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    Delhi metro rail corporation project Delhi metro rail corporation project Document Transcript

    • An Appraisal of Revenue Model of DMRC - For the period 2010-2011- Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Recognized by AICTE, Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India) By Vimal Kumar Mourya Roll No.-PG10-99 Batch 2010-12 Under the guidance of Prof. Vipin Agarwal Assistant Dean - Research INMANTEC, GhaziabadIntegrated Academy of Management and Technology Ghaziabad April to June, 2011 1
    • An Appraisal of Revenue Model of DMRC - For the period 2010-2011- At Mantis By Vimal Kumar Mourya Batch 2010-12 Under the guidance of Dr. Vinod DumblekarIntegrated Academy of Management and Technology Ghaziabad April to June, 2011 2
    • 3
    • Certificate from Faculty GuideThis is to certify that Mr. Vimal Kumar Mourya (Roll No.PG10-99), a student of the Post-GraduateDiploma in Management has successfully completed his summer project titled “An Appraisal ofRevenue Model of DMRC - For the period 2010-2011” for the period from 18th April to 6th June.This project is submitted by Mr. Vimal Kumar Mourya in partial fulfillment of the requirements for theaward of Post Graduate Diploma in Management.The project is submitted following my approval and satisfies the rules and guidelines defined byINMANTEC for the project. Prof. Vipin Agarwal Project Guide Dated: ___________ 4
    • Table of Contents Page noAcknowledgement……….……………………………………………………………….. 07Abstract………….………………………………………………………………………. 08Project Management……………………………………………………………………. 09Introduction of DMRC…………………………………………………………………….. 16Revenue Model…………………………………………………………………………… 21Appraisal…………………………………………………………………………………. 23Summary…………………………………………………………………………………. 42List of Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………… 44List of References…….…………………………………………………………………… 45 5
    • List of Figures1. Delhi metro………………………………………………………….2. Delhi Metro Train at Kirti Nagar Metro Station…………………… List of Tables1. Delhi metro phase 1………………………………………………......2. Delhi metro phase 2………………………………………………….3. Delhi metro phase 3………………………………………………….. List of Chart1. Organization chart…………………………………………………………..2. Need for metro…………………………………………………………….. 6
    • AcknowledgementI owe a great many thanks to many people who helped and supported me during the project.My deepest thank to Dr Vinod Dumblekar, project guide of the project for guiding and correctingvarious mistakes of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and makenecessary correction as and when needed.I express my thanks to the Mr. Manish sir and Mr. Alok Chandra, junior engineer at Vijay NirmanCompany Pvt. Ltd. for explaining the fabrication of metro station.I thank Mr. Roshan Kumar, accountant at DMRC office, Barakhambha Road, New Delhi.I would also thank my Institution and my project guide, Prof. Vipin Agarwal without whom this projectwould have been a distant reality. Vimal Kumar Mourya PGDM-2010-12 Roll No- PG10-99 Integrated Academic of Management and Technology, Ghaziabad 7
    • AbstractObjective – To applies the project management on Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC)project and learns it from basic.How- To understand the project of DMRC, I travelled all entire functioning routes and try tounderstand the structure of metro station building. For that I went to Kaushambi metro stationand observe there methodology and talk to engineers about construction of station, and convert itinto program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT).Who meet? - During the project, number of questions had aroused in my mind. To solve theseproblems, I meet time to time from expert in particular area. I meted to Mr. Manish sir and Mr.Alok Chandra who is junior engineer at Vijay Nirman Company Pvt. Ltd. I met to Mr. RoshanKumar, accountant at DMRC office. 8
    • Project ManagementWHAT IS A PROJECT?Organizations perform work. Work generally could be classified into either operations orprojects, although in some cases both of them may overlap. Both operations andprojects share many characteristics in common like:  People perform both the activities.  Both are constrained by limited resources.  Both are planned, executed, and controlled.WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to projectactivities to meet project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the use ofthe following 5 processes: 1. Initiation 2. Planning 3. Execution 4. Controlling and 5. ClosureThe project team manages the various activities of the project, and the activitiestypically involve:  Competing demands for: scope, time, cost, risk, and quality.  Managing expectations of stakeholders.  Identifying requirements.The term “project management” is sometimes used to describe an organizational approach tothe management of ongoing operations. This approach treats many aspects of ongoing operationsas projects to apply project management techniques to them. A detailed discussion of theapproach itself is outside the scope of this document.HistoryProject management has been practiced since early civilization. Until 1900 civil engineeringprojects were generally managed by creative architects and engineers themselves. As adiscipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application includingcivil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity. Two forefathers of projectmanagement are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, which isfamous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool.The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era where core engineeringfields come together working as one. . In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects weremanaged on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt Charts, and informal techniques and tools. . At 9
    • that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed. The "Critical PathMethod" (CPM) and the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or PERT,Project Management Knowledge Areas  Project Integration Management describes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control. Project Scope Management describes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.  Project Time Management describes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.  Project Cost Management describes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.  Project Quality Management describes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.  Project Human Resource Management describes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.  Project Communications Management describes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and ultimate disposition of project information. It consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.  Project Risk Management describes the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It consists of risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control.  Project Procurement Management describes the processes required to acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout.Processes- 10
    • Traditionally, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups,and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic projectmanagement processes will be used.Major process groups generally include Initiation Planning or development Production or execution Monitoring and controlling Closing Planning Monitoring Executing and controllingInitiation- The initiation processes determine the nature and scope of the project. If this stage isnot performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environmentand making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficienciesshould be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them.The initiation stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas: 11
    •  Analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals Reviewing of the current operations Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedulePlanning and design- After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level ofdetail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the workneeded and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation processgroup, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the projects chances of successfullyaccomplishing its goals.Project planning generally consists of determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave); developing the scope statement; selecting the planning team; identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure; identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the activities in their logical sequence; estimating the resource requirements for the activities; estimating time and cost for activities; developing the schedule; developing the budget; risk planning; gaining formal approval to begin work.  For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.Executing- Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the projectmanagement plan to accomplish the projects requirements. Execution process involvescoordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of theproject in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced asoutputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan. 12
    • Monitoring and controlling- Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performedto observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner andcorrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The keybenefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances fromthe project management plan.Monitoring and Controlling includes: Measuring the ongoing project activities (where we are); Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline; Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again); Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implementedProject Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes: Continuing support of end users Correction of errors Updates of the software over timeClosing- Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.This phase consists of: Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase.Project control systems- Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time and within budget. Control systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, communication, time,change, procurement, and human resources. In addition, auditors should consider how importantthe projects are to the financial statements. 13
    • Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure thatsystems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strongcontrols, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and isfollowed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines: A strategy to align development with the organization’s broader objectives Standards for new systems Project management policies for timing and budgeting Procedures describing the process Evaluation of quality of changeProject Management Triangle Scope Quality Cost ScheduleLike any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certainconstraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost". Theseare also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle", where each side represents aconstraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A furtherrefinement of the constraints separates product "quality" or "performance" from scope, and turnsquality into a fourth constraint.The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The costconstraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers towhat must be done to produce the projects end result. These three constraints are oftencompeting constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight 14
    • time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could meanincreased time and reduced scope.The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable theproject team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints. 15
    • Introduction of DMRCDMRC is a rapid transit system in national capital region (Delhi, Gurgaon and Noida) in India. Ithas six lines (red, yellow, blue, green, violet and orange) with total length 189.63 kilometers 142stations in which 35 are underground. DMRC is being built and operated by the DMRC. Fortrack here is broad gauge and standard gauge. The train runs between 0600 to 2300 o’clock withintervals of 3 minutes. Minimum fare of DMRC is Rs 7 and maximum is Rs 29. The trainsmainly have 4 coaches but due to increase in the number of passengers six coach’s trains are alsoadded in Dilsad Garden to Rithala route.DMRC Train at Kirti Nagar Metro StationOrganization ChartChart no-1DMRC Rail Corporation 16
    • Board of Directors Chairman Managing Director Project Management General Consultant Consortia of BuildersStructure  Chairman - Shri Navin Kumar  Managing Director - Dr. E. Sreedharan  Total Number of Directors - 16  Nominee of Govt. of India - 5  Nominee of Govt. of NCTD - 5 (Including MD)  Number of full-time functional Directors at present including MD - 7  The corporate office of the company is located at Metro Bhawan, Fire Brigade Lane, Barakhamba Road New Delhi - 110001, IndiaMission  To cover the whole of Delhi with a Metro Network by the year 2021.  DMRC to be of world class standards in regard to safety, reliability, punctuality, comfort and customer satisfaction.  Metro to operate on sound commercial lines obviating the need for Government support.HistoryDelhi, national capital of India’s is one of the fastest growing cities in the world with apopulation of more than 1.68 crore. Continuously day by day number of vehicles increasing,accidents are happening (5 persons killed and 13 injured everyday), traffic problems generating.For solving these problems in 1970 when Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) done deepstudy on traffic and travel characteristics of Delhi recommended a Mass Rapid Transit Networkfor the city. Since then a number of studies on the subject have been carried out like theMetropolitan. 17
    • Need for Metro Increasing population (1.68 crore) Growing size of cities Heterogeneous mix of Vehicles- buses, cars, Scooters, cycles Road accidents Traffic jams More pollutionTo meet forecast transport demand for the next generation, the number of buses will be upswingand personalized vehicles will grow. This is sure to lead to further worsening of the levels ofcongesting and pollution, which had already crossed acceptable limits in many part of the city.Metropolitan Transport Team (MTT) of the Indian Railways, Delhi Development Authority(DDA) and the Study Group of the Ministry of Railways. They recommended for metro corridorand dedicated bus way to meet the enlarging of traffic problems. 18
    • In May 1995, DMRC was established under company act 1956. The project started on October 1,1998. It’s a joint venture of GOI and GNCTD. In the project has four phases I, II. III & IV.DMRC Phase 1-Table no-1Line Length Number of (Kms) StationsLine No.1- Shahdara-Tri Nagar-Rithala 22.06 18Line No.2- Vishwa Vidyalaya-Central Secretariat 10.84 10Line No.3- Indraprastha-Barakhamba Road-Dwarka Sub 32.10 31CityTotal 65.00 59DMRC Phase 2-Table no -2Line Length (Kms) Number of StationsShahdara – Dilshad Garden 3.09 3Indraprastha – Noida Sector 32 City Centre 15.07 11Yamuna Bank – Anand Vihar ISBT 6.17 5Vishwavidyalaya – Jahangir Puri 6.36 5Inderlok – Kirti Nagar –Mundka 18.46 15Central Secretariat – HUDA City Centre 27.45 19Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21 2.76 2Airport Express Line 22.70 6Anand Vihar – KB Vaishali 2.57 2Central Secretariat – Badarpur 20.04 15Total 124.63 83 19
    • Sketch Map of DMRC Rail-Phase I & II (not to scale)DMRC Phase 3-Table no-3Line Length (Kms) Number of Stations (Major Stations)Yamuna Vihar – Mukundpur 56 5Kalindi Kunj - Janakpuri (w) 33 4Central Secretariat - Kashmere Gate 9.7 3Jehangirpuri – Badli 5.4 2Total 104.1DMRC Phase 4Phase IV (planned) has a 2020 deadline, and tentatively includes further extensions to Sarai KaleKhan ISBT, Sonia Vihar, Reola Khanpur, Mukundpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Ghazipur, NoidaSector 62, Gurgaon and Faridabad, having a total length of 108.5 km. 20
    • Revenue ModelEvery organization has there method for earning. It may be from selling their product orproviding service or else. In DMRC have eight sources for revenue - 1- Selling from token 2- Selling from Smart Card (Travel Card) 3- Selling from Tourist Card 4- By advertising 5- Selling from space (for retail store, restaurants, ATM and other) 6- By Penalties 7- By movie clipping 8- By Carbon Credit1. Token-  All tokens are single journey tokens that are valid only for a one way journey.  The minimum cost of travelling on the Metro is Rs 8  The maximum cost of travelling on the Metro is Rs 29  The value of the token will depend on the destination.  It is valid only till the day of purchase.  Token fare can be calculated by using the Fare Calculator or viewing the Fare Chart  5.5 lakh tokens are sold every day (Aprial-2011)2. Travel Card (Smart Card)-  It is a most convenient option for the frequent commuter.  A stored value card, Travel Cards or Smart Cards are available in the denominations of Rs. 50and can be recharged in a multiples of Rs 50 to a maximum limit of Rs. 800.  Security Deposit of Rs 50 payable at purchase (refundable on return of card).  It is valid for one year from the date of purchase or one year from the date of recharge whichever is later.  There is no extra charge on renewal of Smart Card.  Over 60% of Metro passengers use smart cards on a regular basis.  DMRC has sold around 45 lakh smart cards since the Metro became operational in 2002.  DMRC sells 10,500 smart cards daily (Aprial-2011)  Highest sales recorded at the Rajiv Chowk station -around 2,500-3,000 cards are sold here each day.  Ticket Reading Machines are available at all Metro Stations. This facility helps commuters to check the balance on their Smart Card.3. Tourist Card-  This card is for unlimited travel over short periods.  There are two kinds of cards - 1 day and 3 day. 21
    •  Value of 1-Day Card: Rs 150  Value of 3-Day Card: Rs 300  Security Deposit of Rs 50 payable at purchase (refundable on return of card).4- By advertising-  Sites are offered on first cum first serve basis.  Minimum contractual period for three months  Service tax as applicable, current service tax 12.36%  Payment on advance basis.  Inputs for display material to be provided by the client5- By Carbon Credit- has earned Rs 2.4 crore ($ 5,42,269) from the sale of 82,000 certifiedemission reductions (CER) under the carbon credits scheme by the Japan Finance Carbon Ltd in2008 and 2009. While the DMRC earned Rs 1.07 crore through the sale of 39,000 CERs for2008, it earned Rs 1.33 crore through the sale of 43,000 CERs for 2009.6-By Penalties –  A fine of Rs. 200-if in case any male passenger is found travelling in the reserved ladies coach of a Metro train.Revenue from DMRCTable no-10 Smart card Token (Rs) Space Penalties (Rs) Advertising (Rs) Carbon (Rs) selling (Rs) Credit2011 2100 crore (Expected) 1.5 crore/day 1.5 crore/day2010 448 crore 420 crore 1005crore 915 crore 2.4 crore2009 395 crore 372 crore 915 crore 16,41,000 715 crore 1.33 crore2008 700crore 850 crore 600 crore 1.07 crore 22
    • AppraisalIt is pleaser to say that our DMRC is profitable from its inception. Year on year profit of DMRCis increasing because number of commuters also increasing due to time saving to reachcommuters and revenue has increase in last couple of year. DMRCs stations are for 6 to 8coaches but now DMRC is planning it for 10 coaches due to drastically increasing of commuters.When master plan 2021 will be complete, it will cover mostly NCR region. More than 40%people will be travel in DMRC and it earns near about 50 crore per day. DMRC may be also firstmetro in the world which will be generate high profit than other world metro. After completionof master plan 2011, DMRC will be start paying its soft loan to JBIC.If we talk about Internationally Metro profit, of the 178 Metros worldwide, only four make anoperating profit apart from Delhi; these are Hong Kong, Taipei, Singapore and Tokyo. It meansit is DMRC revenue model is best than 174 Metros in the worlds. DMRC is earning profit frombeginning of Metro.According to study of Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (Assocham),revenue earnings of the DMRC Rail Corp (DMRC) are likely to touch Rs.21 billion ($500million) in 2011, which is near about 300% as comparison in year 2007 which was Rs.7.3billion. Metro has a huge space in its possession; it is generating large rental revenues fromoutlets, malls by leasing out to domestic and overseas corporate.For every passenger who travels on the Metro, the cost is Rs 14 for the DMRC while it earnsaround Rs 3 crore every day from ticketing sales. A lions share of that revenue comes from thesmart cards: Rs 1.5 crore every day. According to Assocham estimates, the number of workingpeople using the public transport system in the National Capital Region (NCR) is seven million.The figure is likely to go up to over nine million by end of 2011. DMRC is promoting for sale ofSmart Card, because is more comfortable for DMRC and commuters both. Some metro likeSingapore Metro there people using 100% Smart card.When DMRC started, it had six trains and made 70 trips. Today, there are 160 trains and 2,400trips are made every day. “Beginning the journey on December 24, 2002, with 8.5 km, DMRCtoday has 183 km of network and connects with Noida and Gurgaon. For convenience ofcommuters DMRC reduce frequency time at peak hours, some route added six coaches metroalso.Color Line DMRC has dedicated specific color to their route. So that people can find their destinationeasily. In DMRC has six line (Red, blue, green, orange, yellow, violet). 23
    • Table no-4 Line Red line Yellow Green line Orange Violet line Blue line line line First operational December December December January February April 3, October 3, 24, 2002 20, 2004 31, 2005 8, 2010 23, 2011 2010 2010 Last Extension June 4, September October 30, Under February, Under January 2008 3, 2010 2010 construct 2011 construc 14, 2011 ion tion Stations 21 34 44 6 6 15 15 Length (km) 25.5 44.65 50 6 22.7 18.64 20.04 Dilshad Jahangirpur Noida City Yamuna New Delhi Inderlok Central Garden i Centre Bank Secretariat Terminals Rithala HUDA Dwarka Anand Dwarka Mundka Badarpur City Centre Sector 21 Vihar Sector 21 Rolling stock 23 trains 45 trains 59 trains 13 trains 8 trains 29 trainsConstruction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002, followed bythe Yellow Line in 2004, the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009, the Green and VioletLines in 2010 and the Delhi Airport Metro Express in 2011.The unique feature of DMRC is its integration with other modes of public transport, changingCommuters to conveniently interchange from one mode to another. The project is accomplishedwith the help of both local and international contractors who are contracted to design and buildthe facility.To ensure dependability and safety in train operations, it is equipped with the advancedcommunication system and train control system in metro train. Ticket and passenger arecontrolling through automatic fare collection which is first time introduce in India. Trains are 24
    • available at three minutes frequency. Entry and exit are controlled by smart card and tokenssystem. For increase ridership of DMRC, feeder buses are available at some metro stations.After all efforts a subway railway system is available in Delhi. During construction of metro line,many utilities like water pipes, sewerage lines, telephone and electric cables need to be relocatedto for construction work. People also have to berelocated. When, India’s first metro project in Kolkatatook more than 25 years to complete.By take a lesion through Kolkata metro, full authoritygiven to DMRC for Recruitment, land acquisition andfinancial budget. For DMRC, more than 35 studieshave been done on the transport problems of Delhisince 1950 – and suggested for Metro Rail for asolution in Delhi.DMRC is providing world class facilities as providingin London, Seoul and New York metro. Escalator at Inderlok Metro station 1. The station air-conditioning and ventilation system in tunnels have been planned to meet the rigorous climatic conditions of Delhi. The coaches are all air-conditioned. 2. Ticketing is fully automatic. Contact-less smart card serve the purpose of tickets for metro passengers.Supplier of Metro TrainThe first supplier of rolling stock was manufactured by a consortium comprising HyundaiRotem, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Initial sets were built byROTEM in South Korea. In 2002 Indian engineering firm Bharat Earth Movers Ltd (supplier ofIndian railways) signed a contract with South Korean firm Rotem for manufacturing rust-proofand has fiber-reinforced interiors steel coaches within India under a transfer of technologyagreement. A year later, Bharat Earth Movers (BEML) released the first rake comprising twoengines and four trailer coaches. By 2005, BEML had suppled180 coaches. After that BEMLcontinue supplying metro car.A contract has done between DMRC and Bombardier Transportation (Berlin based railtransportation equipment manufacturer) in October 2007 for supply of Metro car. Bombardierhas won a $43 million contract from the DMRC. It is expected to supply end of 2011.Metro Train in India-This is a list of metro train in India 25
    • Table no-6Town/city Type Gauge (mm)* Date StatusChennai Metro 1676 1995 OpenDelhi Metro 1676 2002 Open Metro 1435 2009 OpenKolkata Tram 1435 1873 Open Metro 1435 1984 OpenMumbai Metro 1435 Under Construction Monorail Straddle Under Construction*1676 mm- Broad gauge; 1435 mm- Standard gauge10 Earliest Metro in WorldTable no-7Location Name Opening Stations Length Length (km) (mi)London London Underground 1863 270 402 250New York City New York City Subway 1870 423 337 209Chicago Chicago L 1892 144 173 107Budapest Budapest Metro 1896 40 31.7 19.7Glasgow Glasgow Subway 1896 15 10.4 6.5Boston MBTA 1897 51 61 38Paris Paris Metro 1900 300 213 132Berlin Berlin U-Bahn 1902 173 147 91Athens–Piraeus ISAP 1904 24 25.6 15.9Philadelphia SEPTA 1907 53 40.07 24.90The most-used 10 metro systems in terms of passenger rides per year- 1. Tokyo Subway (Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway only) 3.160 billion (2009) 2. Moscow Metro 2.392 billion (2009) 3. Seoul Subway (Seoul Metro and SMRT) 2.048 billion (2009) 4. Shanghai Metro 2 billion (2010) 5. Beijing Subway 1.84 billion (2010) 6. New York City Subway 1.604 billion (2010) 7. Paris Metro 1.479 billion (2009) 8. Mexico City Metro 1.414 billion (2009) 9. Hong Kong MTR 1.41 billion (2010) 10. Guangzhou Metro 1.18 billion (2010) 29 DMRC 278 million (269 days in 2009-2010) 26
    • Social BenefitsDMRC is the first railway project to be registered under Clean Development Mechanism ofUnited Nations to earn carbon credits. The Metro has also giving a lesson for the social culturegiving us a sense of discipline, cleanliness and enhanced multidimensional development of theplace. At the same time it also reflects an image that could generate a sense of public pride,ownership and respect for the values being instilled by the new system.The DMRC Rail Corporations (DMRC) green efforts are finally paying off. The agency hasearned Rs 2.4 crore from the sale of 82,000 certified emission reductions (CER) under the carboncredits scheme by the Japan Finance Carbon Ltd in 2008 and 2009. While the DMRC earned Rs1.07 crore through the sale of 39,000 CERs for 2008, it earned Rs 1.33 crore through the sale of43,000 CERs for 2009.DMRC was the first railway project in the world to be registered by the United Nations under theclean development mechanism (CDM) which enabled it to claim carbon credits, wherein DMRCearns CER for the use of regenerative braking system in its rolling stock (trains), said a DMRCspokesperson. "This was the first time in the world that the United Nations frameworkconvention on climate change (UNFCCC) had registered a project based on regenerativebraking," added the official.A Germany-based validation organization TUV NORD which conducted an audit on behalf ofUNFCCC certified in 2009 that DMRC had stopped emission of 90,004 tons of carbon dioxidefrom 2004 to 2007 by adoption of regenerative braking systems in the DMRC trains. DMRCstarted the CDM project in September 2006.ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY POLICY - IMPACT ON CAPITALDMRC also try to make healthy Delhi, for it DMRC has done some excellent task like-1) DMRC helped save 33,000 tons of fuel and prevented the creation of over 2,275 tones of poisonous gases in the past four years.2) During construction of metro track if DMRC has cut a tree then DMRC plant 12 new tree as a compassion of single tree, and also put a gardener for watering and safety of tree.3) Saving environment: i) Studies conducted by the Central Road Research Institute have shown that the Metro has reduced at least 40,000 cars from being used for daily commute. ii) Metro possibly saved around 476 lives, which otherwise would have been lost due to road accidents. iii) It also helped save Rs288 crore in road maintenance and traffic management costs.4) Mind that line: Metro has done some change in the manner in which people behave in some public spaces. Commuters stick to the yellow line as they wait for trains. 27
    • 5) Saving jobs: Metro has proved to be a savior of sorts for hundreds of rickshaw operators in the city by helping at least around 20 rickshaw operators earn their living by ferrying Metro passengers, who aren’t on the feeder bus routes, to and from the stations to their homes.6) Real estate values: Metro is also responsible for high land and buildings prices with several new projects coming up in the locality of almost every Metro station.Services Provided by DMRC1) Free Drop Boxes at Metro Stations for Cheque- Commuters of the DMRC can pay their telephone, power and credit card bills at the Metro stations.2) Feeder bus services: For the benefit of nearby colonies, DMRC will provide connectivity to the new stations with its GPS-enabled feeder buses.Operations & Safety by DMRCTime to time DMRC announce safety week for commuters and workers. In this week DMRCtold how save yourself at emergence.Each train consists of four or more coaches and can carry up to 240 seated and 400 standingpassengers.1) The trains operate at intervals of 2.5 to 4 minutes between 6:00 to 23:00.2) Coaches on all trains are well ventilated and air-conditioned at a temperature of 20~22°C.3) All metro stations and trains are monitored constantly by more than 1200 closed-circuit cameras, and specially trained DMRC police are stationed at all stations and trains to deal with law and order issues.4) Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system. Constant and timely automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Many stations have services such as ATMs, food outlets, cafes and convenience stores.5) The route maps over doors and other easy-to-view places that make the journey even more easily even to the newest of travelers.Some Other Facilities Provided in Metro trainsThe safety features have implemented in the project is also one of the best among the worldwidemetro services-1) provide passengers with power connections inside the coaches so that they can use their laptops and charge their mobiles while they are traveling in the Metro2) Have reduced noise levels inside the trains by using special sound absorbing system in the walls of the Metro coaches and more buffing on the Metro doors which will be better sealed by reducing the door gaps to ensure that less sound from outside enters the trains. The noise level in the underground coaches has been reduced by 8 decibels (db) as in Phase-I the internal noise levels was around 92 db which will now be only 84 db in Phase-II. 28
    • 3) Have new destination sign boards in LED on one window of the side wall of each coach so that passengers can view the terminal stations while standing on the platform as some Trains may be terminating at intermediate stations depending upon operational needs.4) Also have Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTVs) inside the coaches apart from cameras outside the coaches so that the driver can see the entry and exit of passengers from the train. The driver of the Metro trains will now be able to observe passenger behavior in every part of the train at all times.5) The train will have energy absorbent couplers which can absorb shock and reduce damage to the car body structure in collisions.Other Features of New Stations {Ph.-II}The station buildings of Mansarovar Park, Jhilmil andDilshad Garden will have several features including-1) Separate Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) gates for entry and exit at opposite ends of stations.2) Water-harvesting structures.3) Close circuit television (CCTV) from the very beginning (16 at each station).4) Two Customer Care Centers at each station.5) Parking facilities at all stations.Metro Rolling StockManufacturer - An initial supplier of metro was ROTEM (formerly KOROS), MitsubishiCorporation, and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. The initial train sets were built at a ROTEMfacility in Korea but after that BEML was supplier, but are now being built by BombardierTransportation (Berlin based rail transportation equipment manufacturer) in Gujarat, India.Gauge –The trains run on the broad gauge (1676-mm) andstandard gauge (1435). 29
    • Broad Gauge of Metro TrackCoaches - 3.2 meter wide coaches with lobbies that permit passengers to move throughout thelength of the train. Trains currently consist of 4 coaches - two driving coaches and two trailingcoaches, but now 6coaches as a trial for minimize the no of commuters at metro station (systemis designed for trains with up to 8 coaches).The coaches are equipped with 3 phase AC motors,VVVF control, chevron rubber/air bag suspensionsystem and regenerative braking system. The initial lotsof 60 Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches are beingsupplied by ROTEM of South Korea while subsequentcoaches will be indigenously manufactured by BharatEarth Movers Ltd. (BEML). Contracts had done for thedelivery 240 coaches. BEML started delivery of locallyassembled coach sets in August 2003, and fully locallymanufactured units in January 2004. Now being built by Bombardier Transportation (Berlinbased rail transportation equipment manufacturer) and expected to supply end of 2011.Metro Train CoachThe coaches are made by stainless steel bodies and fiber-reinforced plastic interiors and weighabout 42-tones each coach. Metro trains are running at 80-km/h maximum speed. The nominalcapacity is 44 seated and 325 standing passengers each coach (64 handles), all trains are fullyair-conditioned. The trains have wide glass windows for enjoying outside site/picture and skytouching building. At metro station is equipped by automatic doors, which can be controlled bythe train operator. During travel passengers can talk to driver in case of an emergency.Methodology of Construction Construction of metro station and track are is on the contract basis. DMRC allot the contract andsupervise the quality control of everything.Fabrication of Metro stationTable no-8 WORK TASK PEREQUSITE TASK DURATION (days) A Survey 30 B Layout A 12 C Excavation B 10 D Pilling C 1 E Footing D 4 30
    • F Fabrication of girder 21G Structure pair (column) E 1H Pair cap G 1I Pair arm H 1J Girder FK Desk slab JL Platform slab KM Break work LN Sheeting M 90O TrackP Finishing N, O 1. Survey- Before starting construction of Station Company does survey according geographical. 2. Layout 3. Excavation 4. Pilling 5. Footing 6. Structure pair (column) 7. Pair cap 8. Pair arm 9. Girder 10. Desk slab 11. Platform slab 12. Break work 13. Finishing Construction at Kausambi Metro station 31
    • A B C D EGH FI J K L M N O 32 P
    • Subways- 2 subways near Welcome and Seelampur Metro Station have been constructed toenable people staying near the existing railway tracks, on the Shahdara- Delhi Main line, to crossthe tracks safely through box tunnels. The 3 meters high, 6 meters horizontal and 30 meters longboxes were inserted below the existing Northern Railway tracks without disturbing the trainmovement of Northern Railway. This astonishing feat was achieved in a record number of 22days.Yamuna Bridge-The state of the art 553 meters long continuous, single pre stressed box girder,for two tracks across the river Yamuna, was completed on 2nd Feb, 2001 in a period of just 30months by using a special technique called “Incremental Launching”. This constructiontechnique is ideal for busy cities because it allows construction without any major disruption oftraffic. Since sections advance the bridge, unlike conventionally built bridges, there are no jointsand this has also ensured a smooth, bump free journey for commuters.Underground Metro-DMRC achieved its first tunnel breakthrough of Phase-II with a TunnelBoring Machine (TBM) emerging at Hauz Khas after making a 1,450 meter-long tunnel fromMalviya Nagar on 31st May 2008. This TBM was lowered in Malviya Nagar shaft on December5, 2007 and after assembly of the TBM below the ground, tunneling was started from January 4,2008. The initial drive (60 meters) was completed in 18 days on January 21, 2008. Thereafter,the main drive was started on February 1, 2008, and the breakthrough was achieved today, abouta week ahead of schedule. 33
    • Mostly stations are being constructed with the cut-and-cover method in areas close to surfaceand the tenth namely Chawri Bazaar, is being constructed by combining the cut-andcover andunderground tunneling. Out of the tot al 10.84 km, approximately 4 km of twin bore tunnel fromKashmere Gate to Patel Chowk is being constructed using Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM), 34
    • because in most of the area the land cannot be occupied on the surface to facilitate constructionby cut and cover method.Tunnel Boring Machine Tunnel for Metro TrainThe TBM suppliers and conditions are as follows:• Contract BC16 (Qutab Minar Line): 2 TBMs by Herrenknecht (HK) and 2 TBMs by Robbinswith Mitsubishi• Contract BC18 (Qutab Minar Line): 2 TBMs by HK (Refurbished after Phase-I construction)• Contract BC24 (Badarpur Line): 4 TBMs by HKContract AMEL-C1 (Airport Line): 2 TBMs by HK (Refurbished from C855 in Singapore)• Contract AMEL-C5 (Airport Line): 2 TBMs by Okumura Machinery CorporationTemporary shaft and Setting of Cutter face from C855A German laser system was used to guide the TBM along its precise alignment. During thetunneling process, about 42,000 cubic meters of earth was excavated. A total of 1,210 rings, each1.2 m. in length, were installed simultaneously along with the tunneling process. Each ring hassix segments and these segments and rings are connected by using bolts. Every ring has 22 bolts 35
    • to strengthen the joints and join the rings together. A total of 26,600 bolts were used in the 1,450m long tunnel.To make the tunnel water-tight, hydrophilic gaskets were used between ring joints. Engineersused 32,065 m of hydrophilic gaskets in the tunnel. Extensive grouting was done all around therings to avoid settlement of the ground between the top surface of rings and soil surface.TBM making a TunnelPower Supply for DMRCElectricity supply is very important for DMRC. The system is as develop in which power supplywill regular and reliable power for running electric trains in the underground Metro Corridor andon the surface Corridor. Total Power required for running trains with modern coaches on boththe corridors is estimated to be 75 MW. This power will be used for running trains includingauxiliary loads such as lifts, escalators, lighting, ventilation and air conditioning etc. In addition45 MW power would be required to meet the loads for new commercial complexes planned to bebuilt over and around MRTS stations. To ensure continuous availability of quality power forrunning trains on the MRTS Corridors, DMRC, have made arrangements to get 120 MW powerfrom NTPC Thermal Power Station at Oriya Stage II. If power supply will be failure of NorthernGrid, power supply to Delhi MRTS stations of underground Metro Corridor will continue to befed from the Indra Prastha (IP) Gas Turbine Power Station. (Refer Figure 6) Power for theunderground Metro Corridor will be received at 3 receiving stations of MRTS namely ISBT,New Delhi and Patel Chowk. To ensure the reliability and all time power availability for the 36
    • underground Metro Corridor, 3 MRTS Power receiving stations are interconnected for transfer ofpower from one to another through Fire Retardant Low Smoke (FRLS) cable feeders. Thesereceiving stations will be remote controlled from Centralized Operation Control Centre throughSupervisory Control & Data Acquisition System (SCADA). In the unlikely event of total powerfailure, provision is made for automatic switching of emergency lighting in the tunnel and at theMRTS stations. In addition, all the trains will also have modern Ni-Cd Batteries to continue toprovide lighting and air conditioning even when the train is stopped in event of complete powerfailure. The ventilation and air conditioning arrangements in the tunnel and the undergroundstations are being so designed that emergency - 23 - ventilation arrangements for the stations andtunnel will continue to be maintained from the standby Generator Sets in such exigencies.For Rail Corridor it has been planned to avail power from NTPC Thermal Power Station at threeMRTS receiving stations through 400 kV, 220 kV & 66 kV extra high voltage transmissionnetwork. In the event of failure of one source, power can be fed at 25 kV side throughout thesection from other two sources. However, in the event of complete collapse of NREB grid,arrangements are being planned to transfer power from ISBT receiving sub-station of MetroCorridor to Rail Corridor. Arrangements have been planned to supply power for lifts, escalatorsand station lighting from the stand by Generator Set provided at each station in the event ofcomplete grid failure. 37
    • FareDMRC first time introduce in country, ticket and passenger control through automatic farecollection system.DMRC selling three type of tickets-1-Tocken – it is valid for single journey on a day of purchase and value depends on destination.Fare for single journey range from Rs 7 to 29.2- Smartcards-these cards are more convenient for permanent commuters. It can be recharge byRs 50,100.200.500. Each recharge gives a discount of 10% on travel fare.3- Tourist passes- It is available for one day or three days. For single day you have to Rs 150 inwhich Rs 50 is refundable or Rs 300 for three days in which Rs 50 is refundable. 38
    • The tokens and cards must be used both at the entry and the exit points. Tokens are available forsingle journey and return tickets only.DMRC smart card DMRC single journey tokenSeat ReservationBy the nature of its operation, compartments are not reserved for any category or person becauseof a large inflow and outflow of passengers at all stations at regular intervals. However, someseats have been reserved forth elderly persons, handicapped persons and ladies in eachcompartment. 1. Number of seats reserved for the elderly persons in each compartment - 2 2. Number of seats reserved for the handicapped persons in each compartment - 2 3. Number of seats reserved for ladies in each compartment - 4International CertificationThe DMRC has been awarded OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Assessmentsequence 18001) by Register Italiano Navale India Pvt. Ltd. (RINA), Geneva the DMRC RailCorporation (DMRC) received the ISO 14001 certificate for establishing an environmentalmanagement system making it the First Metro in the World to receive this certification at theconstruction stage.AccidentsAS ON July 22, 2010, E. Sreedharan’s said that 90 people have died in several accidents relatedto the construction of the mass transport system over last one decade in the national capital.However the construction & operation of the DMRC has seen its fair share of mishaps:  July 12, 2009: An under construction bridge collapsed during erection process near central secretariat causing five casualties and injuring the other five 39
    • Bridge collapse at central secretariat • 10 Nov 2008: Man commits suicide at Janakpuri Metro Station. • Oct 19, 2008: An under construction flyover collapsed in Laxmi Nagar of east Delhi due to mechanical failure leading to death of at least two people and injuring 30. • July 18, 2008: A malfunctioning crane at a metro construction site near Ram Manohar Lohia hospital dropped a four tone iron beam on a passing Tavera car injuring two. • Jan 21, 2008: A laborer was killed at a DMRC construction site here while carrying out burrowing work. • Aug 28, 2007: A crane driver died after a concrete block fell on him due to a "technical failure" at a DMRC construction site in Mayur Vihar in east Delhi. • The accelerated rate of construction due to the completion of phase II before the Commonwealth games resulted in few accidents also.DMRC Video Clipping /Documentary  A book has been published about the DMRC. It was released in 2003.  DMRC has been featured and has a special mention in 2005 Bollywood film Bewafaa.  DMRC has been featured in a Discovery Channel documentary 24 Hours with the DMRC.  DMRC has been extensively shown in the 2008 Subhash Ghai film Black & White, featuring Anil Kapoor.  The DMRC is also featured in the Toronto Film Festival Production "Amal".Cost of ProjectIt is important to examine cost of the projects before actually talking up its economic appraisal.The financial evaluation of project required its cash flows for the project. The investmentexpenditures made by the project in one of the years during its life time constitutes the purchaseof capital goods, cost of acquisition of land and payments made to skilled and unskilled laborand material inputs for project construction. For all of these requirements DMRC needs big debtcapital.Means of FinanceThis is joint venture, that’s why GOI and Delhi Government are paying 30% cost of the project,60% from Japan bank. 40
    • 1. 15% investment by the Government of India2. 15% investment by GNCTD3. 56% Loan from JBIC (Japan Bank for International Cooperation)4. Remaining 8% from Interest-free Loans for land acquisition and 6% from PropertyDevelopment.As urban MRT projects are mean to provide a safe, speedy and affordable mode of travel to thecommuters, they have not generally been found to be financially viable in the most cities of theworld, despite their large economic benefits. MRT fares cannot be fixed purely on the basis ofcommercial principles, without drastic decrease in ridership and defeating the very object ofsetting up such mass transit system. Hence, the city dwellers must necessarily supplement thecontributions to be made by the system users to meet the costs of setting up. as well as runningthe system. Delhi being national capital and international city, the GOI and GNCTD must alsocontribute to meet part of these costs. It has accordingly been decided that the project will befinanced by way of equity contributions from the GOI / GNCTD, soft loan from the OECF(Japan), property development revenue and certain decided levies / taxes on the city dwellers.The loan will rapid partly from surpluses from the box revenue, partly through dedicated levies /taxes in the NCT. The financial plan of the project has been approved by the GNCTD and GIOon 24.7.1996 and 17.9.19996 respectively.Table no-9 Source of Finance Percentage of Total Cost 1. Equity contribution from GOI& GNCTD 15% each 2. OECF (Japan) Loan Approx. 56% 3. Revenue from Property Development Approx. 6% 4. Subordinate Debt towards Cost and Land Approx. 8% The above financial plan is based on : Debt Equity ratio 2:1 But due to tsunami crisis, now JBIC reduce the loan for next funding, it will pay only 40% costof the project.Economic BenefitsThe Delhi MRTS is essentially a "social" sector project, whose benefits will pervade widesections of economy. The modified first phase will generate substantial benefits to the economyby the way of:  Time saving for commuters  Reliable and safe journey 41
    •  Reduction in atmospheric pollution  Reduction in accident  Reduced fuel consumption  Reduced vehicle operating costs  Increase in the average speed of road vehicles  Improvement in the quality of life  More attractive city for economic investment and growth SummaryI travelled all route of DMRC and saw the metro station structure. Metro stations are mostly nearabout residential area, market, and convenient for other mode of transportation. DMRC is usingmostly automated system for convenient of commuters, like automated flap door, ticket reader,automated announcement, automated Metro train door, automated power supply etc.During the travel commuters are fallow the instruction and they not eat anything, young agecommuters provide their seats to old person and lady. They also promote to other people. If theyfind any irregularity in system or any kind of problems they inform to DMRC.I visit DMRC Museum at Patel Chauk, there they putted Tunnel Boring Machine model. This isin working condition (moving). They try to explain how to come this position from beginning ofthe project. Metro Museum is at working station of Patel Chauk. There they put some memorablepicture in the history of DMRC.I also visited Indian Rail Museum at Chankyapuri to understand Indian Railway. There theyputted many kind of engine, Crain machine, old instrument which was using when beforefreedom. I saw a ticket of Indo-Pak journey first reservation ticket. They pasted all RailwayMinisters picture. I also travelled there nano gauge train. I fully enjoyed that day.DMRC is a world class metro. For maintain their service, DMRC believe in outsourcing. DMRCis doing outsourcing for cost cutting and excellent in service. People of Delhi are generallysatisfied with the services offered by DMRC and are proud of experiencing one of the mostmodern and world-class technological systems.DMRC is eco-friendly metro. In metro train DMRC used advanced technology for observation ofsound. In metro train they used motors for generating electric. Some station DMRC planted rainharvesting system for recycling of rain water. The DMRC Rail Corporation (DMRC) receivedthe ISO 14001 certificate for establishing an environmental management system making it theFirst Metro in the World to receive this certification at the construction stage. 42
    • Recommendation 1. Recommendation of further research- DMRC is world class metro, a technology which is used in DMRC; it is about to couple of decades. Day by day technologies are upgrading and become more users friendly. To keep it mind DMRC also fallow the footprint of advance era. 2. Recommendation for action- I. If any organization tries to develop, it must be develop and grow by physically and economically. DMRC can increase their revenue by providing more facilities like Shopping malls at the metro station, ATM etc. II. Number of commuters drastically increases at weekend, holidays, office time and festival in summer. So DMRC should increase number of cars, so that decrease the decrease the number of people at station. III. At peak hours people have to wait for entry at station due to single check-up system. DMRC should add more security checkup booth for convenience of commuters. IV. Few metro station like Rajiv Chauk, New Delhi, Central Secretariat and Kasmeeri Gate have more rush, so some unauthorized people try to thief of wallet and jewelries. DMRC use CCTV Camera to catch up those thefts on the spot. 43
    • List of AbbreviationsDMRC-DMRC Rail CorporationGNCTD - Government of National Capital Territory of DelhiGOI- Government of IndiaDDA- Delhi Development AuthorityNCR-National Capital RegionJBIC- Japan Bank for International CooperationCCTV- closed-circuit televisionATM- automated teller machineAFC -Automatic Fare CollectionBRTS -Bus Rapid Transit SystemsVVVF -variable voltage variable frequencyIPGTPS-Indra Prastha Gas Turbine Power StationCER -certified emission reductionsAssocham-Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India 44
    • References1. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-05/delhi/29384145_1_population- central-delhi-yamuna-2. http://www.dailypioneer.com/334625/Metro-Phase-III-plan-clears-funding-hurdle.html-3. http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/delhi/4. http://www.delhicapital.com/delhi-metro/news/airport-express-line-started.html5. http://www.delhicapital.com/delhi-metro/news/delhi-metro-phase3.html6. http://www.delhimetrorail.com/project_updates.aspx7. http://www.delhimetrorail.com/about_us.aspx#Introduction8. http://delhigovt.nic.in/dmrc.asp9. http://railwaysworld.blogspot.com/2009/01/top-10-underground-transit-systems-in.html10. http://www.urbanrail.net/11. DMRC Annual report 2008-200912.Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, Eighth Edition, Harold Kerzner, John Wiley & Sons13. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-13/delhi/29413468_1_carbon-credits- dmrc-delhi-metro-trains14. http://www.delhimetrorail.com/whatnew_details.aspx?id=spzgQyC0reYlld15. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Delhi/Delhi_Metro_Rail_accidents_- _a_time_line/articleshow/3615712.cms16. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2007-10-15/news/27673740_1_delhi-metro- inderlok-mundka17. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2009-08-07/news/28416168_1_delhi-metro- construction-bridge-dmrc18. http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=516812&page=2919. http://machinist.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1105&Itemid=220. http://www.zeenews.com/news637696.html21. http://www.delhimetrorail.com/whatnew_details.aspx?id=5sisPXgqPnjo0lld22. http://www.bricks-n-mortar.com/2010/02/delhi-metro-dmrc-bridge-collapse.html23. Article-“Sustainable urbane transport”- Terra Green magazine December 201024. http://www.forbes.com/global/2009/0511/026-india-delhi-subway-builder.html25. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-08/delhi/29522572_1_smart-cards- metro-spokesperson-metro-passengers26. http://www.delhimetrorail.com/whatnew_details.aspx?id=SAQY8wVbPA8lld&rdct=d27. http://the-news-today.blogspot.com/2008/07/delhi-metro-revenues-to-exceed-rs-21-bn.html28. http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/delhi-metro-revenue-surges-on-highest- ridership_100228086.html#comments29. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article27483.ece30. http://www.hindu.com/2007/09/24/stories/2007092457210400.htm31. http://mic-ro.com/metro/table.html 45