STRESSAn adaptive response to a situation that is perceived
as challenging or threating to the person’s well-being.
Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is
confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource
related to what the individual desires and for which the
outcome is perceived to both uncertain and important.
DEMANDSResponsibilities, pressures, obligations, and even
uncertainties that individual face in the work place.
RESOURCESThings within an individual’s control that can be used to
An environmental condition or stimuli that places
physical or emotional demand on a person.
Two types of stressors: Challenge Stressors.
CHALLENGE STRESSORS:Stressors associated with workload , pressure to
complete tasks, and time urgency.
Stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (for
example , red tape, official politics, confusion over job
TYPES OF STRESS
EPISODIC STRESS:Pattern of high stress followed by intervals of relief.
CHRONIC STRESS:Constant confrontation of stressors without relief.
DISTRESS:Stress that has a negative consequence on a person’s wellbeing.
A MODEL OF STRESS
Belief in locus of
Decrease in job
INDIVIDUAL APPROACHESAn employee can take personal responsibility for
reducing stress levels.
Individual strategies that have proven effective include –
Time-management techniques(making daily lists,
Increased physical exercise(jogging, walking)
Relaxation training(meditation, hypnosis &
Expanded social support networks(someone to hear
ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHESIt includes: Selection and job placement(hiring experienced one)
Training(lessen job stress)
Realistic goal setting(specific goals)
Redesign of jobs(greater control over work activities)
Increased employee involvement(uncertainty about
Improved organizational communication(reduces
uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role
Employee sabbaticals(a period of leave)
Corporate wellness programs
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
Leon Festinger 1967
Three aspects of attitudes must follow each other
Cognitive aspect-knowledge about an object.
Affective aspect-liking of the object.
Behavioral aspect-behavior towards the object.
If dissonance is present there is stress and a need to
change an aspect of the attitude to produce agreement
among the elements.
Impatient, restless, competitive, aggressive, under intense
perceived time pressure, always attempting to accomplish
several things at once
Need job and career control.
Have more health problems and shorter careers.
TYPE B:Does not feel pressure, works slowly and enjoyably on a
variety of tasks.
Important to match personality type with position to avoid
THE PROPOSED INVERTED-U RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN STRESS AND JOB PERFORMANCE
Type A and complexity leads to cardiovascular
Job control, job complexity, self –efficacy interact
to influence blood pressure.
Burnout as a process.
Emotional exhaustion-lack of energy and a feeling
that one’s emotional resources are used up.
Coping strategy for emotional buffer(relaxation,
exercise, psychological, recreational,
Sense of inadequacy.
STRESS AND OCCUPATION
WIKIPEDIA(STRESS IN MANAGEMENT)