Chapter 1 variations in psychological attributes


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Chapter 1 variations in psychological attributes

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Variations in Psychological Attributes Individual Difference: For psychologists, individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns. Variability is a fact of nature. Individuals too vary in terms of physical characteristics- tall, short, thin, fat etc. They also vary in terms of psychological characteristics- like creativity, outgoing or withdrawn, intelligent or dull, dominant or submissive etc. Psychologists have two opinion related to individual differences: Behaviours are influenced by personal traits- own personality, intelligence etc. Behaviours are influenced by situation factors- For e.g.- a person fwho is aggressive may behave submissive in front of his boss. This view is also known as situationism. This believes that situations and circumstances (external factors) plays an important role to influence human behaviour. Assessment of Psychological Attributes: What is assessment? What are different kinds of assessments? Assessment refers to the measurement of psychological attributes of individuals and their evaluation, often using multiple methods in terms of certain standards of comparison. Assessment can be of two types: Informal assessment 1
  2. 2. Formal Assessment Informal Assessment: It varies from case to case, and from one person to another. This is open to subjective interpretations. When psychologists watch children playing and try to assess behaviour- this would be under informal assessment. Psychological assessment uses systematic testing, procedures to evaluate abilities, behaviours and personal qualities of individuals. Formal Assessment: It is objective, standardized and objective. For e.g.we assess IQ of a child to find out his or her intellectual strengths and weaknesses. MALIN’s intelligence test is one of the standardized test and can be said to be formal assessment. Q. What are different psychological attributes which are of interest to psychologists? A. Psychological attributes are complex and multi-dimentional. To assess a person, psychologists assess how he/she functions in various domain or areas, such as cognitive, emotional, social etc. The attributes are categorised on the basis of varieties of tests: Intelligence: Intelligence tests measures the cognitive competence. Intelligence is the global capacity to understand the world, to think rationally and use available resources effectively when faced with challenges. Aptitude: Aptitude tests are used to predict what an individual will be able to do if given proper training. For e.g.- a person with high mechanical aptitude can be an automobile engineer with appropriate training. 2
  3. 3. Interest: Interest is individual’s preference towards any activity. Assessment of interests of students may help to decide what subjects to take to pursue any career. Personality: Personality is enduring characteristics of a person that make him/her distinct from others. Personality tests assess whether one is dominant or submissive, moody or emotionally stable etc. Values: Values are enduring beliefs about an ideal mode of behaviour. In value assessment, psychologists try to determine the dominant values of a person (e.g.- political, religious, social or economic) Q. What are different assessment methods? A. The different assessment methods are as follows: 1. Psychological tests: Psychological tests is an objective and standardised measure of individual’s mental and/ or behavioural characteristics. There are various kinds of objective and projective tests. 2. Interview: Interview involves seeking information from the person on one-to-one basis. For e.g.- journalists interviews important people on various national or international issues. 3. Case study: Case study is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of his/her psychological attributes, psychological history etc. For case studies, different methods, e.g.- interview, observation, questionnaire, psychological tests etc. are used. 3
  4. 4. 4. Observation: Sometimes psychologists wants to understand the behavioural phenomenon in natural setting. In this, systematic, organised and objective process are used. The major challenge is subjectivity in interpretation. Certain phenomena such as mother child interaction is easy to observe. 5. Self report: Self report is a method in which a person provides factual information about self or opinions, beliefs etc. he/she holds about anything. In this interview schedule, questionnaire, personal diary or psychological tests are used. Q. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence? A. Albert Binet was one of the first psychologist who worked on intelligence. He defined intelligence as the ability to judge well, understand well and reason well. Wechsler defined intelligence as the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with his/her environment. Gardner and Sternberg suggested that an intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but also actively modifies or shapes it. The Oxford dictionary explains intelligence as the power of perceiving, learning, understanding and knowing. Thus, we can say that an intelligent person would have certain attributes, like mental alertness, ready wit, quickness in learning and ability to understand relationships. Q. What are the different theories of intelligence? A. Theories can be classified as: 4
  5. 5. 1. Psychometric approach/ structural approach 2. Information processing approach. The Psychometric approach considers intelligence as an aggregate of abilities. The Information processing approach describes the processes people use in intellectual reasoning and problem solving. In this, the focus is on how an intelligent person acts. Some representations of these theories (Psychometric approach) are: Uni-or one factor theory of intelligence- Binet Two factor theory- Charles Spearman in 1927 Theory of Primary Mental abilities- Louis Thurston Hierarchical model of intelligence- Arthur Jensen Structure of Intellect Model- J.P. Guilford Uni or One Factor Theory of Intelligence: Binet conceptualised intelligence as consisting of one similar set of abilities which can be used for solving any or every problem in an individual’s environment. 5
  6. 6. Two Factor Theory: In 1927, Charles Spearman proposed two factor theory of intelligence. Here he employed a statistical method called factor analysis. He mentioned intelligence consists of: General Factor (g-factor) Specific factor (s-factor) In excellent singers, architects, scientists, athletes, who may be high on g-factor, their s-factor (specific abilities) are also high in their respective domains. Theory of Primary Mental Abilities: After Charles Spearman, Louis Thurston proposed this theory. He suggested that intelligence consists of seven primary abilities, each of which is relatively independent of the others. These primary abilities are: Verbal comprehension (grasping meaning of words, concepts and ideas). Numerical abilities (speed and accuracy in numerical and computational skills). Spatial Relations (Visualizing pattern and forms). Perceptual speed (speed in perceiving details). Word Fluency (using words fluently and flexibly). Memory (accuracy in recalling information). 6
  7. 7. Inductive Reasoning (deriving general rules for presented facts). Hierarchical model of intelligence: Arthur Jensen proposed this model. He mentioned intelligence consists of abilities that operates at 2 levels: Level I ii. Level II Level I: This is the associative learning in which output is more or less similar to input (e.g.- Rote learning and memory) Level II: This is called cognitive competence. This involves higher-order skills as they transform the input to produce an effective output (creating story with help of picture). Structure of Intellect Model: This was proposed by J.P. Guilford. He classified intellectual traits among 3 dimensions: Operations Contents Products 7
  8. 8. Operations: What the respondent does- cognition, memory, recording, memory retention, divergent production, convergent production and evaluation. Contents: Refers to the nature of materials or information on which the operations are performed (visual, auditory, symbolic- e.g.- letters, numbers; semantic- e.g.- words; behaviour- e.g.- information about people’s behaviour, attitudes, needs etc.) Products: Refers to the form in which information is processed by the respondent. Products are classified intoUnits b. Classes e. Transformations c. Relations d. Systems f. Implications 6 X 5X 6 categories. So has 180 cells. Each cells- has at least one factor or ability. Some cells have more than one factor. Each factor is described in terms of all 3 dimensions. Q Explain the theory of Multiple Intelligence. (Information Processing Approach) A. Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligence. According to him, there are 8 types of intelligence which interact and work together to find a solution to a problem. But they are independent of each other. The 8 types are: 8
  9. 9. 1. Linguistic: It is the capacity to use language fluently to express one’s thinking and understand others. Persons high on this intelligence are ‘word-smart’. Poet and writers are very strong on this component of intelligence. 2. Logical-Mathematical- (scientific thinking and problem solving)People with this intelligence engage in abstract reasoning, can think logically and critically, can solve mathematical problems effectively. Scientists and Nobel Prize winners are likely to be strong in this component. 3. Spatial (Skills in forming, visual images and patterns)- The person high on this intelligence can easily represent spatial world in their mind. Pilots, sailors, sculptors, painters, architects, interior decorators and surgeons are high on this intelligence. 4. Musical (Sensitivity to musical rhythms and patterns)- People high on this intelligence are very sensitive to sounds and vibrations, and in creating new patterns of sounds. 5. Bodily-kinesthetic (Using whole or portions of the body flexibly and creatively)- Athletes, dancers, actors, sportspersons, gymnasts, and surgeons are high on this intelligence. 6. Interpersonal (sensitivity to subtle aspects of other’s behaviours)This is the skill of understanding the motives, feelings and behaviours or other people so as to have comfortable relationship with others. Psychologists, counsellors, politicians, social workers, and religious leaders are high on this intelligence. 7. Intrapersonal (Awareness of one’s own feelings, motives and desires)- This refers to knowing one’s own internal strengths and limitations and using this knowledge to relate to others. Philosophers and spiritual leaders are high on this intelligence. 9
  10. 10. 8. Naturalistic (sensitivity to the features of natural world)- This is useful to make discriminations in natural world. This involves creating complete awareness of our relationship with the natural world. Hunters, farmers, tourists, botanists, zoologists, and bird watchers possess more of naturalistic intelligence. Q. Explain Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Information processing approach) A. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence was proposed by Robert and Sternberg (1985). According to him, intelligence is the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish one’s goals and those of one’s society and culture. He mentioned 3 basic types of intelligenceComponential Experiential Contextual Componential Intelligence- This is also called analytical intelligence as it analyses information to solve problems. There are 3 components in this intelligence: Knowledge acquisition component: This is responsible for learning and acquisition of the ways of doing things. 10
  11. 11. Metal or higher order component: This involves planning concerning what to do and how to do. Performance component: This involves actually doing things. Experiential: This is also called creative intelligence. This involves using the past experiences creatively to solve novel problems. Person high on this intelligence integrates various experiences to make new discoveries and inventions. Contextual intelligence: This is also called practical intelligence. It involves the ability to deal with environmental demands encountered on a daily basis. We can also call it ‘street smartness’ or ‘business sense’. These people tend to be successful in life. This theory of Sternberg represents the information-processing approach to understand intelligence. 11
  12. 12. Q. Explain the PASS Model of Intelligence (Information Processing Approach). Or “Any intellectual activity involves the independent functioning of three neurological system.” Explain with reference to the PASS Model. A. This model has been developed by J.P.Das, Jack Naglieri and Kirby (1994). According to this model, intellectual functioning involves three neurological systems, called the functional units of the brain. These units are responsible for arousal/attention, coding or processing and planning respectively. 12
  13. 13. Arousal/Attention: This is basic to any behaviour that helps us to attend to stimuli. Arousal and attention enables a person to process information. Too much or too little arousal can interfere attention. For e.g.- when a student is told by a teacher about a test which he/she plans to take, it would arouse the student to attend to the specific chapter. Information of test Arousal Attention to chapters Thus, arousal forces a student to focus attention on reading, learning and revising the contents of the chapters. Simultaneous and successive Processing: Simultaneous processing takes place when we perceive the relations among various concepts and integrate them into meaningful patterns of comprehension. This helps us grasping the meaning and relationship between the given abstract figures. For e.g.- Find the missing part: 13
  14. 14. A B C Such kind of items are in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) test where a part is removed from a design. The subject has to find out missing part. This he is processing the part simultaneously thinking of design. Successive processing takes place when we remember all the information serially. Here recall of one leads to the recall of another. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables etc. are examples of successive processing. Planning: This is essential feature of intelligence. After information is attended and processed, planning is activated. It allows us to think of the possible courses of action, implement them and then evaluate their effectiveness. If plan does not work, it is modified. For e.g.- when a test is scheduled, student needs to set goals, plan a time schedule of study, get clarifications in case of problems and if one is not able to tackle the chapters, then he/she needs to think of other ways (e.g.- give more time, study with a friend etc.). 14
  15. 15. COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (CAS): Das and Naglieri developed a battery of tests, known as CAS. It consists of Verbal tasks Non-verbal tasks These tasks measure basic cognitive functions presumed to be independent of schooling. This battery of tests is meant for individuals between 5 to 18 years of age. The results of assessment can be used to remedy the cognitive deficits of children with learning problems. Q. To what extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss. A. There has been various studies that support the intelligence is the result of heredity (nature) , while there are also studies that support intelligence is result of environmental factors(nurture) The studies that supported intelligence as the result of hereditydid research an identical twins , fraternal twins and adopted children. The findings are as follows:The intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate almost 0.90 Twins separated early in childhood also showed considerable similarity in intellectual, behavioural and personality characteristics. The intelligence of identical twins reared in different environments correlated 0.72. 15
  16. 16. Fraternal twins reared together correlated almost 0.60 and those of brothers and sisters reared together correlated about 0.50 Fraternal twins reared apart correlated about 0.25. Studies with adopted children also showed that their intelligence is more similar to their biological parents. The studies which supported environmental role in intelligence came up with the following findings:Studies reported that as children grow with age, their intelligence level tends to move closer of their adoptive parents. Children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families with higher socio- economic status exhibit a larger increase in intelligence score Evidence showed that environmental deprivation lowers intelligence, while rich nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increase intelligence. Thus , psychologists believe that intelligence is a product of complete interaction of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). Heredity sets a range within an individuals development which is then shaped by the support and opportunities of environment Studies – supported both heredity supportIdentical twins (reared together) = 0.90 Identical separate reared =0.72 Fraternal twins =0.25 16
  17. 17. Adopted – intelligence of children similar to biological parents. Studies- environmental support— As children grows- intelligence- closer to adoptive parents Disadvantaged homes- when adopted in high SES family – increased intelligence. Environmentaldeprivation- reduced intelligence Conclusion- inter play of heredity & environmental heredity sets range within - then shaped by environment. Q What is IQ? How do psychologists classify people on the basis of IQ scores? Ans. In 1905, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, made the first successful attempt to measure intelligence. In 1908, the scale was revised and they gave the concept of Mental Age (MA). MA is the measure of a person’s intellectual development relative to his/her age group. Chronological Age (CA) is the biological age from birth. For a bright chid, MA would be more than CA. For a dull child, MA would be less than CA. Binet and Simon defined retardation as being two mental age years below the chronological age. 17
  18. 18. IQ refers to mental age divided by chronological age, and multiplied by 100. This concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was given by William Stern in 1912. IQ= MA/CA X 100. When MA = CA, then IQ = 100 When MA > CA, then IQ > 100 When MA < CA, then IQ < 100 For e.g.- a 10 year old child with a mental age of 12 would have an IQ of 120. MA (12)/ CA (10) X 100 = 120/10=120 Thus this child has above average IQ. Q. What would be IQ of 14 years old child with mental age of 16? What would be mental age of 12 years old child with IQ of 90? 18
  19. 19. On the other hand, a child with MA of 7 and CA of 10, would have IQ of 70. This would mean below average IQ. Q. Explain IQ based on Normal Probability Curve. A. Normal Curve for IQ Distribution: IQ scores are distributed in the population in such a way that the scores of most people fall in the middle range of distribution. Only a few people have very low or very high scores. This type of distribution is symmetrical around the central value, called the mean. The mean IQ score in a population is 100. So, people with IQ scores between 90 to 110 are average (normal intelligence). Those below 70 are suspected to have ‘mental retardation’, while persons with IQ above 130 are considered to have exceptional talents. Normal Curve Pattern showing Distribution of IQ scores in the population: (give diagram given at the last page) 19
  20. 20. 2 percent of the population have IQ above 130 (intellectually gifted) and same percent have IQ below 70 (mentally retarted). IQ Range Descriptive Level Percent in Population Above 130 Very superior 2.2 120-130 Superior 6.7 110-119 High Average 16.1 90-109 Average 50.0 80-89 Low Average 16.1 70-79 Borderline 6.7 Below 70 Mentally challenged/retarted 2.2 Q. What are the variations of Intelligence? Ans. Intellectual Deficiency: Those children who show intellectual who show intellectual deficiency are termed as ‘mentally challenged’ or ‘mentally retarded’. The Americal Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) views MR as significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.” 20
  21. 21. This definition points to three basic features: Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning- Persons having IQ below 70 are judged to have sub-average intelligence. Deficits in adaptive behavior- Adaptive behavior refers to a person’s capacity to be independent and deal effectively with one’s environment. Deficit must be observed during the developmental period, that is between 0 to 18 years of age. Different levels of retardation are: Mild Retardation (IQ 59 to 69) Moderate Retardation (IQ 40 to 54) Severe Retardation (IQ 25 to 39) People with Mild Retardation: Although the development of people with mild retaration is typically slower than that of their peers, but they an function quite independently, hold jobs and families. People with Moderate Retardation: They lag behind their peers in language and motor skills. They can be trained in self-care skills, and simple social and communication skills. They need to have moderate degree of supervision in everyday task. People with profound and severe retardation: They are incapable of managing life and need constant care for their whole life. 21
  22. 22. Intellectual Giftedness: The study of gifted individuals started in 1925 by Lewis Terman. He followed the lives of 1500 children with IQs above 130. He studied how intelligence is related to occupational stress and life adjustment. Difference between ‘giftedness’ and ‘talent’: ‘Giftedness’s exceptional general ability wide variety of areas. ‘Talent’ is a narrower term and refers to remarkable ability in a specific field (e.g.- Spiritual, social, aesthetic etc.). The highly talented are sometimes called ‘prodigies’. Psychologists pointed out that giftedness from the teacher’s point of view depends on: High ability High creativity High commitment Few characterstics of giftedness are: Advanced logical thinking, questioning and problem solving behavior. High speed in processing information. Advanced level of original and creative thinking. High level of intrinsic motivation and self esteem. Independent and non-conformist thinking. 22
  23. 23. Preference for solitary academic activities for long periods. Performance on intelligence tests are used with other assessment liketeacher’s judgement, school achievement record, parent’s interview, peer and self rating etc. Q. What are the different types of intelligence tests? Ans. Intelligence tests are of several types: On the basis of Administration procedure: Individual test Group test On the basis of nature of items: Verbal test Non-verbal Performance test On basis of administration procedure: Individual test: This can be administered to one person at a time. 23
  24. 24. Requires the test administrator to establish a rapport with the subject and be sensitive to his/her feelings, moods and expressions during the testing conduction. Allow people to answer orally or in written form or manipulate objects as per the tester’s instructions. Group test: Can be administered to several person simultaneously. Do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with the subject’s feelings. Group tests generally seek written answers usually in a multiple-choice format. (If you are asked- write the difference between the individual test and group test): S.No. Individual Test Group Test 1 Administered to one person at a time. Can be administered to several persons at a time. 2 Require test administrator to establish rapport with the subject and be sensitive to his/her feelings, moods and expressions during Do not allow an opportunity to be familiar with subject’s feelings. 24
  25. 25. testing session. 3 Allow people to answer orally or in a written form or multiple objects as per tester’s instruction. Generally seek written answers usually in a multiplechoice format. On Basis of Nature of Items: Verbal Tests: Require subjects to give verbal responses either orally or in written form. So, verbal tests can be administered only to literate people. Non-verbal tests: Use pictures or illustrations as test items. Raven’s progressive Matrices (RPM) is an example of non-verbal test. Performance tests: Requires subjects to manipulate objects and other materials to perform task. Written language is not necessary for answering the items. For e.g.- Koh’s Block Design Test- This contains wooded blocks. Needs to arrange the blocks to produce a design. Advantage- Can be administered to persons of any culture. 25
  26. 26. Q. What do you understand by culture fair and culture biased test. (Question may come to give difference). Ans. If a test that is designed in such a way that it can be administered only in a particular culture and not in other, it is called culture bias test. For e.g.- if a test is developed in Americal and Europe which represent urban and middle class then educated middle class white subjects can perform well. May be the subjects of Asia and Africa may not perform these tests. Thus, they would be culture biased tests. Most of the tests are culture biased. Thus, to have higher reliability, psychologists try to design tests appropriate to a particular culture. On the other hand the tests that does not discriminate against individuals belonging to different cultures, is called culture-fair test. The itmes are constructed in such a manner that they have common elements of all cultures. Non-verbal and performance tests help to reduce the cultural bias. Q. Name some verbal and non-verbal tests developed in India. Ans. S.No. Verbal Performance 1 CIE Verbal Group test of intelligence CIE Non-Verbal Group Test 26
  27. 27. by Uday Shankar. of Intelligence. 2 Group Test of General Mental Ability by S. Jalota Bhatia’s Battery of Performance Tests 3 Group Test of Intelligence by Prayag Mehta. Draw-a-man Test by Pramila Pathak. 4 The Bihar Test of Intelligence by S.M.Mohsin. Adaptation of Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale by R.Ramalingaswamy. 5 Group tst of Intelligence by Bureau of Psychology, Allahabad. 6 Indian Adaptation of Stanford-Binet Test (Third Edition) by S.K. Kulshreshtha. 7 Test of General Mental Ability (Hindi) by M.C.Joshi. Q. Misuses/ Uses of Intelligence Test. Ans. Uses: Can be used for selection, counseling, guidance, self analysis and diagnosis. 27
  28. 28. Misuses: Poor Performance on test may attach stigma to children and so, effect their performance. The tests may bring discriminatory practices from parents, teachers and elders. If a test is biased in favour of middle class and higher population, then these tests may underestimate the IQ of children coming from disadvantaged section of society. Intelligence tests do not capture the creative potentials and practical side of intelligence. They also do not relate much to success in life. Intelligence can be potential factor for achievement in various spheres of life. Therefore, only trained psychologists should administer and analyse the scores of the test. Q. What are the different intelligence testing in India? Ans. S.M. Mohsin made a pioneering attempt in constructing an intelligence test in Hindi in the 1930s. C.H. Rice attempted to standardise Binet’s test in Urdu and Punjabi. At about the same time, Mahalanobis attempted to standardise Binet’s test in Bengali. 28
  29. 29. Then attempts were made by Indian researchers to develop Indian norms for some western tests including RPM, WHIS, Alexander’s Passalong, Cube Construction, and Koh’s Block Design. Long and Mehta prepared a Mental Measurement Handbook listing out 103 tests of intelligence in India. Then the National Library of Educational and Psychological Tests (NLEPT) at the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has documented the Indian Tests. Critical reviews of Indian test are published in the form of handbooks. NCERT brought out handbooks in the area of intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes and interests. Some of the Indian test developed in India are- Verbal and Performance Tests- given earlier). Q. All persons do not have same intellectual capacity. How do individuals vary in their intellectual abiltiy. Explain. A. As every fingers are not equal, as every person is not similar in height, weight and looks, similarly, individuals also vary in their intellectual ability. There are mainly two extreme forms of variabtions: i. Intellectual deficiency ii. Intellectua giftedness 29
  30. 30. But within these two category too, there can be variations. The children who show intellectual deficiency are termed as ‘mentally challenged’ or ‘mentally retarded’. But now these terms are altered and the term ‘differently abled’ are given to them as it is believed that they may not perform or stand in the parameter of average but they do have various other abilities which needs to be focused on. If we look into this category of intellectual deficiency, there are varations within this category too: i. Mild retardation (IQs 55-69) ii. Moderate Retardation (IQs 40-54) iii. Severe Retardation (IQs 25-30) iv. Profound Retardation (IQs beow 25) These categories of intellectual deficiency have different levels of abilities. For e.g.- mild retardation is slower than that of peer, but they can function quite independently, hold jobs. As the level of retardation increases, the difficulties are strongly marked. 30
  31. 31. People with moderate retardation- they lag behind their peers in language and motor skills. They can be trained in self-care skills, and simple social and communication skills. But they need moderate degree of supervision in everyday tasks. Individual with profound and severe retardation- They are capable of managing life and need constant care for their entier lives. The American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) views mental retardation as “significantly sub-average general intellectual funcitoning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavaior and manifested during the developmental period. Thus three features are needed for Mental Retardation: 1. A person must show significantly sub-average intellectual functioning (IQ below 70). 2. There needs to be deficit in adaptive behavior. 3. The deficit must be observed during the developmental period (0 to 18 years). On the other hand, the intellectual gifted individuals show higher performance because of their outstanding potentialities. Gifted childrne show early signs of intellectual superiority. Athletes who show superior psychomotor abilty are also gifted. (you may give characteristics of giftedness). 31
  32. 32. Thus, we find that there is variations in intellectual ability. Q How intelligence is related to culture? A. The cultural environment provides a context for intelligence to develop. Vigotsky, a Russian Psychologist, argued that culture provides a social context in which people live, grow, and understand the world around them. For e.g.- in less technologically developed societies, social and emotional skills in relating to people are valued, while in technologically advanced societies, personal achievement founded on abilities of reasoning and judgement is considered to represent intelligence. A culture is defined as a collective system of customs, beliefs, attitudes and achievements in art and literature. A person’s intelligence is likely to be tuned by these cultural parameters. According to Vygotsky, while the elementary mental functions (e.g.crying, attending to mother’s voice, sensitivity to smell, walking and running) are universal, the manner in which higher mental functions such as problem solving and thinking operate are largely cultureproduced. 32
  33. 33. The technological advanced societies promote a type of behavior that can be called Technological Intelligence. In these societies, persons are well-versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, performance, speed and achievement orientation. The tests of Western culture look for these skills in an individual. On the other hand, technological intelligence is not so valued in many Asian and African societies. Some non-western cultures value selfreflection and collective orientation as opposed to personal achievement and individualistic orientation. Q. What is the Intelligence as valued in Indian Tradition? A. Intelligence in the Indian Tradition can be termed as integral intelligence. This gives connectivity with the social and world environment. In this, focus is on holistic perspective where value is given to both a cognitive and non-cognitive processes as well as their integration. In India, the term ‘buddhi’ has been taken from Sanskrit to represent intelligence. According to J.P.Das, buddi includes such skills as: Mental Effort 33
  34. 34. Determined action, feelings and opinions. Cognitive competence- knowledge, discrimination and understand. Among other things, buddhi is the knowledge of one’s own self based on conscience, will and desire. Thus, the concept of buddhi has been both affective and cognitive component. The following competencies are viewed in Indian culture: i. Cognitive capacity (sensitivitiy to understanding, discrmination, problem solving and effective communication) ii. Social competence: (Respect for social order, commitment to elders, the young and the needy, concerns about others, recognizing tohers’ perspectives). iii. Emotional competence (self regulation and self monitoring of emotions, honesty, politeness, good conduct and self evaluation). 34
  35. 35. iv. Entrepreneurial competence (commitment, persistence, patience, hardwork, vigilance and goal directed behavior). Q. How the intelligence of Indian culture different from that of Western culture? Ans. The intelligence of Western culture values the tchnological skills like attention, observation, analysis, performance, speed and achievement orientation. On the other hand, the intelligence of Indian culture values holistic perspective, where equal attention is paid to cognitive and non-cognitive process as well as their integration. The Western Society intelligence can be termed as ‘technological intelligence’ while that of Indian culture can be termed as ‘integral intelligence’. While in Western culture, we call ‘intelligence’, in Indian culture is called ‘buddhi’. Q. What is EQ/ EI (Emotional Quotient/ Emotional Intelligence)? Or 35
  36. 36. Which of the two, IQ or EQ, do you think would be more related to success in life and why? Ans. Various researches has been done on both IQ and EQ in relation to its success in life. It is found in various researches that a good IQ and scholastic record is not enough to be successul in life. There are many people who are academically talented, but not successful in their life. They experience problems in family, workplace and interpersonal relationship. Thus, the term emotional intelligence came up as it was found that the people who are scholastically intelligent lack emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is a set of skills that underlie accurate appraisal, expression, and regularion of emotions. It is the feeling side of intelligence. The concept of EI was first introduced by Salovey and Mayor who considered EI as “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions.” Emotional Quotient (EQ) is used to express emoitonal intelligence as IQ is used to express intelligence. Thus, we can say that EI refers to the ability to process emotional information accurately and efficiently. 36
  37. 37. Emotional intelligence can be used to help individuals dealing with stress and challenges. Training on EI has helped students to improve their adademic performance also. EI also encouarage cooperative behavior and reduce their antisocial activities. The characteristics of Emotionally Intelligent Persons are: 1. Perceive and be sensitive to one’s feelings and emotions. 2. Perceive and be sensitive to various types of emotions in others by noting their body language, voice and tone, and facial expression. 3. Relate one’s emotions to one’s thoughts so that one can take them into account while solving problems and taking decisions. 4. Understand the powerful influence of the nature and intensity of one’s emotions. 5. Control and regulate one’s emotions and their expressions while dealing with self and others to achieve harmony and peace. Q. How aptitude is different from interest and intelligence? How is aptitude measured? Ans. Aptitude refers to special abilities in a particular field of activity. It is a combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific knowledge or skill after training. The knowledge of aptitude can help us to predict an individual’s future performance. 37
  38. 38. On the other hand, intelligence is employed to know how individuals differ from one another in terms of perceiving, learning, understanding and knowing. Different psychologists had different views in defining intelligence. According to Alfred Binet, “Intelligence is the ability to judge well, understand well and reason well.” According to Wechsler, “Intelligence is the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and to deal effectively with his/her environment.” According to Gardner and Sternberg, “Intelligent individuals not only adapt to the environment but also actively modifies or shapes it.” Interest, is different that the intelligence and aptitude as it is the preference for a particular activity. For e.g., a person may be interested in a particular job or activity, but may not have aptitude in it. Similarly, a person may have the aptitude for performing a job, but may not be interested in doing that. In both cases, the outcome will not be satisfactory. 38
  39. 39. A person who has high mechanical aptitude and strong interest in engineering is more likely to be successful mechanical engineer. People with similar intelligence may differ widely in acquiring certain knowledge or skills. So, we need to assess the aptitude to help the person select the future option. The various aptitude tests are available in two forms: Independent (Specialised) aptitude tests. Multiple (generalised) aptitude tests. Independent (Specialised) aptitude Tests: E.g.- Clerical aptitude, mechanical aptitude, numerical aptitude and typing aptitude. Multiple (generalised) aptitude tests: It exists in the form of test batteries, which measure aptitude in several separate but homogeneous areas: Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) 39
  40. 40. DAT is most commonly used in educational settings. It consists of 8 independent subjects: i. Verbal Reasoning. ii. Numerical Reasoning iii. Abstract Reasoning iv. Clerical Speed and Accuracy v. Mechanical Reasoning vi. Space Relations vii. Spelling viii. Language usage J.M. Ojha has developed an Indian adaptation of DAT. Several other aptitude tests have been developed in India for measuring Scientific, Scholastic, Literacy, clerical and teaching aptitude. Q. What is creativity? How creativity is related to intelligence? 40
  41. 41. Ans. One common element in creativity is the production of something new and unique. Manifestations of creativity can be observed in a novel solution to a problem, an invention, composition of a poem, painting, new chemical process, an innovation in law, a breakthrough in preventing a disease and the like. Creativity is not just limited to only artist, scientist, poet, or inventor. An ordinary individual who is engaged in pottery, cooking, carpentary etc. can also be creative. Einstein theory of relativity is an example of the highest level of creativity which implies bringing out altogether new ideas, facts, theory or a product. Another level of creativity is working on what has already been established earlier by the way of modifications, by putting things in new perspectives or to new use. There are variations in creativity. These variations can be known through the self chosen activities. In some cases, opportunities need to be provided before they can manifest their hidden potential for creativity. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity, environmental factors which stimulate the development of creativity. The environmental factors that shape creativity are motivation, commitment, family support, peer influences, training opportunities etc. Some prominent personalities who showed high level of creativity are- Tagore, Einstein, C.V. Raman, Ramanujan, etc. There has been various debate on relationship between creativity and intelligence. Some of those arguments are as under: 41
  42. 42. Teman, in 1920s, found that persons with high IQ were not necessarily creative. At the same time, creative ideas could come from persons who did not have very high IQ. Researches also found that both high and low level of creativity can be found in highly intelligent and also average intelligent children. The same person can be creative as well as intelligent, but it is not necessary that intelligent ones, in conventional sense, must be creative. Thus, Intelligence by itself does not ensure creativity. Some reasearches found that the relationship between creativity and intelligence is positive. All creative acts require some minimum ability to acquire and capacity to comprehend, retain and retrieve. The artist must understand the effect that will be produced by a particular technique of painting, a scientist must be able to reason. Certain level of intelligence is required for creativity but beyond that intelligence does not correlate well with creativity. Creativity tests involves divergent thinking while intelligence test involves convergent thinking. Various creativity tests are developed to assess the variations in terms of potential for creativity. Features of creativity tests are: They are open ended. They permit the person to think of different answers to questions or problems. 42
  43. 43. Creativity tests involve divergent thinking and assess such abilities as ability to produce a variety of ideas, i.e., ideas which are off-the-beaten track, ability to see new relationships between seeemingly unrelated things, ability to guess causes and consequences, ability to put things in a new context etc. In Intelligence test, the person has to think of the right solution to the problem and assesses the abilities like memory, logical reasoning, accuracy, perceptual thinking, and clear thinking. In creativity test, there is great scope for the expression of spontaneity, originality, and imagination. A few investigators have also developed tests of creativity in areas such as literary creativity, scientific creativity, mathematical creativity etc. Some famous psychologists who developed the creativity tests are Guilford, Torrance, Khatena, Wallach and Kogan, Paramesh, Baqer Mehdi and Passi. Each test has a standardised procedure, a complete set of manual and interpretation guide. These tests can be used only after extensive training in administration and interpretation of test scores. 43
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