTO TYPE SAMPLE MADE FIT SAMPLE MADE PP SAMPLE MADE TOP SAMPLE MADE SIZE SET MADE SHIPPMENT SAMPLE MADE 19
    • MACHINE DETAILS IN SAMPLING DEPARTMENT LINE S.NO M/C TYPE MANUFACTURER 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 1 S.N.L.S TYPICAL 9 15 14 15 3 56 2 S.N.L.S KING SPL 6 2 3 0 2 13 3 S.N.L.S BROTHER 11 3 0 0 0 14 4 S.N.L.S KATT SPL 0 0 0 0 3 3 5 D.N.L.S HIGHLEAD 0 1 0 0 1 2 6 D.N.L.S PEGASUS 0 0 0 0 1 1 7 O/L 3 TOYOTA 0 0 0 0 1 1 8 O/L 3 TYPICAL 0 0 1 3 0 4 9 O/L 5 BROTHER 0 1 0 0 0 1 10 O/L 5 TYPICAL 0 0 0 1 0 1 11 KANSAI 0 0 0 0 3 3 12 3 NEEDLE C.S 0 0 0 1 0 1 13 BARTACK BROTHER 0 0 0 0 1 1 14 F.O.A 0 0 0 0 1 1 15 EMBROIDERY FRIEND 0 0 7 0 0 7 16 SPL M/C GOLDEN WHEEL 0 0 1 0 0 1 17 SPL M/C TREASURE 0 0 1 0 0 1 18 MAINTAINENCE 0 3 0 1 0 4 TOTAL 26 25 27 21 16 115 20
    • FUNCTIONSTwo main functions of sampling department are: 1. To cater the buyer 2. New development1. TO CATER THE BUYERIn this method first a Tack-Pack or a GSS (Garment specification sheet) is given by the buyer andthen on the basis of this GSS patterns are made by the pattern master. With the help of thesepatterns fabric average is calculated and then by adding other cost also costing is send to the buyer.On the basis of this costing buyer places an order. Once the order is placed the samplingdepartment starts producing samples. These samples are then sending to the buyer throughmerchandiser for his approval as per the sequence shown in the above flow chart.2. NEW DEVELOPMENTIn this method a new design is developed by the designer of the company. Before developing a newdesign forecasting is done. By this forecasting we come to know that which colour, embroidery,type of fabric, silhouette, texture etc. will be like by the fabric in upcoming season. This design isalso according to the country and season. This new design is then send to the buyer and if buyerlikes the design, he may place an order of the same design or with some modification in the newdesign. Once the order is placed by the buyer, the sampling department starts producing samples.These samples are sending to the buyer in a particular sequence as shown in the above flow chart. 21
    • FABRIC SOURCINGSourcing deals with getting information about material from different sources and then selectingthe best material which suits over budget and buyer’s specification.Fabric sourcing means souring the right kind of fabric which fulfils the buyer’s specifications. Fabricsourcing department is quite important as more than 90% of garment is fabric and approximately70% cost of garment is due to the fabric.Selecting the right quality of fabric as per the buyer’s specification otherwise it may lead tocancellation or rejection of the whole order given by the buyer. The fabric sourcing departmentgets the fabric sample from the vendors. These samples are tested before sending to buyer forapproval. After the buyer approves the sample, the fabric is ordered for bulk production.TYPES OF FABRIC1. KNITTED FABRIC 2. WOVEN FABRICThese two kinds of fabric can be further classified as:  Yarn dyed fabric  Solid dyed fabric  Printed fabricYARN DYED FABRICTo impart colour in a fabric, it is either died after weaving or first dyeing of the yarn is done andthen interlacement of these yarn results in a coloured fabric.The fabric in which we dyed the yarn first and then weave the fabric is called yarn dyed fabric. Theyarn dyed fabric are generally in the form of checks, stripes etc.SOLID DYED FABRICSolid dyed fabrics are the fabrics which are first manufactured on the loom and thereafter dyed butthe colouring agent can’t be applied directly to the griege fabric. To apply colour griege fabric is firstprocessed through different processes like de-sizing, bleaching etc. these processes are done so asto make the fabric appropriate for dyeing.PRINTED FABRICPrinted fabric are the fabrics which obtained by printing a bleached fabric/dyed fabric or thesefabrics are the fabrics having different or varied print in which a base fabric either dyed fabric orbleached fabric is printed by various printing technology. 22
    • Steps followed for fabric purchasing:  Market trends enquiry  Vendors-folders in-house swatches  Display to buyers  After approval from the buyer swatch is send for the sampling yardage (5-10 meter of fabric)Documents used in sourcing department:FP (Fabric Program) a. Fabric description b. Accessories c. Plan Cut Date d. Delivery DatePROCESS OF GENERATING FABRIC PROGRAM ORDER CONFIRMATION TENTATIVE AVERAGE ORDER ACCORDING TO THE TENTATIVE ORDER PIECES FIRST WORKING FINAL AVERAGE FABRIC PROGRAMFPO (Fabric Purchase Order) a. Fabric description f. Rate b. Supplier name g. Transportations (Logistic) c. Date of PO h. Fabric Purchase Order number d. Delivery date i. Payment e. Cancel dateFPO also tells about the type/quality of fabric whether it is yarn dyed, dyed, printed, or greigefabric. 23
    • JPO (Job Process Order) a. Processor’s name b. Date of PO c. Delivery Date d. Fabric description e. Logistic f. Rate g. JPO no.JPO also gives information about the process to be done on the fabric like embroidery, dyeing,printing etc.SUPPLIERS OF MODELAMA EXPORT HOUSE 1. Yarn dyed- South India, Arvind, Imported 2. Knits- Ludhiana, Delhi 3. Cotton- All around India 4. Wool- Imported, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Panipat 5. Silk/Poly/Viscose- Banaras, Bangalore, Surat, Ahmedabad, Mumbai 6. Linen- Indian Rayon, Imported 7. Velvets/Jacquard- Panipat 8. Greige- Coimbatore, Salem, Erode, Bhiwandi (Mumbai) 9. Leno/Dobby/Textured- Bhiwandi, South India 10. Processing- Bhilwara, Panipat, Faridabad, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Mumbai 11. Embroidery- Manesar, Mumbai, Amritsar 24
    • FABRIC STOREFabric storehouse is the actual area where the fabric for production is receive or dispatched forprocessing. Beside storage the fabric store department is also responsible for the inspection of thegoods receive by it.PROCESS FLOW OF FABRIC STORE FABRIC DISPATCHED FROM SUPPLIER FABRIC RECEIVING GRIEGE FABRIC SOLID/YARN DYED/PRINTED SEND IT FOR PROCESSINGBACK TO INHOUSE AFTER DYEING OR PRINTING 100 % CHECKING (4 POINT SYSTEM) METER CHECKING BY SECURITY GUARDS LOT MAKING AND SEND IT TO THE MERCHANDISING QUALITY CHECKING FOR DEFECTS KEPT IN STORE 25
    • STORAGERack system of storage is followed i.e. fabric packages are stored in the racks in two areas: 1. Checked fabric 2. Unchecked fabricThey are further segregated on the basis of style no. and lot wise. The fabric is put in rack with thehelp of Fork Lift and pallets. Such a systematic maintenance of the store makes it easy to make thefabric whenever needed in future.ORDER PROCESSING AND FABRIC IN-HOUSE:The merchant receives the purchase order from the buyer. On the basis of this purchase order, thefabric sourcer prepares a ‘requisition’ for the fabric as per the demands of the buyers and raises itto the fabric vendors in the market. The best deal and the vendor are finalized and the order isplaced. The factory may send the yarn from the store to the fabricators for fabric production, buygreige for dyeing or directly order the processed fabric to the vendors. Once the fabricsdevelopment receives the approval for the fabric, the vendor sends it in form of lots within thespecified time period and the fabric is made in house in the fabric store. About 5% extra goods aresupplied by the vendor.The fabric via transport trucks comes in various packages like rolls, book fold, open width etc. Thepackages are unloaded on conveyor belts (500 kg capacity) with take them to the weighingmachine. Each consignment comes in with an invoice having details like quantity, colour, GSM, andweight. The goods are weighed and other details are reconfirmed before they are store. 26
    • FLOW FOR ORDER PROCESSING RECEIVE PO FROM MERCHANDISER RECEIVE SHADE APPROVAL PREPARE A FABRIC REQUISITION SEND GOODS FOR DYEING RAISE THE REQUISITION TO VENDORS RECEIVE DYED GOODS SOURCE OUT THE GOODS SEND YARDAGE FOR INTERNAL TESTING SUBMIT FOR BUYER’S APPROVAL FOR FINALIZE THE VENDORS COLOR AND QUALITY NO PLACE THE ORDER SEND FOR REDYEING, APPROVED WASHING ETC YES FIRST LOT IN - HOUSE BULK FABRIC IN - HOUSE LAB TESTING SUBMIT FOR APPROVAL TO MERCHANT READY FOR ISSUE NO YESRE-ORDER APPROVED LAB DIPS PREPARED AT DYEING UNIT IN NEAREST SHADE SEND LAB DIPS FOR SHADE APPROVALBY THE BUYER 27
    • FABRIC INSPECTIONThe fabric being the main contributor to the development of our final product i.e. the garment, it isvery important to control its quality indicated by the no. of faults and variations present in it.Identification of these objectionable variations and faults right at the initial stage helps to reducethe production time. So once the fabric is in – housed it is immediately sent on a pilot and trolleyassembly to the inspection area.INSPECTIONGREIGE FABRIC INSPECTION PROCESSED FABRIC INSPECTION FABRIC STORE QUALITY NORMSSLUB 0-3” = 1 PTS 3-6” = 2 PTS 6-9” = 4 PTSCUT/HOLES 0-1” = 1 PTS 1-1.5”= 2 PTS 1.5”> = 4 PTSWARP WISE PATTA MINOR = 2 PTS MAJOR = 4 PTSWEFT WISE PATTA MINOR = 2 PTS MAJOR = 4 PTSLENGTH WISE VARIATION 0-2” > PALLA = 2 PTS 3” > PALLA = 4 PTSCENTRE SELVEDGE MINOR > = A/B(If different colour visible in 1 sq m) MAJOR < = DPILLING if pilling is on one side of plain weave, reverse side can be treated as face, not in the case of dobby, jacquard, twill etc.STREAK MARKS From selvedge to 2” then we have to plan the marker accordingly, otherwise it will be in ‘D’ categoryOther defects considered in the fabric store:  Oil stains  Patchy  Weaving defects  Bowing  Dead cotton  Skewness 28
    • Every defect encountered is marked with an arrow sticker. A fabric checking report is filled whichgives the details about the defects found. After the checking is done the fabric is repacked in largepoly bags and graded according to the standards set by the company. The grades are as follows- ‘A’ CLASS No defects, fabric can be used. ‘B’/ MENDED CLASS Defects are present but under acceptance level, can be mended to first class by subsequent processing, fabric to be cut with care. ‘C’ CLASS Fabric to be negotiated with supplier. ‘D’ CLASS Rejected, defects are present beyond acceptance level, fabric to be not used.NOTE: 1. Lots will be prepared. 2. Checking as per the norms of buyer. 3. In case there is ‘C’ and ‘D’ category in passed lot, will rechecked again and rechecking report need to be made. 4. Lab report along with fabric checking report will be given to fabric merchant as well as merchandiser. 5. No fabric issue to cutting without QA sign. 6. Knit fabric check in Kilograms. 7. Formula used = 3600 * Defects points Length * WidthMACHINES IN FABRIC DEPARTMENT 1. FABRIC CHECKING MACHINE: This machine is used for any type of fabric rolled, checking defects and check fabric length and width. Mostly used for grey fabric. 2. FOLDING MACHINE: This machine is used for folding the fabric in one meter.DOCUMENTATIONFabric store has huge documentation work as well. Bar coding has lent a helping hand and easedthe task of record keeping. Nevertheless, following records are also manually maintained: 1. Stock register for information about the stock present in the store at a given rate. 2. Receiving register for information like fabric receive from where, when and in how much quantity. 3. Issuing register for information regarding the fabric issued to the dyeing mills. 4. Checking register for information about the rolls inspected, GSM, tube width, faults and no. of rolls approved and passed. 29
    • 5. GSM recorded register for GSM of all the fabric rolls is stored in the house along with the swatches. 6. Fabrics checking report, which states the type and no. of defects and weather the roll is rejected or pass. 7. Pending checking status report maintained on daily basis for information regarding the rolls that are pending for checking.TESTING LABGarments are made from fabric with the help of sewing threads and a no. of accessories likebutton; laces, ribbons etc. are sewn on them. All these things used to construct a garment haveuncertain characteristics i.e. how they will behave in conditions like washing, sunlight, heat etc.when used by the customer. Any undesirable changes in the fabric, thread or the trims woulddetract the aesthetic value of the garment and decrease its utility before time. Thus it becamenecessary to check or test the characteristics of all these components under conditions to whichthey are susceptible to change or get damaged. Fabric and trims are tested for their quality,durability, colour fastness, dimensional stability and physical know how. Goods are produced fromthe suppliers only when the lab tests results confirm that they comply with the standards orrequirements of the buyers.The buyers are also specific about the test method that has to be followed. AATCCC and ASTM aretwo American standards that are used in the lab. AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemistsand Colourists) standards are given primarily for all colour fastness and dimensional stability. ASTM(American Standard for Testing Materials) covers all the physical tests.ISO (International Standard Organization) is a European standard, which covers the colour fastnesstests and the dimensional stability tests.Modelama has its own in-house fabric testing laboratory equipped with all sophisticatedinstruments as per AATCC and ISO standards where tests on fabric, garment and trims areconducted. There are separate dry, wet and chemical testing areas in the lab along with a darkroom for colour matching.BASIC WORK FLOWTesting lab receives the fabric to be tested along with a test request form either from the fabricsourcing department or the fabric store (or garment from quality assurance/merchandisingdepartments). This form contains all the details like buyer name, style, sample description andvendor. A swatch of the fabric to be tested is passed on the form and tests to be conducted arespecified. Depending on the no. and type of tests to be carried, fabric yardages are sent to the lab(almost ½ mtr to 2 mtr)Testing is done on the behest of buyer and it is the buyer who specifies the test to be conducted.Fabric sourcing department coordinates the communication and testing activities. Each buyer has 30
    • its standard acceptance levels in testing. He may require testing to be done at a specified testinglaboratory or one nominated by the buyer itself.Once the fabric is received for testing, it is allowed to relaxed, condition and acclimatizes to thestandard temperature and humidity maintained in the laboratory for at least 2-4 hrs. a variety oftest are conducted on the condition samples but some of the tests like that of washing, crocking,rubbing, dimensional stability, count, fabric construction, GSM, content etc. are necessarily carriedout for every fabric/garment. Following is a list of test carried out in the lab:COLOR FASTNESS TO Washing(30, 40, 49 Degree) Crocking/Rubbing No chlorine/Chlorine Bleach Actual LaunderingPHYSICAL TEST TO Count Construction Fabric Weight Twist Per Inch Spirality Tensile Strength Tearing Strength General Garment Appearance Pilling Test Dimensional Stability After WashingCHEMICAL TESTS TO Fibre Content pH of Water Extract/surface pHCONCEPT OF GREY SCALEColour fastness and pilling tests require grading of the results to draw objective inference of thebehaviour of the fabric or garment. Grading means comparing the tested and the standard fabric.This is done with the help of grey scale.Grey scale standard are of two types: 1. One that is used for testing the variation in colour. 2. The other is that used for the purpose of measuring the variation in the stain before and after wash or dry cleaning. 31
    • AREA EQUIPMENT PURPOSE PICK GLASS/COUNTING GLASS Constructional parameters like CPI,WPI GSM CUTTER To cut a standard size sample fabric for GSM ELECTRIC BALANCE To weighing and determining count, GSM etc. DRY AREA PILLING TESTER Predict pilling behaviour CROCK METER (Manual & Colour fastness to rubbing Computerized) TENSILE STRENGTH TESTER Measure tensile strength of the knit fabric TEARING STRENGTH TESTER Measure tearing strength of the knit fabric DATA COLOR SPECTRA Colour matching and recipe FLASH(Spectrophotometer) formulation FRONT LOADING WASHING MACHINE General wash AREA LAUNDROMETER Colour fastness to washing and dry WET cleaning HOT AIR OVEN Drying pH METER Measure pH of chemical solutions AL AREA CHEMIC preparedWORKING INSTRUCTION FOR DIFFERENT TEST 1. SHRINKAGE If an extreme shrinkage rate occurs then a test on every roll will be performed. The result collated separated in to shrinkage group of a +/- 1.5% range. Separate patterns will be made for each group. The QA Manager will communicate such information to CAD/CAM, cutting and sewing sections. A fabric shrinkage test report is maintained for this purpose. Formula: A 50 cm. mark is made in the warp and weft direction. The sample is washed in water at normal temperature for 45 minutes and an hour and then taken out and dried. The marks made are measured again to find out the shrinkage. 2. GSM CUTTER AND WEIGHT BALANCE GSM – Gram per square meter 32
    • The GSM is finding out by using a digital weighing machine on which the fabric sample cut by the GSM cutter is kept and the value displayed. The GSM is calculated using the following conversion: GSM = VALUE * 1003. BEASLEY BALANCE The instrument is used to calculate the DIRECT COUNT (count, the no. that determines the fineness and coarseness of the yarn). Working principle: is based upon “FIXED WEIGHT SYSTEM”. In which there is a rider having fixed weight of 0.04 grams. Work instruction:  Take the fabric sample of length 10 cm. in both the direction i.e., warp as well as weft.  Take out the threads with the help of the needle.  Weigh the no. of threads and when get balanced, this gives the direct count.4. PICK GLASS The EPI and PPI constitute the fabric construction. It is find out manually by using a pick glass or by cutting a “1 * 1” sample and counting its yarn n the warp and weft direction. Construction = Warp * Weft5. TEARING STRENGTH TESTER This instrument shows the resistance of fabric against wearing and tearing. Work instruction:  Take the fabric sample having dimensions according to the template in both warp and weft directions.  Place the fabric sample in between the two jaws of the tearing strength tester. One jaw is fixed and other is movable.  The sample below the bottom jaw is cut with the help of blade.  The machine is unlocked. 33
    •  Note the reading when the fabric tears.  The reading comes in kg. convert it into oz/yd square Tearing Strength: E LBS * P LBSWhere E lbs: Reading * 0.0705 1 oz = 28.3495231 grams P lbs: Reading * 0.0705 1 yd2 = 0.8361274 m2 6. TENSILE STRENGTH TESTER This instrument is used to give the resistance against the normal loading. Principle used: CRE (Constant Rate of E elongation) Work instructions:  Take the fabric sample having dimensions 12 cm. * 1.5” in both warp and weft directions.  Placed the fabric sample in between the two jaws of the tensile tester. One is fixed, while the other is movable.  Unrevealed the fabric along the length up to 0.25” along the width of the fabric.  Set the pointer to zero and start the machine.  Note the reading when the breaks.  The reading comes in kg is converted into lb. Note – 1 lbs = 0.4535 kg. Tensile Strength: E lbs * P lbsWhere E lbs: Warp * 2.2 LBS P lbs: WEFT * 2.2 LBS 7. CROCKING FASTNESS This test is done to find out the resistance of colour against rubbing. Work instruction:  Take the fabric sample having dimensions 20 cm*5 cm.  Place the sample on the plate of the machine and fix it with help of lots and screws. 34
    •  Take the white bleached test cloth as per the standards specification.  Put this test cloth on the bulb of the machine for testing.  Give 10 rounds in to and fro motion with the help of rotator.  Take out the test cloth and grading is done with the help of gray scale.  Similarly, the wet rubbing fastness can be calculated by wetting of the test cloth. Table crocking fastness 5.0 = Excellent (No colour) 4.0 = Good (Light) 3.0 = Moderate (Medium) 2.0 = Poor (Dark) 1.0 = Very poor (Full colour)8. DIGITAL PILLING TESTER Used for predict the pilling behaviour of the fabric or garment after its use. Work instruction:  Clean the boxes thoroughly.  Place four mounted test specimens in each box and close the boxes.  Set the machine for 18000 revolutions till.  Start the machine & let it run, it automatically stops.  Take out the specimens and compare them with the photographic rating standards.9. LAUNDEROMETER This machine is used to check the fastness of fabric against washing. Work instruction:  Take the fabric sample having dimensions 10 cm*4 cm  Then, cut white cotton samples having dimensions 5 cm*4 cm and stitch it on both sides of the test sample.  Then, put the test sample into the containers of the launder meter.  Run the sample with required amount of detergent and M:L ratio according to the test method required by buyer.  Take out the fabric from the launder meter after the required time and then grading is done according to the grey scale. 35
    • 10. HOT AIR OVEN Work instruction:  Set the temperature at the desired ageing temperature and switch on the electric supply.  Open the door of the oven and place the test specimen on shelf.  Allow the temperature of the oven to the desired test temperature.  When the desired temperature is reached note, the time.  Allow the test to continue uninterrupted for the specified duration of time.  At the end of this period, switch off the power supply and take out the sample.  Conduct the required test and find the result. 11. pH METER Work instruction:  Connect the instrument to electric supply.  Put the selector switch to STAND BY. The instrument should read 000.  Instrument is now ready to use.  Connect to connection pH electrode to the input socket.  Set the selector switch to the pH position. Wash the electrode with distilled water and dip the combined electrode in the solution under test.  Set the temperature. The display shows the value of the solution directly in the pH unit. 12. SHADE MATCHING Head ends, approx. 6 inches long will be cut from every inspected roll and will be used to determine shade variation at the beginning middle and of roll side to side shade variation checks and also carried out at this stage by comparing the two sides of fabric roll closer to the selvedge. A colour box is used for an accurate detection of shade variation. Depending on the buyers requirements either primary lights (day light, horizon Inca) or secondary lights (cool white/CWF, ultra violet) is available for use. If the inspection reveals a significant shade variation within the roll, such rolls either will be rejected or special markers are made to avoid/minimize shading in garment as the case may be and the information recorded in the inspection report.There is some other testing which plays very crucial role in apparel export industry:  Salvia Test in kids garment  Button pull test  Perspiration test 36
    • ACCESSORIES STOREAccessories store as the name suggests is a department, which acts as a storehouse for accessories.It is the place where all the accessories required in an export house, are stored. Right from sewingthreads, needles to packaging material like poly bags and taps etc. all are stored in the accessoriesstore.The merchandiser as per buyer specifications orders the purchase dept. to buy the accessories thatare used in a particular style of that buyer. Merchandiser prepares a swatch card containing all theaccessories and their quantity required in a cycle. These accessories used in the swatch card are asper the quality and colour mentioned and approve by the buyer. The purchase dept. with the helpof swatch card prepared by the merchandiser purchases the required quantity of accessories. Theaccessories are purchased 10-15% extra then the required, as the wastage in case of accessories ismore. The receiving dept. then receives these accessories from the vendors and then checking andtesting of these accessories are done. They are checked for quality and colour. The accessories likebuttons are tested with the help of button snap tester. After all the accessories are checked andtested as per buyer’s specifications then an accessories approval card is prepared.After the accessories are received they are stored in the accessory store. The accessories are storedin different racks. The accessories of a single buyer are stored in one rack but the differentaccessories are stored separately from each other in the same rack. The accessories store alsohouses the stationary required in the export house.Now, whenever the production starts the accessories required in production are issued to theproduction dept. through an internal channel. A stock register is used for maintaining records. Thusan accessory store function as a store house for accessories where all the accessories areassembled and kept and also issued to the sampling and production dept. for the garmentmanufacture. 37
    • WORK FLOW OF ACCESSORIES STORE A • Merchandiser prepares swatch card B • Swatch card is send to the purchase department C • Accessories purchased by purchase department D • Accessories received by receiving department E • Testing of accessories is done F • Storing of accessories in accessory store G • Issuing accessories to the sampling and productionACCESSORIES/TERMS ORDERING AND THEIR APPROVAL  Thread ordering and approval: For ordering threads, merchandiser has to match the colour standard or approved lab dip or initial bulk fabric with the shade card of the suppliers company. If not matched then lab dip for thread will be done. Thread approval is taken through thread runs. Thread run means running of different thread options matching with the colour standard or approved lab dip or initial bulk fabric used for production.  Button ordering and approval: For ordering button, its line, colour, finish and quality should be matched with colour standard or approved lab dip or initial bulk fabric.  Zipper ordering and approval: For ordering button, its line, colour, finish and quality should be matched with colour standard or approved lab dip or initial bulk fabric.  Hanger and sizes ordering and approval: These are ordered according to the buyers sizes. 38
    •  Poly bag and carton ordering and approval: Poly bags are ordered according to the length, width and height of the garment and cartons are ordered as mentioned in PO and DCPO Labels ordering and approval: As labels are of different types, so it should be ordered according to buyers requirement only wash care label is ordered after G.P.T. Zipper ordering and approval: For ordering zippers, its teeth width, tapes quality and colour and important elements should be matched with quality and colour standard or initial bulk fabric. Other accessory ordering and approval: Other accessory like fusing, twill tapes shoulder pads, price tickets and hang tags ordered as other are done. 39
    • RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENTR&D and IE are two separate departments working for the same aim i.e. increasing the productionof a company with minimizing the cost.Various tasks performed are:  To check that product is production feasible or not before sending final approval to buyer.  Line balancing.  Calculating thread consumption.  Time study.  Creating operation breakdown.  Find out SMV.  No. of machine.  Helpers required.  Sketching layouts for production.  To find out the efficiency of the individual operator and line.  Calculating daily efficiency of the unit.  Co-ordination with PPC for improving the efficiency.  Fix the target production.  Decide the type of machine and work aids attachment required for particular operation.  Machine breakdown.  To monitor hourly production.  Hourly line tracking status.R&D lends hands in the following:  SMV (Standard Minute Value) per operation and garment  Thread consumption  Operation breakdown/Operation bulletin (OB)  Making production feasible, viable as well as friendly  Saving costAny garment or order received through specimen or GSS is send to R & D department. The garmentor GSS is then analysing by the expert team to see the viability of the order and also to advice waysof executing the order. An operation bulletin is prepared on the basis of which SMV is calculated byusing GSD (Garment Sewing Data).GSD (Garment Sewing Data)GSD is software which was first developed and installed in 1976. It is developed by UK basedcompany to find out the SMV. It is based on PMTS (Predetermined Motion Time System) which 40
    • divide/break into elemental parts equated to 45 codes in software according to operation i.e. TimeValue.1 min. = 2000 TMV 1 sec = 27 TMVParameters of GSD  L = Length  P = Precision Stop  GT = Guide and TensionSMV is calculated on the basis of work done through:  Machine operation  Manual operationGSD provides:  Predetermined Motion Time System (PMTS) to a variety of industrial and electrical sectors.  Regular contact and assistance with system application.  Regular system upgrade.PMTS (Predetermined Motion Time System)PMTS provides a data base on recognized time for predetermined and accepted activities that takeplace within a working environment. PMTS is used to evaluate working practices, with a view toestablishing the time it takes to perform a given task and to determine the costs associated to thattask.The R&D teams have also appointed industrial engineer as their representatives in the productionunits of the company. These engineers help the production managers to implement the suggestiongiven by the R & D in the unit, assigned to them and solve R & D related problems faced by the unit.Frequent meeting held between the R & D team and the industrial engineers to discuss the problemfaced and arrive at solutions. Feedback report will be generated by industrial engineers inproduction floor; if any deviation is there then R & D will look into through product boast process.Product boast process is done through stop watch i.e., Time study. They help out in balancing linesand improving methods and also sitting styles, presentation and organizing.The most vital as well as cost saving to the company is development of folders and attachment byR&D department. Folders and Attachment are customized machinery parts which place a wonderon the garments and it is to be developed accordingly. To the style/design in tool room andexperiment is being done by the technicians in R & D. R & D is continuously engaged in the task ofdeveloping new folders and attachment for executing orders efficiently. This leads to increasequality, efficiency at reduced costs, reduce no. of operations over and above, makes operationseasier. 41
    • PROCESS FLOW OF IE DEPARTMENTReceiving Sketch/Garment from Merchant Construction Enquiry – Sampling Department Product Friendly SolutionCalculate SMV Merchandising Department PPC Department . Production Cost Production PlanningTechnical Analysis before Fit Stage - Merchandising Department Incorporate in SamplingSuggest Amendments (Stamp) Department Start Thinking Innovation Tool RoomReceive Sample for Thread ConsumptionMake Operation Bulletin & Calculate Merchandising DepartmentThread ConsumptionReceive Red Tag Sample Thread OrderIn Depth Study of Style & Construction – Develop Customized Folders Tool RoomAn Engineered Way (Innovate)Prepare operation bulletin Prepare R & D Report Update SMV & Finalize Report + 42
    • + Factory IE Discuss & Collects Reports Prepare Workstation Layout M/C & Work Aid Requirement to Maintenance Line Setting According to IE Reports Procure from Maintenance Capacity Check Analysis & Feedback R & D Analysis & Feedback IE Department Production Studies to Increase Efficiency Production Studies to Increase Efficiency Production Studies to Increase Efficiency Achieve TargetsIndustrial engineering department working is divided floor wise. All the floors of the 105,106 haveindividual IE person sitting on the each floors. Working of the IE department is to follow up the OB(operational bulletin) and setting up of the line according to the OB. IE department creates the OBwith the use of the GSD (general sewing data). 43
    • MACHINE MAINTENANCEApart from having quality system and the best practices, ‘machine maintenance’ is also a veryimportant area to get ‘quality’ products. Unacceptable quality of products often results from ill-maintained machine. Breakdown and preventive maintenance is primarily aimed toward reduceddowntime and increase life respectively proper machine maintenance is also necessary to avoidcausalities at the floor. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE includes:  Care of the fitting  Machine configuration charts  Adjusting settings  Needle movement chart  Oil changing  Laser stock  Out ward/inward reports  Needle log cardsThe fabric used the percentage of needle time, the speed of machine and operator handling are thefactors, which determine how often the machine requires cleanings. On the floor, the maintenanceshop has a maintenance card for each machine, listing the data a mechanic serviced the machine,who serviced it, what was done to it and why. A series of similar repairs occurring sooner thannormal would signal maintenance that something is radically wrong with the machine or that themachine is being misused by the operator and the matter is checked out immediately. The generalprocedure for preventive maintenance of sewing machines involves the following steps:  Remove the face plate and clean it.  Remove the needle plate clean the feed dog.  Remove the belt guard and clean it.  Adjust the V- Belt tension.  Tight the (Z) stand and thread stand.  Check the oil lubricating pipe, if any damage replaces it.  Check all the timings and adjust it.Control panel cleaning:  Clean the PC Board with soft brush. Do not clean with blow air or use suction device.  Clean the synchronizer properly.  Keep the sewing table clean.  Do not allow anyone to put the sticker on the table. The maintenance schedule is carried out floor wise. Every production floor is provided with a team of two mechanics, one assistance and one helper, which take care of the day to day maintenance, break downs and settings of the machine. Whenever there is a breakdown of the machine on the floor it is immediately shifted to the maintenance department and the same is replaced with new machine from the stock so that production is not disrupted. Oil checking is done on weekly basis and changing of the oil and servicing of the machines is done every three months. 44
    • A workshop in this department caters to the need of new making new folders, guides and modifying other attachments as developed by the R & D department for better production. It is also the ‘operation theatre’ for the machines. Machine maintenance also carries the purchase and receiving activities. Its purchase action has track of every inventory including a needle present in the factory stock and procures new inventory whenever needed. Stock register is maintained with discipline. Total Number of Machines in the OrganizationS.N M/C TYPES C. 105/ 105/ 105/ 105/ 20 20 20 66 M/5/ M7/1 TOTA O M G F S T 0 1 4 0 4 8 L 1 S/N REGULAR 1 217 250 176 169 65 14 23 1 688 89 2029 1 2 2 S/N NEEDLE FEED 13 17 98 38 28 20 40 25 0 68 16 363 3 S/N T AND B FEED 18 3 1 1 8 0 0 0 67 1 99 4 S/N U.B.T 22 95 98 49 13 10 75 40 0 388 23 908 5 5 S/N EDGE CUTTER 9 21 18 8 38 10 27 25 0 16 3 175 6 D/N LOCK STITCH 10 58 78 13 55 22 4 18 0 7 1 266 7 D/N CHAIN STITCH 2 1 9 2 0 0 1 7 0 29 2 53 8 OVERLOCK 16 36 49 17 94 23 52 36 0 290 54 667 9 BUTTON STITCH 14 5 6 2 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 3410 BUTTON HOLE 11 5 4 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 2611 BARTACKING 15 6 8 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 3512 EYELET 5 3 4 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1513 PNUEMATIC SNAP 0 7 2 7 0 1 2 2 0 0 0 21 BUTTON14 THREAD 21 0 0 0 3 0 1 2 0 26 26 79 TRIMMING15 OTHER+SPECIALISE 134 24 32 27 23 7 17 9 0 129 81 483 D TOTAL 291 498 657 344 431 25 37 39 1 1709 296 5253 8 1 7The types feed used in the machine:  Top feed  Puller feed  Drop feed  Compound feed  Variable feed  Reverse feed  Differential feed 45
    • The types of beds available:  Flat bed  Post bed  Cylinder bed  Feed of the armThe attachments used:  T-guide  Edge foot  Sewing guide  Zipper foot  Magnetic guide  Imitation folder  Three corner guide  Plait folder  Bearing elastic holder  Plait hammer  Right tape stands  Plait binder  Top tape stands  Top stitch attachment  Bottom tape stands  Cuff setter  Right compensating pressure foot  Waist band folder  Left compensating pressure foot  Piping binder  Right/left slim compensating foot  Edge binder  Double compensating pressure  Pin tuck attachment foot  Button hole/button stitch spacing  Quilting foot gauge  Teflon foot 46
    • CAD DEPARTMENTCAD stands for Computer Aided Design. It is one of the most important departments ofexport house. This department acts as a “Service Department” for merchandising, samplingand cutting department. The working of these three department is highly depends uponCAD department. Without CAD it is very difficult for these departments to move ahead.CAD system involves any type of design activities which use of computer to develop analyseor modify any engineering or garment design.PROCESS FLOW OF CAD PATTERN MAKING DIGITIZING STYLE/PATTERN DESCRIPTION ALTERATION OR GRADING CUT ORDER PLANNING COSTING AND FABRIC ORDER MARKER MAKING PRINTING FOR CUTTING 47
    • Basic software which is used for computer aided designing in Modelama is as follows: 1. Modaris 2. Diamino 3. Optiplan 1. Modaris This software performs the following functions:  Pattern making  Pattern modification  Pattern digitizing  Pattern grading With the help of this software we can export and import pattern to another place in soft copy. 2. Diamino This software is used for marker making. It can be manual or automatic. Efficiency of marker as decided as per the garment in this seam allowances are also added. Functions per formed by this software are as follows:  All markers making with minimum wastage.  Solution of problems created due to centre selvedge, length variation and side selvedge with best efficiency. 3. Optiplan This software is used when buyer send uneven ratio. Functions performed by optiplan are:  All the cutting planning of size ratio is done by the software.Main equipment used in CAD:  Pattern pieces  Digitizer  Software  Plotter: o FLY PEN o ALYS-30 48
    • REQUIREMENT OF CADFor Merchandising Department:  Costing- CAD gives the costing to merchandising dept. means it gives the average fabric consumed per garment. It is calculating by placing the pattern pieces of two medium size garments in the fabric. Costing depends upon type of fabric and buyer requirement.  Fabric order booking- After calculating the average fabric consumed per garment, calculation for the total fabric required is done accordingly. To the no. of garments to be manufactured. After this calculation order is placed.  Tracing pattern for buyer- CAD provides a tracing paper to merchandising dept. which is further delivered to the buyer.For sampling department:  Pattern digitizing- In CAD, the pattern pieces are digitizing and a record of these pattern is maintained for further correspondence.  Alterations- If any alteration is required in the sample, according to the buyer, then it is done in CAD.  Grading- In CAD, different sizes such as XS, S, L and XL are made from medium size by increasing or decreasing the garment dimension in equal proportion to make a sampling “size-set”.For cutting department:  Marker- An efficient cutting marker is provided to the cutting department by the CAD for production.APPLICATION OF CAD:  Offered significant reduction in lead times.  Reduction in labour costs for generating new styles & modifying existing ones.  Achieving significant reductions in fabric utilization.  Blocks images stored in computer.  Grading technique replaced by expert system. The grading technique, developed by grades over many years in the form of tables, has been entered in to the computer for use in a primitive expert system, so that grading is now auto matched.  Percentage wasted computed and displayed for each layout.  Fabric pattern constraints incorporate in the program.  Cutters replaced by CAD/CAM.  Lay markers deskilled.  Wages reduced. 49
    •  As the operator starts making the marker he/she can be supplied with a computed ratio of cloth wasted.MARKER MAKINGA marker is a diagram of precise arrangement of pattern pieces for the sizes of specific stylethat are to be cut from a single spread.Marker making is a process of developing a jigsaw diagram which is superimposed on thetop of a ground of a superimposed plies as a guide for cutting these plies.It determines the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specific style fabric anddistribution sizes.Cut order planning determines:  How many markers are needed?  How many of each size should be in each marker and the number of plies that will be cut from each marker?EFFICIENCY OF MARKER PLANNINGThe marker plan measures the efficiency by the following formula: Efficiency = Area of the pattern pieces * 100/Total areaSince the reduction in fabric cost is an important factor so the company should try anddiscover the area for improvement in marker efficiency.WAYS TO MAKE MARKER MOST EFFICIENT  PATTERN ENGINEERING An examination of the seams location to ensure the possible placement of pattern in marker  HEMS ALTERATION ALLOWANCES Means dividing a large panel awkwardly shaped pattern into two pieces to better accommodate in the marker  THE SELECTION OF FABRIC WIDTH The best width depends among other factor on the cost of various fabric width/square meter, the typical number of sizes in a marker, the potential pattern engineering changes at various width and the marker efficiency achieve. 50
    • WORK FLOW OF SPREADING AND CUTTING SPREADING LAYERING CUTTING MANUAL/AUTOMATIC TICKETING FUSING CHECKING BUNDLING TRANSFER TO PRODUCTION 51
    • SPREADINGSpreading is the process of smooth layering of fabrics in superimposed layers of specifiedlength. After fabric is received it is issued to spreading department for further processing.Spreading is done with the type of fabric, print of fabric and marker issued by the CAD dept.PROCESS FLOW OF SPREADING: FABRIC IS LOADED ON SPREADING MACHINE PERFORATRED PAPER IS SPREAD ON SPREADING TABLE VACCUME IS TURN -ON IN THE SPREADING TABLE AUTOMATIC/MANUAL SPREADING IS DONE PROPER TENTION IS MAINTAINED WHILE WHEN FINISHED, VACCUME IS TURNED OFF MARKER IS SPREAD OVER IT AND PASTED BY TAPE AIR FLOW IS GIVEN FROM BOTTOM TRANSFERRED TO THE CUTTING TABLE 52
    • Points to be considered during spreading process:  Ply alignment – Ply alignment can be straight edge or centred edge.  Ply tension – Tight spread and slack spread should avoid during the spreading process otherwise pattern can undersized or oversized respectively. Tight edge spread can be removing by putting notches or cutting the tight edge.  Grain alignment – It should always consider during spreading process.  Static charge – In spreading it refers to the electric charge generate during spreading.  Surface direction – It means the pile direction or the design direction of the fabric which is to be spread. It is very important factor in various types of spreading.  Damage placement – Efficiency measured by economy with which damages are removed. Fabric like lycra, spandex, wool blends are relaxed for 10 to 12 hrs, prior to spreading. 53
    • CUTTINGCutting means to separate out different garment process from the lay of fabric with the helpof cutting template and devices. It is done to get required shape in different no. or as awhole to make a complete product. The first stage in the manufacture of garments is thecutting of material into the necessary pattern shapes. These patterns are then joined toform a garment when large amount of garment style has to be cut, a lay is created, whichconsist of many plies of fabric spread one above the other. Now all the pattern pieces for allsizes are cut from this lay. The main objective of the cutting dept. is the cutting of garmentparts accurately and economically and in sufficient value to keep the sewing room suppliedwith work.Objectives:  To maintain the quality of the cut components.  To cut the raw material in required shape and quality.  Availability of cut components on time.Types of cutting devices:  5 fusing machine  16 straight knife  6 edge cutters  2 computer aided machines  4 spreader  1 round knifeBASIC WORK FLOWCutting department receives the order for cutting a garment style from the productionmanager. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a givenamount of styles, from the spreads. It comes in form of a package file that carries thefollowing details: 1. Sampling average, weight of garment (base fabric consumption only) and other trims averages. 2. Measurement sheet. 3. Design worksheet of the garment. 4. Purchase order. 5. Fabric requisition sheet. 6. CAD mini marker. 7. Marker planning length of lay etc. size ratio and colours in which the patterns are to be cut. 54
    • Along with this an approved sample and patterns of all sizes or the marker are also sent. Thecutting department checks the fabric status in the store and acquires it whenever theproduction manager sends the cut order. Firstly 2-3 samples are cut from the pattern(medium size) send by the CAD room to check for any amendments in pattern. Theseactivities are coordinate by the R&D dept. When the patterns are amended the productionmanager gets a size set cut and these pieces are stitches and QC on the floor locates anydiscrepancies related to pattern in the stitched and the QC on the floor locates anydiscrepancies related to pattern in the stitched garments. Report with comments foralternation in the patterns is sent if needed and the pattern master allocated to that stylecorrects the patterns accordingly. The marker planning is also done afresh to incorporatethe changes. Only when the production manager is sure of the waist pattern, he will issuethe job order for bulk cutting.All the fabric is not cut at one go. Rather it is cut as and when required by the productiondepartment against the job order. The cutting department calculates the fabric quantityrequired the no. of pieces mentioned in job card using the average given by the CAD dept.about 5% is cut more than required to make up for defective pieces or wastage forproduction.CUTTING AVERAGEThe cutting department duties are not limited to mare cutting of the fabric. It is responsiblefor keeping control over the total consumption (grams) of fabric per garment piece cut thisconsumption is more specifically defined in terms of cutting average. During markerplanning, the CAD rule sends theoretical consumption of fabric as per its marker, which iscalculated as following: Cutting average = Area of one piece in the marker (cm square) * GSM of the fabric 10,000Where Area of one piece = length of the fabric Total no. of pieces in the markerCutting average is used to determine the cost of raw material that is fabric for eachgarment. Hence it is very important that it is maintained during the bulk cutting also. Thecutting manager finds out his actual cutting average before the bulk cutting and tries tokeep it as close as possible to the average predicted by the CAD. 55
    • CUTTING SUB DEPARTMENTS 1. Layering and spreading 4. Fusing area 2. Cutting 5. QA department 3. Bundling and ticketingTICKETINGOnce the pattern pieces are cut by the cutting machine, they are then ticketed. Cutcomponents are grouped together as per their sizes and are taken to the checking table.Here the cut components are inspected for any error. It is very important to take care thatpieces cut from two different bolts of fabric are not mixed up. This is because within a lotthere bolt to bolt variation in colour shade.FUSINGFusing is also carried out in the cutting room itself. The parts to be fused are separated fromthe bundle. The fusing material (like interlining) is cut according to the size of thecomponents to be fused. The component along with the cut fusing material are keptbetween to paper sheets and the pack is passed through the fusing machine by means oftemperature and pressure fusing takes place at particular speed and for a particular time.The pack comes out at the other end on conveyors and the pieces are removed and re-bundled.Parameters affecting the fusing process:  Pressure- Pressure applied to the fabric should be adequate so that even contact between the interlining and outer cloth takes place and uniform heat is supplied to the adhesive. Pressure should be adequate for the correct penetration of resin among the fibres of fabric.  Temperature-It is another important parameter. It depends upon the type of resin used in fusing process. It should be high enough to change the dry thermoplastic resin into a molten state so that it can flow properly between the fabrics. If temperature is low it gives proper flow of resin and if it is high it gives too much flow of resin and the resin will come out.  Time- Time should also be adequate along with temperature and pressure. It should be long enough so that melting and penetration of resin among the fibres of fabric can takes place.Types of fusing used in fusing:  Woven fusing  Non-woven fusing  Knitted fusing 56
    • CHECKINGThe ticked panels are now sending to the checking area for inspection of every individualpiece for any objectionable faults. Panels having faults like wrong grain line, in appropriatesize, incorrect shape and any fabric defects like holes, cuts, shade variation etc. that are notwithin the acceptable quality parameters, are removed from the cut lay. A cuttingcomponent checking report is filled for the total quantity cut, checked and approved. Therejected pieces are sent back and equal no. of fresh panels are separately cut, replaced inthe set and ticketed with the same no. as the rejected ones. Other mend able faults aremarked with an alteration sticker and passed on. These will be spotted out during garmentfinishing or washing.BUNDLINGThe checked components of one style and in one size are now clubbed and bundled usingties. The size of bundle depends upon the requirements of the production plant. Eachbundle will contain pieces of same style and same size only. These pieces are stored in racksmade beneath the cutting table. The cutting department issues the amount required by theproduction dept. as and when ask for. The cut component may be issued in instalment or allat once as the need of the production dept. against the job order. 57
    • PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROLPPC stands for Production Planning and Control. PPC controls the planning and give theguidance from fabric to shipment. The main of PPC is to create the deadlines for eachprocess and coordinate with various departments. The PPC department receive the requiredinformation such as style no./item description, fabric type and projected quantity from thePD team. PPC team will send GSS along with the necessary details to the dept. or the R & Dreport to be made. Based on the R & D report the construction feasibility and cost analysisof the style will be done by the PPC department. The PPC dept. prepares a monthly capacitybudget for each production unit.ROLE OF PPC 1. Feasibility study- Based upon a. Type of machine b. No. of machine c. No. of process involved d. Fabric type e. Order quantity 2. Capacity study- Based upon a. Availability study b. Planned hours c. Machinery capacity d. Expect absenteeism and turn over e. Planned efficiency 3. Budget planning- Based upon a. Committed delivery date b. Order quantity 4. Line planning- Based upon a. SMV of the style b. Efficiency of the operator c. Efficiency of the line d. No. of lines in the unit 5. Unit efficiency– Based upon a. No. of lines b. Lines efficiency c. Production dates 58
    • 6. Create deadlines- Create deadline for each process. 7. Periodic orders- a. Order quantity b. Style and fabric type c. No. of process involved d. Delivery date 8. Creating good relationship- Building the good relationships among the departments for smooth process flow. 9. Receiving reports- Daily status report will be sent to the PPC by all dept. from the formats which are created by PPC.REPORTS GENERATED UNDER PPC DEPARTMENT I. On time shipment report- a. Cut to ship b. Order to ship II. Efficiency report III. Factory cost report IV. PCD report V. Fabric performance report 59
    • SEWING DEPARTMENTThe basic aim of an export house is to deliver value satisfaction of the customer at the profitlevel.Production is an act of producing a product i.e., quantity obtained by multiplying twoquantities together by making use of available resources.To deliver quality with the quantity the ratio between input resources or raw material &output goods and services is known as productivity are reciprocally related to each other.Therefore an increase in production leads to fall in the cost per unit & rise in profit.The production department is spread in two floors, Ground floor and the First Floor; boththe floors are specialized for their quality product. Ground Floor for basic garments and FirstFloor is for jackets, blazers or other Heavy garments. Both floors have a common cuttingdept. so all the sizes of bundles are received from there only.Production floor follows Assembly Line system. Following are steps to start a productionline:  To study the production file.  To study operation bulletin and set line accordingly.  Manpower – tailors and helpers.  Load and feeding lines.  To arrange buffer or work-in-progress.  Manufacturing.  To make daily production and to achieve targets accordingly.  To understand bottlenecks stage of production.Working steps of production department:  Shrinkage production pattern is issued to production floor from CAD dept.  Ready patterns are made as per the requirement of production room.  Cutting receives from cutting dept.  Cross checking of cut panels with patterns.  Bundling of cut panels is done.  Operation wise feeding of cut panel into the line.  Inline checkpoints.  Output of line.  Final checkpoints.  Auditing of checked pieces. 60
    • Some important production points:  Ratio between worker and machinery  Bottleneck area to be considered  In most of machine, guide is there  They are using cartons to moving bundles  They generate report for broken needle  Complete assembly is divided in 6 parts, in end of every part there was a record sheet, which shows early target input, actual input, target output and actual output. According to this they can find out bottleneck area.PRODUCTION CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN TWO WAYS A. UNIT PRODUCTION SYSTEM B. ASSEMBLY LINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM A. UNIT PRODUCTION SYSTEM In this system workflow in line one operator make one complete garment. It is very time consuming and increase the manufacturing cost of a garment so it is not commonly used. B. ASSEMBLY LINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM In this production system a garment is being stitched by no. of workers, therefore one part is stitched by one worker and then passed on to other, due to which line gets setup. In the end assembly of all the parts is done, in modern industries conveyor belts are used as a medium of transportation of garment part from one worker to another. This system is very commonly used in industry as it reduces the manufacturing cost increases the production.SMART MRT SYSTEM Smart MRT production system is modular chain system. A Smart MRT system is used for assembly line system. Smart MRT saves the helper work and timing and this saving totally for money. This is an electronic device and start by a PC system with software of smart MRT. This machine cost is 1,00,00,000 crore. We includes in this machine operation breakdown (station by station), 52 stations are there in this machine. Operations input and output and operator log on and log off timing save the memory of MRT piece. 61
    • WASHINGGarments pass through various handling processes, which may render them dirty and stain,thereby reducing their aesthetic appeal. To restore this aesthetic value, they are subjectedto cleansing process like washing and dry cleaning (PERC). Garments are sent for washing bythe production department as per the buyer’s requirement. Normally the fabrics are notasked to go for wash by the buyer. Whether the fabric department may internally sent it anumber of other reasons.  To control uneven shrinkage  To even out colour shade  To remove bowing variations  To lighten colour shade  To remove printing smell  To improve hand  To execute a dyeing programTYPES OF WASHING  Normal Wash  Acid Wash  Garment Wash  Monkey Wash  Enzyme Wash  Emery Balls Wash  Stone Wash  Silicon Balls Wash  Softener  Sand Wash  BleachPERCPERC is commonly known as DRY CLEANING. Every garment is not subjected the PERC orDRY CLEANING process. Only those garments, which have stubborn like that of oil and rust,undergo this process. Mostly white or light colour garment that more vulnerable to stainingare dry cleaned. PERC gives whiteness as well as shiny appearance also.The solvent for stain removal used in PERC machine is per Chloroethane, which is speciallyimported for stain for dry cleaning process. The 32 kg capacity machine stores about 300 ltrof PERC oil in its reservoir. A no. of other chemicals like softener, optical brightening agent(blancol CF, 5 min, 55 degree c, 3-5 ml/kg), hard stain (Zn) removers (Perclean P, 30 min),anti-wrinkle agents (polysal RM), hard water stains remover(di-methyl formaldehyde) etc.are also added. The process is carried out in presence of steam air pressure and at a specifictemperature normally 50-60 degree centigrade. The duration of the process depends uponthe type of garments, usually being about 20-30 min. when the machine is started, 2-3 minare given for the oil to be purified through a distillation tank. Like this the oil is made readyto the reuse for a no. of dry cleaning cycle. After every process the machine undergo self- 62
    • cleaning. About 2 % of PERC oil is wastage for one full lot in each cycle and the oil is changedwhen it became enough dirty or coloured.METHODS OF DRYINGThe choice for the method of drying depends upon the dimensional stability of the fabric aspredicted by the fabric sourcing dept. accordingly there can be following methods:  Tumble drying-refers to the drying in a machine called Tumbler.  Drip-drying-refers to drying the garments by directly hanging them after washing i.e. without hydro. For this kind of drying the load is removing from the washer just before the water begins to drain for the final spin cycle. The garments are removing soaking wet and drip dried.  Line drying-here, the garments after washing undergo for hydro and then hang for drying.  Flat drying-refers to drying the garment by laying it flat on a surface. It is usually carried out for highly unstable fabric material.WASHING MACHINERY  Horizontal washing machine- This machine is being used for washing garments and fabric rolls. Normal wash, hard wash, enzyme wash, softener wash, bleaching for dye, stripping are done in this machine. Dyeing of greige fabric also takes place. The small capacity horizontal washing machine is used for sampling department.  Front loading washing machine- This machine is used for washing only. All types of wash like Normal wash, hard wash, enzyme wash, softener wash can be done in this too. Fabric lots are not washed in this machine because the fabric lots get entangled in front loading machine.  Hydro- The garments are wrung in these machines to remove excess water after washing. The garments are spun in drums which rotate at high speed squeezing the water out of them. This process takes about 3min.  Tumble dryer- This machine evaporates out all the left over water from the garments making them completely dry. Tumbling is carried out for about half an hour depending upon the fabric quality and a temperature of about 60 C which subsequently drops to 35-40 C as the steam is exhausted.  PERC machine- This machine is used for dry cleaning process. It uses steam air pressure, Per Chloro Ethane solution and a specified temperature for different types of fabric/garments. All the process including washing, drain, hydro, drying and cooling occur in the same machine. 63
    • FINISHINGAfter assembly, the garments now come for finishing- a key stage of garment manufacturingprocess. Finishing is done to prepare the final garment according to the quality standards ofthe buyer before packing it for shipment.PROCESS FLOW OF FINISHING GARMENT COMES FROM PRODUCTION WASHING THREAD CUTTING INITIAL CHECKING AND SPOTTING ALTERATION REIRONING FINAL CHECKING PRESENTATION/FINAL IRONING MEASUREMENT SENT FOR PACKING 64
    • BASIC WORK FLOW  Washing, PERC- According to the buyer’s demand or as per garment buyer specifies recipes and the method to be employed. The pieces are counted and sent with the wash or PERC program.  Thread trimming- Pieces received from the washing department or from the assembly line now come for thread trimming where trails of thread are cut off from the seams, buttons etc. manually with the help of trimming scissor.  Spotting- During the assembly, the garment may acquire stains and other objectionable marks which must be removed. This is done either in washing department or they are locally ‘spotted off’. Objectionable stains like that of chalk are spotted by means of spotting guns containing mild solvent (e.g. water, benzene etc.). Harder and stubborn stains (like that of tobacco, rust, dye, kerosene etc.) are sent to the spotting room where they are cleansed under the spotting machine in a protective environment. If the spots still don’t go then they are sent for PERC or dry cleaning.  General checking- Now the garment comes for general checking relating to overall stitching. Here, first the general visual appearance is studied which includes shape of the garments; balancing of the parts, colour variations etc. Then any seaming defects are recognized for example unmade seams, missed stitches etc. As per requirement the checked pieces are send for mending to assembly line. The production manager gives a TOP sample to the checkers as a visual aid.  Final thread cutting- Minute threads like those of labels, bar tack etc. are trimmed off to give the neat look. Thread loosely sticking to the garments is also shed off, both in and out by jerking the garment before it goes for pressing.  Pressing- Pressing in general is shaping the assembled material with pressure, with/without heat and/or moisture, for further processing. In case of knits, this is important but not as significant as in the case of woven because of their property of excellent recovery and fit. Then the ironing of the garments takes place on the steam boards with steam ironing machine. The patterns of various sizes of components are marked on the pressing table. The component is placed on these pressing patterns of the size of the garments and then pressed. This is done so that if there are any measurement discrepancies, they can be set or removed by stretching or contracting while steam pressing the knits. This ensures one final and equal look within one size of the garment.  Measurement and final checking- This is the final and most stringent done for garment measurement, appearance, labels, trims etc. to study the final look and shape of the product produced. Measurements are done according to the specification sheets and recordings are made for any variations in the measurement chart. This gives an overall idea about the quality of the garment being produced. Finally, all the good garments are counted recorded and sent to the packing tables. 65
    • PACKAGINGPacking is the last stage where the finished garments are primed, organized, geared up forthe shipment to the buyer, the entire process from the way a garment will be folded to thefinal labelling of the cartons is dictated by the buyer’s specifications. Buyers demand this sos to achieve consistency in the packages, and also to provide a visual value to the product atretail label within their vendor base. These instructions are standardized for a particulartype of garment and sent to the merchandiser in form of a packing manual. Themerchandiser forwards it to the packing in-charge along with a TOP (Top of Production)sample i.e., packed with the packing dimensions approved by the buyer. This is kept as avisual reference for the packers.PROCESS FLOW OF PACKAGING GARMENTS COMES FROM INSPECTION IT IS THEN FOLDED 1 OR 2 ARE PACKED TOGETHER ALL PIECES PUT IN TO CARTONS DETAILS ARE PASTED ON CARTON CARTON IS SEALED LOADED INTO TRUCKS SENT FOR SHIPMENT 66
    • BASIC WORK FLOWAs the garments are received from the finishing they are first sent to the packing table forcounting. This counting is done to maintain a record of how much goods have been receivedin the packing department and how much already packed. Although packing and shipmentare not a part of the production department yet they affect the quality of the goods to aconsiderable extent.Packing is done in two stages: 1. Poly Bag packing a. Tacking b. Folding 2. Carton packingPACKING NORMSPackages are sent under licensing rules for shipment. The rules are also specified by theindividual buyer and are universal for their respective order. Some of such norms include: 1. All garments packed in individual poly bags. 2. Poly bag sticker on poly bags, which may be printed by the factory 3. Order must be completed (packed, ready for shipment) prior to bulk orders. 4. Order must be inspected and audited by the factory 100%. 5. Order must be of first quality, no repair or ungraded garments should be in license shipments. 6. Order must be shipped 100% complete otherwise notified. 7. The packed goods are now ready to be passed through. 67
    • PROJECT WORKMONITORING OF LOST TIME &OPERATOR PERFORMANCE 68
    • AIM OF THE PROJECTThe aim of the project was to analyze the operations of sewing line and finding out thereason of lost time. Also to improve the operators performance.WORK METHODOLOGYAfter getting the objective, our first focus was to analyze the time being taken by eachoperator for his/her operation. We spent 9 days for time study & observation for this in theproduction line.OBSERVATIONSBefore starting the project, the operation break down of the garment of the particular stylewas observed and time study as well as capacity study was taken. The operation break downwas as follows:S. No. Operation Operation Description SMV 1 Collar Mark collar panels for run stitch 0.32 2 Run stitch collar with inserting thread 0.68 3 Trim, turn and press collar 0.52 4 Topstitch on collar 0.52 5 Crease and mark collar band for attach 0.41 6 Attach collar with collar band 0.84 7 Trim, turn, press and mark collar for attach 0.62 8 Front Attach buttonhole placket 0.44 9 Sew button placket 0.4 10 Back Attach back yoke with back panel 0.34 11 Mark and attach label on back yoke 0.28 12 Turn and topstitch on back yoke 0.3 13 Sleeve Mark and cut V notch for placket attach 0.68 14 Attach inner sleeve placket 0.42 15 Attach outer sleeve placket 0.42 16 Tack sleeve placket at button and finish placket 1.29 box 16 A Tack sleeve placket at bottom and finish placket 1.29 69
    • box 17 Mark and sew pleats on sleeve opening 0.3 18 Cuff Sew hem on upper cuff panel 0.4 19 Mark and run stitch cuff by inserting thread 0.74 20 Trim, turn and press cuff for attach 0.68 21 Assembly Join shoulder 0.6 22 Topstitch on shoulder 0.42 23 Mark and attach collar at neckline 0.78 24 Close collar and edge stitch collar all around 1.2 26 attach sleeve at armhole 1.31 27 Top stitch on armhole 1.1 27 A Top Stitch and tack at Bottom 1.1 28 Sew side seam .30 29 attach cuff at sleeve opening 0.78 30 topstitch at cuff 0.66 31 sew bottom hem 0.68The below graphs are showing the Operators performance%. After 9 days of observation weanalyzed the reason for time wastage. After putting attention on operator the averageperformance of operator increased from 23.98% to 26%.The Date wise Graph is shown below.Date: 11/7/2011 70
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    • PROJECT OUTCOME:During the project we observed that initially most of the times were going waste in extra otheractivities like drinking water etc.It was observed the operators were not flexible to work in the new line setup that’s why theirperformance was not up to the mark.With the Help of this project the IE department of the Modelama exports put some pressure on theoperator not to waste the time on other activities and increased the average performance ofOperator from 23.9 to 26%. 75