Published on

microscope is an amazing invention that has changed the way we see and persive thing it has open the world of wonder the amazing microorganism

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Construction of Simple microscope(Diagram) Condenser lens system Objective lens system Ocular lens system Compound microscope X-ray microscope Ultraviolet microscope Florescence microscope Electron microscope Scanning tunneling microscope Transmission electron microscope
  2. 2. Unknown inventor. Stone glass Two Dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and son Hans Janssen. microscope and the telescope – English physicist, Robert Hooke looked at cork through a microscope lens and noticed some "pores" or "cells" in it. – Anton van Leeuwenhoek built a simple microscope with only one lens to examine – Ernst Abbe, then research director of the Zeiss Optical Works, mathematical formula called the "Abbe Sine Condition".=maximum resolution in microscopes possible.
  3. 3. Richard Zsigmondy developed the ultra microscope that could study objects below the wavelength of light. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1925. Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron microscope for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invented the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level. Binnig and Rohrer won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. don’t get disappointed being Indian we were the sponsor for all this invention the wealth used during industrial revolution in European nation was looted from India and all other common wealth nation even though we don’t have noble laureates but we were the investor
  4. 4. Theoretically a microscope is an array of two lenses. Objective lens Tube lens Eyepiece lens Focal plane Image plane Classic compound microscope Image plane dmin = 1.22 x wavelength / N.A. objective + N.A. condenser Where Dmin=smallest separating two small object (resolution power) N.A =numerical aperture Which in simple word means light gathering capacity of lens
  5. 5. Condenser lens system Objective lens system Ocular lens system
  6. 6. • Ultra violet light employed instead of short wave length • Fused Quartz lens used instead of glass lens • Image cannot be observed but can be photographed • Used for Qualitative as well as determination of cellular components
  7. 7. X-rays are used instead of visible light They are more accurate and shorter than ultraviolet rays High penetration power Analysis of 3d structure Molecules can be brought to crystalline state The had revealed the structure lysozymes ,Haemoglobin,DNA
  8. 8. • Fluorescence dyes are used to detect the object and their chemical nature • Different fluorescent dyes emit different wavelength when exposed to ultraviolet rays • Different dyes used to stain different object
  9. 9. A beam of electrons, instead of light, is used with an electron microscope. Electron microscopes can magnify greater because the wavelengths of electrons are much smaller than those of visible light = 0.005nm as opposed to 500nm (one hundred thousand times smaller) The best compound light microscopes can magnify 2000x, electron microscopes can magnify up to 100,000x They are of2 types: TEM & SEM
  10. 10. Scanning Electron Microscopes (or SEM), are electron illuminated. The image is seen in 3D. They have high magnification and high resolution. The specimen is coated in gold and the electrons bounce off to give you an exterior view of the specimen. The pictures are in black and white. Magnification: 1000-10,000x and Depth of Field very high. Pigeon blood cellCockroach antenna
  11. 11. Transmission Electron Microscopes (or TEM) are also electron illuminated. This gives a 2D view. Thin slices of specimen are obtained. The electron beams pass through this. It has a high magnification and a high resolution Electrons pass directly through the specimen. Magnification: 10,000- 100,000x Resolving power: 2.5 nm. mitochondrion bacillus bacteria dividing
  12. 12. Difference between SEM & TEM