Hearing happens


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Hearing happens

  1. 1. How Hearing Happens What Are We Dealing With?
  2. 2. When Does Hearing Begin? • In the womb • Babies only hours old are able to differentiate between sounds from their native language and a foreign language, scientists have discovered. The study indicates that babies begin absorbing language while still in the womb, earlier than previously thought. • Pacific Lutheran University (2013, January 2). Language learning begins in utero, study finds
  3. 3. Before Birth! http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130102083615.htm “The study shows that the newborn has the capacity to learn and remember elementary sounds of their language from their mother during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy (the sensory and brain mechanisms for hearing are intact at 30 weeks of gestational age).”
  4. 4. Sound and Learning http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130102083615.htm "This is a stunning finding," said Kuhl. "We thought infants were 'born learning' but now we know they learn even earlier. They are not phonetically naïve at birth."
  5. 5. How Do We Hear? Electrophysiological response to voice • Left - vocal sound signal entering the ear (middle) • Right - brain electrical activity related to voice (red curve), • bird songs (green curve) and • environmental sounds (blue curve). http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/archive/2009/091019pr-brain-responds-to-human-voice-in-fifth-ofsecond.aspx
  6. 6. How Sound Enters Your Brain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cv_-z4iq4Tc
  7. 7. Where Hearing Connects http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_auditory_cortex
  8. 8. (Where Vision Connects) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_cortex
  9. 9. What Voices Tell Us http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/docs/download.php?type=PUBLS&id=1865 “we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication.”
  10. 10. Live Sound Tells Us … http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/docs/download.php?type=PUBLS&id=1865 • • • • • • • Where positioned Gender Nationality Approximate age Identity types Speaker’s mood and affective state Fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction
  11. 11. We All Hear Differently • Like seeing, without glasses • Like dyslexia
  12. 12. Audio Processing Disorder • Problems carrying out multi-step directions given orally, • Language difficulties (e.g., confuse syllable sequences, etc.) • problems determining the direction of sounds
  13. 13. More Audio Processing Disorder • difficulty perceiving differences between speech sounds • confusing similar sounds such as "hat" with "bat", "there" with "where", etc.
  14. 14. And More • Background noise, such as the sound of a radio, television or a noisy bar make it difficult to understand - problems separating out “strands” of sounds – groups talking, voice vs radio, etc • Using a telephone without visuals - need to lip read, read body language, and use eye contact
  15. 15. Listening - a Collage of Skills • Predicting • Guessing - Ever ‘replay’ what someone said in your head - and then understood? • Reflection – commenting in your head as you listen, evaluating, noticing • Understanding intonation – paralanguage 'paralanguage' is often used to refer to nonverbal elements of speech http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonverbal_communication
  16. 16. More Listening Skills • Recognizing connectors https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/ 4_writingskills/writing_tuts/linking_LL/senten ce.html • Recognizing discourse markers – Once upon a time … etc.
  17. 17. About Recorded Sounds • Replay possible • Controlled layering of sound • aural composition closer to Levi-Strauss’s “bricolage” or a visual collage than to the finely detailed edited text • ephemeral - can’t trap an aural frame of sound as you can a visual frame of a video
  18. 18. Hearing and Listening • Hearing starts before birth • We get a great deal of information from voices • Audio Processing Disorder information and audience needs • Listening skills • Recorded sounds are experienced differently from ‘live’ sounds • Editing audio is different from editing text – a mix rather than individual bits
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