Amazing facts of shri krishna

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Amazing facts of shri krishna

  1. 1. AMAZING FACTS OF SHRI KRISHNAs DWARAKAShri Krishnas Dwarka submerged in 1443 BCFor thousands of years, we Indians have believed in the divinity of Shri Krishna. For us he was aKarmayogi par excellence who gave us action oriented philosophy of life in the form of Bhagavad Gita.But questions have constantly haunted us as to whether Shri Krishna was a historical character or is amythical character and whether war of Mahabharata was actually fought or was it great poet Vyasa’simagination.Till recent past we did not have the wherewithal to search for and establish the truth. But modernscientific tools and techniques like computers with planetarium softwares, advancements inarchaeological and marine archaeological techniques, earth-sensing satellite photography andthermoluminescence dating methods, all have made it possible to establish the authenticity and datingof many events narrated in ancient texts like Mahabharata. Recent archaeo-astronomical studies, resultsof marine-archaeological explorations and overwhelming archaeological evidence have established thehistoricity and dating of many events narrated in the epic Mahabharata. These have led to theconclusion that Mahabharata War was actually fought in 1478 BC and Shri Krishna’s Dwarka City gotsubmerged under the sea in 1443 BC.Astronomical Evidence - In the Mahabharata references to sequential solar and lunar eclipses as alsoreferences to some celestial observations have been made. Dr. R.N.Iyengar, the great scientist of IndianInstitute of Science, Bangalore examined relevant references and searched for the compatible dates bymaking use of planetarium software (PVIS and EZC). He concluded that most of these references wereinternally consistent and that the eclipses and celestial observations of Mahabharata belong to theperiod 1493 BC - 1443 BC of Indian History. (refer Indian Journal of History of Science/38.2/2003/77-115).In the Mahabharata there are references to three sequential solar eclipses and to some other planetarypositions. Reference to the first solar eclipse comes in the Sabha Parva (79.29), graphically described byVidur when Pandavas start their journey to the forest on being banished for 12 years of life in exile andone year of life incognito after they had lost everything in the game of dice. After 13 years of exile andincognito life, Pandavas came back to Hastinapur and they demanded their kingdom back butDuryodhana refused. Several efforts to prevent war failed and war became imminent. There is areference to the second solar eclipse in the Bhisma Parva (3.29), following a lunar eclipse occurringwithin the same fortnight a few days before the actual war of Mahabharata. These eclipses occurredafter 14-15 years of the first solar eclipse The epic also refers to some unfavourable planetary positionsbetween the second solar eclipse and the beginning of the war on Kartika Purnima (Bhisma Parva 3.14to 3.19). On Kartika Krishna Ashtami, Saturn was near Rohini and Mars was between Jayestha andAnuradha. Twenty two days later, on Kartika Purnima, Saturn was near Rohini, Mars was near Jayestha,a rough planet (probably uranus) was between Citra and Swati. Another white planet (possibly Jupiter)had moved from Purva-bhadra to Uttar-bhadra. Reference to the third solar eclipse comes in theMausala Parva (2.19 to 2.20) occurring in the 36th year of the Mahabharata War. This was visible from
  2. 2. the city of Dwarka which is stated to have been subsequently submerged under the sea. For theseobservations to be internally consistent, there should had been three solar eclipses within a period of 50years. The first one and the second one after a gap of 14-15 years should have been visible fromKurukshetra whereas the third solar eclipse should have been visible from Dwarka after 35 years of thesecond one.From references to these eclipses and celestial observations Dr. Iyengar prepared the list of compatibledates and concluded that these eclipses alongwith the stated planetary positions were observableduring the period 1493 BC - 1443 BC because the planetarium software shows that:(i) On 19.3.1493 BC there was solar eclipse visible from Kurukshetra.(ii) After about 15 years, on 1st June, 1478 BC, there was a solar eclipse visible from Kurukshetra whichwas preceded by a lunar eclipse during the same fortnight on 16th May 1478 BC.(iii) About 3 months later, there was Kartika Krishna Ashtami on 20.9.1478 BC when Saturn was nearRohini (in Bhar-Kritika) and Mars was between Jayestha and Anuradha.(iv) Three weeks later, on 12.10.1478 BC, there was Kartika Purnima when the war actually started. Onthat day, Saturn was still near Rohini (as it actually moved from Bhar Kritt to Rohini between 1.6.1478BC to 10.11.1478 BC). Mars was near Jayestha. Uranus, which probably is referred to as rough planet,was between Citra and Swati. Jupiter had moved from Purva-bhadra to Uttar-bhadra on 12.10.1478 BC.(v) In the 36th year after Mahabharata war in October 1478 BC, a solar eclipse could be seen fromDwarka on 7.1.1443 BC.Thus as per archaeo-astronomical calculations, Mahabharata War was fought in 1478 BC and DwarkaCity got submerged in 1443 BC. These conclusions arrived at are corroborated by marine archeologists,archeologists as well as by the historians who have analysed the genealogy charts of rulers given inPuranas.Marine Archaeological explorations around Dwarka - The on-shore and off-shore explorations carriedout in and around Dwarka during last 50 years have revealed that Dwarka was a prosperous city inancient times which was destroyed and reconstructed several times. The work of great excavators likeShri Z.D.Ansari and Shri M.S.Mate and chance discovery of temples of 9th century AD and 1st centuryAD buried near the present Dwarkadhish Temple prompted setting of a Marine Archaeology Centrejointly by National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). A projectfor marine archaeological explorations in Dwarka was initiated under the dynamic leadership of greatmarine archaeologist Dr. S.R.Rao who has the distinction of being awarded “The World Ship TrustAward” for outstanding research done in this field.Dr. S.R.Rao’s team consisted of expert under-water explorers, trained diver-photographers and
  3. 3. experienced archaeologists. The technique of geophysical survey was combined with the use of echo-sounders, mud-penetrators, sub-bottom profilers and under-water metal detectors. This team carriedout twelve marine archaeological expeditions between the year 1983 to 1992 AD and articles/antiquitiesrecovered were sent to Physical Research Laboratory for dating. By using thermoluminescence, carbondating and other modern scientific techniques, artifacts were found to be belonging to the period 15thcentury BC to 18th century BC. In his great work “The Lost City of Dwarka”, Dr. S.R.Rao has given graphicand scientific details of these discoveries and artifacts. He has concluded that:(i) The land for building the city of Dwarka had been reclaimed from the sea between 16th to 15thcentury BC and a fortified city was built on boulder packing with outer gateway to the sea and innergateway to Gomti river. This corroborates the references in the Epic Mahabharata as per which Dwarkacity was built by Shri Krishna after reclaiming the land from the sea and it was built only a few yearsbefore the Game of Dice in 1493 BC.(ii) The thermoluminescence dating of lustrous Redware Pottery items found during explorationsrevealed that these were 3520 years old i.e. around 16th-15th century BC.(iii) The most famous rectangular seal with engraved motifs of bull, unicorn and goat found in trenchUW6 in the sea bed was dated as belonging to 16th century BC. The seal corroborates the referencesmade in the ancient manuscripts that every citizen of Dwarka was required to carry a mudra(seal) as amark of identification.3 animal headed mudra, votive jar and copper bell(iv) A copper bell and a copper lota, brass-items including U-shaped objects with holes at both ends anda bronze bell, all were dated as belonging to 15th century BC. Stone anchors with double holes andtriangular prismatic stone anchors recovered from under the sea were similar to the ones found inLothal excavations belonging to 23rd century BC.(v) A votive jar with seven characters inscribed was found. Reading based on Semitic-Indus-Phoneticvalue revealed that script is old Indo-Aryan and similar to the other Indus seal inscriptions. The dateassigned to this votive jar and inscriptions is 15th-14th century BC.(vi) Three iron nails and a stake, four potsherds and one small bottle of iron were dated 16th-15thcentury BC indicating limited use of iron.Thus, conclusions arrived at after carrying out these under-water archaeological explorations supportand validate the dates arrived at through astronomical calculations. These also prove that thereconstructed city of Dwarka was a prosperous port town and that it was in existence for about 60-70years in the 15th century BC before being submerged under the sea in the year 1443 BC.
  4. 4. artists view based on marine archaeological reports and sumerged wallOther Archaeological excavations - Most of the cities referred to in Mahabharata e.g.Mathura,Hastinapur, Indraprastha, Kurukshetra and Dwarka were situated in the territories which are at presentknown as Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, UP, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Extensive excavations carried out in theseareas have shown that Indus Civilization flourished in these areas between 3400-1500 BC. Theexcavations carried out in Lothal in Gujarat have proved the existence of very advanced civilizationbetween 2300 BC to 1600 BC. The town was divided into the dock, the arcopolis and the industrial,commercial, residential sectors. Artifacts recovered include gold jewellery and copper utensils.Archaeological surveys at Kalibhangan in Rajasthan have identified the existence of a planned fortifiedcity between 2500-1700 BC. Artifacts excavated include baked bricks, semi precious stones, copper andbronze articles. Photographs taken by American earth-sensing satellite known as Landsat haveconfirmed that the river Saraswati described in the Rigveda as flowing from the “mountain to the sea”was indeed a great river before 2000 BC. Archaeological explorations on the ancient beds of theSaraswati e.g. at Kunal near Kurukshetra and at Banawali in Punjab have confirmed the existence ofhighly advanced civilisation during 3400-1500 BC. Artifacts excavated include silver jewellery and articlesmade of copper and bronze. Taken as a whole archaeological excavations establish the continuousevolution of Sindhu-Saraswati civilisation between 3400-1500 BC culminating in the Mahabharataperiod. The inhabitants of all the excavated places had similar ethnic features, spoke similar languages,followed similar religious rites which were vedic in nature, knew about horse and rice, had advancedknowledge of mathematics, made extensive use of copper and had discovered the use of iron. Thesediscoveries match with the details in the Epic as also with the belief of the historians that the use of ironwas discovered in India in 16th century BC. The War of Mahabharata acted as a watershed, putting anend to the ‘copper age’ and ushering in the ‘iron age’ in 15th century BC. Archaeological excavationsthus support the conclusion that Mahabharata War was fought in 1478 BC.Attempts have also been made to determine the year of Mahabharata War from the details available inscriptures and ancient texts which include Puranas. When events are unrecorded for quite some timeand they are passed on to the succeeding generations through Shruti and Smriti traditions, theinaccuracies and myths get mixed with reality on account of differences in the perceptions of differentindividuals. However, it is for the objective rational individual mind to find out and differentiate factsfrom fictions. Important informations, including the genealogy charts of rulers after Yudhishtira, areavailable in Srimad Bhagvatam, Matsya Puran and Vayu Purana. On the basis of such evidence, famoushistorian Lord Cunningham assigned the year 1424 BC to the War of Mahabharata. Another historianShri S.B.Roy in his work ‘Date of Mahabharata Battle’ also arrived at the same conclusion by combiningthe literary and the astronomical route.All these are very important pieces of evidence which prove that epic Mahabharata is not merely a mythbut is history and its central character Shri Krishna was a man with extra-ordinary abilities, around
  5. 5. whom legends were built over the years. The common man started having faith in the divinity of thisSupreme Hero, who for them is God incarnate.After knowing all this, there can be no doubt in the mind of any rational person that what has beentaught to us in our school history books is not all correct. As per our history books, Aryans came to Indiafrom Central Asia in their war Chariots in 15th century BC. They defeated and destroyed the natives whowere “aboriginal savages” . According to this theory both the Vedas and the Sanskrit language werebrought into India by these Aryan invaders. The most influential proponents of this theory were MaxMuller and William Jones who were linguists and they arrived at this conclusion on being struck by theaffinities between Sanskrit and European languages.This theory is not supported by any archaeological,physical or scientific evidence. When subsequently archaeological excavations at more than 1100 sitesscattered all over major parts of India proved beyond doubt the existence of flourishing Indus civilizationduring 3400 BC to 1500 BC then the proponents of Aryan invasion theory reacted by suggesting that theinvading Aryans had defeated the ‘Dravidian inhabitants’ of the Indus valley, least realising that suchtheoretical assumption would change the character of invading Aryans from bringers of civilisation todestroyers of great civilisation and culture developed by the native Indians.The four sets of evidences referred to earlier point more to the probability that nobody had come toIndia from Central Asia or from any other place. In fact, Indo-Aryan, kings and warriors had come toKurukshetra in their war Chariots from all over India to participate in the Mahabharata War and that awhole lot of people got killed in that war. The killers as well as the killed, the victors as well as thevanquished, the charioteers as well as the foot soldiers, all were Indians who had already experiencedthousands of years of prosperous and advanced civilisation. Archaeology also records a continuousindigenous evolution of vedic civilisation going back to 5000 BC at sites like Mehrgarh and Koldi. It is sadthat, so far we have not known even a fraction about our ancient civilization and cultural achievements.Detailed factual data in our ancient texts and sanskrit manuscripts is beckoning us to carry out furtherresearches. By making use of most modern scientific instruments and techniques we must discover thetrue facts about our most ancient past. If we do that, we may be able to gather supportive evidences toreassert that ours was the oldest civilisation in the world that flourished in India and that our ancestorsi.e. vedic Aryans had travelled from India to various parts of Asia and Europe to spread our knowledge,civilisation and culture. When this is recorded we would be able to hold our heads higher and will beable to take on the future with greater confidence.Bibliography1) “The lost city of Dawarka’ by Shri S.R. Rao ( Emeritus scientist and adviser, Marine Archeology), headof Team for Exploration in Dwarka by Marine Archeology Centre. Aditya Prakashan , New Delhi.2) R.N. Iyengar’s “ Internal consistency of eclipses and planetary positions in Mahabharata” (IndianJournal of History of science, 38.2(2003) 77-1153) ‘Mahabharata’ Translated into English from original Sanskrit Text by M.M. Dutt (Parimal Publications,Delhi ) – 7 Parvas (volumes)
  6. 6. 4) “Lothal – A Harappan Port Town” By S.R. Rao – Vol. I & II, Archaeological Survey of India.5) “The Saraswati flows on” by B.B. Lal, Aryan Book International, New Delhi.6) “Date of Mahabharata War” by Shri S.B. Roy, The Academic Press Gurgoan.7) “The Astronomical Code of the Rig Veda” by Subhash Kar, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd,Delhi.8) “Reference Encyclopedia (India – 2001)” By Hanna Myer, joint imprint created by Mermaid center,Bangalore & Indmark Publishing New Delhi.9) “Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization” by Navaratna S. Rajaram and David Frawlley – Voice ofIndia, New Delhi10) Ansari, Z.D. And Mate M.S. ( 1966) Excavations of Dwarka, Deccan College, Puna.11) Rao, S.R. (1988) ‘ Marine Archaeology in India’ in “ 40 years of Research – A CSIR Overview”, Delhi.12) Rao, S.R. (1991) “Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilization” Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi.Shri Krishnas Dwarka submerged in 1443 BC For thousands of years, we Indians have believed in thedivinity of Shri Krishna. For us he was a Karmayogi par excellence who gave us action orientedphilosophy of life in the form of Bhagavad Gita. But questions have constantly haunted us as to whetherShri Krishna was a historical character or is a mythical character and whether war of Mahabharata wasactually fought or was it great poet Vyasa’s imagination. Till recent past we did not have thewherewithal to search for and establish the truth. But modern scientific tools and techniques likecomputers with planetarium softwares, advancements in archaeological and marine archaeologicaltechniques, earth-sensing satellite photography and thermoluminescence dating methods, all havemade it possible to establish the authenticity and dating of many events narrated in ancient texts likeMahabharata. Recent archaeo-astronomical studies, results of marine-archaeological explorations andoverwhelming archaeological evidence have established the historicity and dating of many eventsnarrated in the epic Mahabharata. These have led to the conclusion that Mahabharata War was actuallyfought in 1478 BC and Shri Krishna’s Dwarka City got submerged under the sea in 1443 BC. AstronomicalEvidence - In the Mahabharata references to sequential solar and lunar eclipses as also references tosome celestial observations have been made. Dr. R.N.Iyengar, the great scientist of Indian Institute ofScience, Bangalore examined relevant references and searched for the compatible dates by making useof planetarium software (PVIS and EZC). He concluded that most of these references were internallyconsistent and that the eclipses and celestial observations of Mahabharata belong to the period 1493 BC- 1443 BC of Indian History. (refer Indian Journal of History of Science/38.2/2003/77-115). In theMahabharata there are references to three sequential solar eclipses and to some other planetarypositions. Reference to the first solar eclipse comes in the Sabha Parva (79.29), graphically described byVidur when Pandavas start their journey to the forest on being banished for 12 years of life in exile andone year of life incognito after they had lost everything in the game of dice. After 13 years of exile andincognito life, Pandavas came back to Hastinapur and they demanded their kingdom back butDuryodhana refused. Several efforts to prevent war failed and war became imminent. There is areference to the second solar eclipse in the Bhisma Parva (3.29), following a lunar eclipse occurringwithin the same fortnight a few days before the actual war of Mahabharata. These eclipses occurredafter 14-15 years of the first solar eclipse The epic also refers to some unfavourable planetary positionsbetween the second solar eclipse and the beginning of the war on Kartika Purnima (Bhisma Parva 3.14
  7. 7. to 3.19). On Kartika Krishna Ashtami, Saturn was near Rohini and Mars was between Jayestha andAnuradha. Twenty two days later, on Kartika Purnima, Saturn was near Rohini, Mars was near Jayestha,a rough planet (probably uranus) was between Citra and Swati. Another white planet (possibly Jupiter)had moved from Purva-bhadra to Uttar-bhadra. Reference to the third solar eclipse comes in theMausala Parva (2.19 to 2.20) occurring in the 36th year of the Mahabharata War. This was visible fromthe city of Dwarka which is stated to have been subsequently submerged under the sea. For theseobservations to be internally consistent, there should had been three solar eclipses within a period of 50years. The first one and the second one after a gap of 14-15 years should have been visible fromKurukshetra whereas the third solar eclipse should have been visible from Dwarka after 35 years of thesecond one. From references to these eclipses and celestial observations Dr. Iyengar prepared the list ofcompatible dates and concluded that these eclipses alongwith the stated planetary positions wereobservable during the period 1493 BC - 1443 BC because the planetarium software shows that: (i) On19.3.1493 BC there was solar eclipse visible from Kurukshetra. (ii) After about 15 years, on 1st June,1478 BC, there was a solar eclipse visible from Kurukshetra which was preceded by a lunar eclipse duringthe same fortnight on 16th May 1478 BC. (iii) About 3 months later, there was Kartika Krishna Ashtamion 20.9.1478 BC when Saturn was near Rohini (in Bhar-Kritika) and Mars was between Jayestha andAnuradha. (iv) Three weeks later, on 12.10.1478 BC, there was Kartika Purnima when the war actuallystarted. On that day, Saturn was still near Rohini (as it actually moved from Bhar Kritt to Rohini between1.6.1478 BC to 10.11.1478 BC). Mars was near Jayestha. Uranus, which probably is referred to as roughplanet, was between Citra and Swati. Jupiter had moved from Purva-bhadra to Uttar-bhadra on12.10.1478 BC. (v) In the 36th year after Mahabharata war in October 1478 BC, a solar eclipse could beseen from Dwarka on 7.1.1443 BC. Thus as per archaeo-astronomical calculations, Mahabharata Warwas fought in 1478 BC and Dwarka City got submerged in 1443 BC. These conclusions arrived at arecorroborated by marine archeologists, archeologists as well as by the historians who have analysed thegenealogy charts of rulers given in Puranas. Marine Archaeological explorations around Dwarka - Theon-shore and off-shore explorations carried out in and around Dwarka during last 50 years haverevealed that Dwarka was a prosperous city in ancient times which was destroyed and reconstructedseveral times. The work of great excavators like Shri Z.D.Ansari and Shri M.S.Mate and chance discoveryof temples of 9th century AD and 1st century AD buried near the present Dwarkadhish Templeprompted setting of a Marine Archaeology Centre jointly by National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). A project for marine archaeological explorations in Dwarka wasinitiated under the dynamic leadership of great marine archaeologist Dr. S.R.Rao who has the distinctionof being awarded “The World Ship Trust Award” for outstanding research done in this field. Dr. S.R.Rao’steam consisted of expert under-water explorers, trained diver-photographers and experiencedarchaeologists. The technique of geophysical survey was combined with the use of echo-sounders, mud-penetrators, sub-bottom profilers and under-water metal detectors. This team carried out twelvemarine archaeological expeditions between the year 1983 to 1992 AD and articles/antiquities recoveredwere sent to Physical Research Laboratory for dating. By using thermoluminescence, carbon dating andother modern scientific techniques, artifacts were found to be belonging to the period 15th century BCto 18th century BC. In his great work “The Lost City of Dwarka”, Dr. S.R.Rao has given graphic andscientific details of these discoveries and artifacts. He has concluded that: (i) The land for building thecity of Dwarka had been reclaimed from the sea between 16th to 15th century BC and a fortified city
  8. 8. was built on boulder packing with outer gateway to the sea and inner gateway to Gomti river. Thiscorroborates the references in the Epic Mahabharata as per which Dwarka city was built by Shri Krishnaafter reclaiming the land from the sea and it was built only a few years before the Game of Dice in 1493BC. (ii) The thermoluminescence dating of lustrous Redware Pottery items found during explorationsrevealed that these were 3520 years old i.e. around 16th-15th century BC. (iii) The most famousrectangular seal with engraved motifs of bull, unicorn and goat found in trench UW6 in the sea bed wasdated as belonging to 16th century BC. The seal corroborates the references made in the ancientmanuscripts that every citizen of Dwarka was required to carry a mudra(seal) as a mark of identification.3 animal headed mudra, votive jar and copper bell (iv) A copper bell and a copper lota, brass-itemsincluding U-shaped objects with holes at both ends and a bronze bell, all were dated as belonging to15th century BC. Stone anchors with double holes and triangular prismatic stone anchors recoveredfrom under the sea were similar to the ones found in Lothal excavations belonging to 23rd century BC.(v) A votive jar with seven characters inscribed was found. Reading based on Semitic-Indus-Phoneticvalue revealed that script is old Indo-Aryan and similar to the other Indus seal inscriptions. The dateassigned to this votive jar and inscriptions is 15th-14th century BC. (vi) Three iron nails and a stake, fourpotsherds and one small bottle of iron were dated 16th-15th century BC indicating limited use of iron.Thus, conclusions arrived at after carrying out these under-water archaeological explorations supportand validate the dates arrived at through astronomical calculations. These also prove that thereconstructed city of Dwarka was a prosperous port town and that it was in existence for about 60-70years in the 15th century BC before being submerged under the sea in the year 1443 BC. artists viewbased on marine archaeological reports and sumerged wall Other Archaeological excavations - Most ofthe cities referred to in Mahabharata e.g.Mathura, Hastinapur, Indraprastha, Kurukshetra and Dwarkawere situated in the territories which are at present known as Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, UP, Rajasthan andGujarat. Extensive excavations carried out in these areas have shown that Indus Civilization flourished inthese areas between 3400-1500 BC. The excavations carried out in Lothal in Gujarat have proved theexistence of very advanced civilization between 2300 BC to 1600 BC. The town was divided into thedock, the arcopolis and the industrial, commercial, residential sectors. Artifacts recovered include goldjewellery and copper utensils. Archaeological surveys at Kalibhangan in Rajasthan have identified theexistence of a planned fortified city between 2500-1700 BC. Artifacts excavated include baked bricks,semi precious stones, copper and bronze articles. Photographs taken by American earth-sensing satelliteknown as Landsat have confirmed that the river Saraswati described in the Rigveda as flowing from the“mountain to the sea” was indeed a great river before 2000 BC. Archaeological explorations on theancient beds of the Saraswati e.g. at Kunal near Kurukshetra and at Banawali in Punjab have confirmedthe existence of highly advanced civilisation during 3400-1500 BC. Artifacts excavated include silverjewellery and articles made of copper and bronze. Taken as a whole archaeological excavations establishthe continuous evolution of Sindhu-Saraswati civilisation between 3400-1500 BC culminating in theMahabharata period. The inhabitants of all the excavated places had similar ethnic features, spokesimilar languages, followed similar religious rites which were vedic in nature, knew about horse and rice,had advanced knowledge of mathematics, made extensive use of copper and had discovered the use ofiron. These discoveries match with the details in the Epic as also with the belief of the historians that theuse of iron was discovered in India in 16th century BC. The War of Mahabharata acted as a watershed,putting an end to the ‘copper age’ and ushering in the ‘iron age’ in 15th century BC. Archaeological
  9. 9. excavations thus support the conclusion that Mahabharata War was fought in 1478 BC. Attempts havealso been made to determine the year of Mahabharata War from the details available in scriptures andancient texts which include Puranas. When events are unrecorded for quite some time and they arepassed on to the succeeding generations through Shruti and Smriti traditions, the inaccuracies andmyths get mixed with reality on account of differences in the perceptions of different individuals.However, it is for the objective rational individual mind to find out and differentiate facts from fictions.Important informations, including the genealogy charts of rulers after Yudhishtira, are available inSrimad Bhagvatam, Matsya Puran and Vayu Purana. On the basis of such evidence, famous historianLord Cunningham assigned the year 1424 BC to the War of Mahabharata. Another historian Shri S.B.Royin his work ‘Date of Mahabharata Battle’ also arrived at the same conclusion by combining the literaryand the astronomical route. All these are very important pieces of evidence which prove that epicMahabharata is not merely a myth but is history and its central character Shri Krishna was a man withextra-ordinary abilities, around whom legends were built over the years. The common man startedhaving faith in the divinity of this Supreme Hero, who for them is God incarnate. After knowing all this,there can be no doubt in the mind of any rational person that what has been taught to us in our schoolhistory books is not all correct. As per our history books, Aryans came to India from Central Asia in theirwar Chariots in 15th century BC. They defeated and destroyed the natives who were “aboriginalsavages” . According to this theory both the Vedas and the Sanskrit language were brought into India bythese Aryan invaders. The most influential proponents of this theory were Max Muller and William Joneswho were linguists and they arrived at this conclusion on being struck by the affinities between Sanskritand European languages.This theory is not supported by any archaeological, physical or scientificevidence. When subsequently archaeological excavations at more than 1100 sites scattered all overmajor parts of India proved beyond doubt the existence of flourishing Indus civilization during 3400 BCto 1500 BC then the proponents of Aryan invasion theory reacted by suggesting that the invading Aryanshad defeated the ‘Dravidian inhabitants’ of the Indus valley, least realising that such theoreticalassumption would change the character of invading Aryans from bringers of civilisation to destroyers ofgreat civilisation and culture developed by the native Indians. The four sets of evidences referred toearlier point more to the probability that nobody had come to India from Central Asia or from any otherplace. In fact, Indo-Aryan, kings and warriors had come to Kurukshetra in their war Chariots from all overIndia to participate in the Mahabharata War and that a whole lot of people got killed in that war. Thekillers as well as the killed, the victors as well as the vanquished, the charioteers as well as the footsoldiers, all were Indians who had already experienced thousands of years of prosperous and advancedcivilisation. Archaeology also records a continuous indigenous evolution of vedic civilisation going backto 5000 BC at sites like Mehrgarh and Koldi. It is sad that, so far we have not known even a fractionabout our ancient civilization and cultural achievements. Detailed factual data in our ancient texts andsanskrit manuscripts is beckoning us to carry out further researches. By making use of most modernscientific instruments and techniques we must discover the true facts about our most ancient past. If wedo that, we may be able to gather supportive evidences to reassert that ours was the oldest civilisationin the world that flourished in India and that our ancestors i.e. vedic Aryans had travelled from India tovarious parts of Asia and Europe to spread our knowledge, civilisation and culture. When this is recordedwe would be able to hold our heads higher and will be able to take on the future with greaterconfidence. Bibliography 1) “The lost city of Dawarka’ by Shri S.R. Rao ( Emeritus scientist and adviser,
  10. 10. Marine Archeology), head of Team for Exploration in Dwarka by Marine Archeology Centre. AdityaPrakashan , New Delhi. 2) R.N. Iyengar’s “ Internal consistency of eclipses and planetary positions inMahabharata” (Indian Journal of History of science, 38.2(2003) 77-115 3) ‘Mahabharata’ Translated intoEnglish from original Sanskrit Text by M.M. Dutt (Parimal Publications, Delhi ) – 7 Parvas (volumes) 4)“Lothal – A Harappan Port Town” By S.R. Rao – Vol. I & II, Archaeological Survey of India. 5) “TheSaraswati flows on” by B.B. Lal, Aryan Book International, New Delhi. 6) “Date of Mahabharata War” byShri S.B. Roy, The Academic Press Gurgoan. 7) “The Astronomical Code of the Rig Veda” by Subhash Kar,Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Delhi. 8) “Reference Encyclopedia (India – 2001)” By HannaMyer, joint imprint created by Mermaid center, Bangalore & Indmark Publishing New Delhi. 9) “VedicAryans and the Origins of Civilization” by Navaratna S. Rajaram and David Frawlley – Voice of India, NewDelhi 10) Ansari, Z.D. And Mate M.S. ( 1966) Excavations of Dwarka, Deccan College, Puna. 11) Rao, S.R.(1988) ‘ Marine Archaeology in India’ in “ 40 years of Research – A CSIR Overview”, Delhi. 12) Rao, S.R.(1991) “Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilization” Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi.

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