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  • 1. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education Authors: Kirk Pecka; Sheldon Stickb Affiliations: a Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA b University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA DOI: 10.1080/15363750701818394 Published in: Christian Higher Education, Volume 7, Issue 3 July 2008 , pages 200 - 225 Publication Frequency: 5 issues per year Download PDF (8 MB) View Related Articles To cite this Article: Peck, Kirk and Stick, Sheldon Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education, Christian Higher Education, 7:3, 200 - 225 Abstract This study incorporated an instrumental embedded case study design to explore how 15 faculty members and an administrator at one Catholic institution of higher education describe their responsibility to promote the academic mission of Ignatian spirituality. Interviews included Jesuit, Catholic, and non-Catholic faculty, and the president of Holy University. It was determined that participants ability to foster Ignatian spirituality was dependent upon their religious beliefs and a willingness to promote values common to Catholic and Jesuit faith traditions, despite facing multiple challenges to fulfilling the academic mission. A conceptual model developed that demonstrated relationships among academic administrators, faculty, and students, and how the interactions influence the ability to foster Ignatian spirituality and preserve a faith-based identity at Holy University. Additional perspectives from members at Holy University and other Jesuit institutions of higher learning need to be explored to develop a greater understanding of the academic mission of Ignatian spirituality. Introduction Johnson (1997) and earlier Veysey (1965) stated that nearly all institutions of higher education support a tripartite mission of teaching, research, and service grounded in historical significance. It was, and continues to be, an amenable declaration, but in 1998 Buckley altered that claim by saying Catholic universities added a “full faith- experience moving towards intelligence and of finite intelligence moving towards its satisfaction in transcendent completion” (p. 16). The implication of Buckleys pronouncement was that Catholic institutions of higher education are not distinct from1 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 2. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... the church, and are expected to foster a “search for the whole truth about nature, man and God” (Ex Corde Ecclesiae, 1990, p. 1). The power behind Buckleys claim was magnified by the “Ex Corde Ecclesiae,” issued in 1990 by Pope John Paul II, which described and outlined an Apostolic Constitution for Catholic Universities. Ex Corde Ecclesiae Ex Corde Ecclesiae is a constitution that called for Catholic universities to renew their identities as being both “universities” and “Catholic,” and stipulated four essential characteristics: (1) Christian inspiration not only of individuals but of the university community as such; (2) A continuing reflection in the light of the Catholic faith upon the growing treasury of human knowledge, to which it seeks to contribute by its own research; (3) Fidelity to the Christian message as it comes to us through the Church; and (4) An institutional commitment to the service of the people of God and of the human family in their pilgrimage to the transcendent goal which gives meaning to life. (Ex Corde Ecclesiae, 1990, pp. 2-3) In addition, Ex Corde Ecclesiae contained a list of General Norms to assist Catholic academic institutions to accomplish their missions while being in concert with the desires of the Holy See. Two norms in Ex Corde Ecclesiae pertained to faculty teaching at Catholic institutions of higher education, and served as the genesis for the work reported in this article. Paragraph 3, Article 4 stated, “Catholic theologians, aware that they fulfill a mandate received from the Church, are to be faithful to the Magisterium of the Church as the authentic interpreter of Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition” (1990, p. 9). Second, Paragraph 4, Article 4 stated, “In order not to endanger the Catholic identity of the university or institute of higher studies, the number of non-Catholic teachers should not be allowed to constitute a majority within the institution, which is and must remain Catholic” (p. 9). The interpretation of those norms was that the church had authority over certain practices in Catholic colleges and universities. But not everyone agreed to the literal authority Ex Corde Ecclesiae claimed. Some expressed doubt regarding a judicial interpretation, particularly in institutions where the apostolate was not formally adopted (Currie, 2001; Heft, 1999; Moser, 2002; Wilson, 2001). In addition to generating conversation regarding Ex Cordes ostensibly authoritative position, the document expressed a concern for retaining the Catholic identity in institutions of higher education. It stated, “All professors are expected to be aware of and committed to the Catholic mission and identity of their institution” (National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2000, p. 15). A literal interpretation of those two norms led to the conclusion that the Holy Sees declaration meant that faculty persons at Catholic institutions of higher education had to act in accordance with the mission of the church if not its tenets. Adding to the cauldron was the importance for educating respective faculty about Catholic values, because in so doing the result would be enhanced retention of the Catholic identity. Buckley (1998) claimed that Ex Corde Ecclesiae (1990) was a “call for a much stronger, much more concrete affirmation of the Catholic character of (American)2 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 3. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... universities, the grasp of the promise inherent in such an identity, and the direction that its character or identity be found in its purpose, an organic unity between the gospel and culture.” Furthermore, it was contended that “American Catholic universities will not likely receive a more authoritative summons to articulate their identity, to develop a deeper sense of what they are” (pp. 23-24). Study Location Holy University, a pseudonym for an institution located in the Midwest, was founded in 1878 through the execution of the will of Mary Holy. She was the widow of Edward Holy, an early pioneer of the transcontinental telegraph, who wanted to establish a university in the Midwest. The Jesuit Order was asked to manage the university and has done so since the institutions doors first opened in the late 1800s (Holy University Bulletin, 2001). Currently, Holy University is one of 28 independent Jesuit institutions of higher education in the United States, is a comprehensive teaching institution consistently ranked as a top-rated private institution of higher education in the United States (Holy University Bulletin, 2001), and has more than 6000 students matriculating in its various colleges and graduate programs of study (Aschenbrenner, 1982): medicine, dentistry, business administration, the arts and sciences, law, nursing, pharmacy and other health-related professions. An overarching goal of the institution has been to foster a sense of spiritual well-being as a part of developing graduates for the betterment of society. Achieving that goal has been accomplished through Holy Universitys identity with the Society of Jesus and its association with the principles and morals encompassing the Catholic faith. Holy University and Ex Corde Ecclesiae During his inaugural address as the 23rd president at Holy University, Rev. John P. Spirit, S.J., reaffirmed the importance of the relationship between the Jesuit mission and that of the Catholic Church, and reemphasized the relationship Holy University had with the church by stating: Holy University has recognized its special relationship to the Catholic Church at both the local and the universal level. In this context of a Catholic university, theology, philosophy, and moral behavior are integral as we provide a setting where religious experience and secular experience join in dialogue to meet the issues of the day. (Spirit, 2000, p. 3) According to Father Spirit (2000), Ex Corde Ecclesiae was an exemplary instrument encouraging renewed efforts “to foster the Catholic identity and mission of Holy University and other like institutions” (p. 5). It was a living document developed by the Catholic Church but subscribed to for the purpose of reuniting the faith and traditions of Catholicism with the intellectual underpinnings of higher education. Holy University was chosen for this case study due to its faith-based philosophy rooted in the Jesuit mission and declared emphases on maintaining an integral relationship with the Catholic Church. An inherent assumption was that faculty persons at Holy University upheld the mission of the institution as a center for both intellectual and3 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 4. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... spiritual development. Support for that premise came from President Spirit (2000) who stated the university “interprets the church to the world and the world to the church” (p. 5). Those words strengthened the belief that Holy University was an institution not only espousing the importance of gaining knowledge and wisdom, but was a center of learning where the academic community and students alike actively sought to explore the true spirit of humanity. This case study attempts to explore how selected faculty members at one Jesuit and Catholic institution of higher education describe their responsibilities for fulfilling the academic mission of Ignatian spirituality. By doing so they are directly fostering the Catholic and Jesuit identity of the institution. Grand Tour Question How do selected members of the faculty at one Catholic/Jesuit institution of higher education describe their responsibility in fulfilling the academys academic mission of Ignatian spirituality? Subquestions 1. How do faculty persons at Holy University describe its academic mission with regard to promoting the teachings of Ignatian spirituality? 2. How do faculty persons at Holy University describe the Catholic Churchs expectations for the institution to influence, directly or indirectly, the teachings of Ignatian spirituality? 3. How do faculty persons at Holy University describe administrative expectations for fostering Ignatian spirituality? 4. How do Jesuit, Catholic (non-Jesuit), and non-Catholic faculty persons at Holy University perceive their religious orientation with regard to fostering Ignatian spirituality? 5. How does the personal spirituality of the participant faculty persons at Holy University influence their academic role? 6. How do the participant faculty persons at Holy University describe challenges when fostering Ignatian spirituality? 7. How do the participant faculty persons at Holy University describe professional and/or personal rewards when working in a faith-based institution seeking to be in compliance with a directive to instill Ignatian spirituality? 8. How do participant faculty perceptions of Ignatian spirituality compare to the views held by the president for Holy University? Method Data were collected using semistructured interviews with the university president and 15 participant faculty persons representing multiple undergraduate degree disciplines. Excluding the president, interviewees were selected purposefully to obtain representation from three religious backgrounds: (a) Jesuit faculty, (b) Catholic (non-Jesuit) faculty, and (c) non-Catholic faculty. In addition, all participants held primary academic appointments consisting of a minimum 50% teaching workload of undergraduate education.4 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 5. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Participants Fifteen faculty participants and the president of Holy University were selected for the study. A chaplain employed at Holy University recommended 31 faculty members for the pool: 8 Jesuit, 10 Catholic, and 13 non-Catholic faculty persons. A second list of candidates was solicited from an institutionally based Faculty Mission and Identity Group to ensure that a diverse group of potential candidates were being considered. That list contained: 1 Jesuit, 4 known Catholics, and 7 unknown religious affiliations. Finally, a third list of 8 candidates was obtained by consulting with the Office of Campus Ministry at Holy University, again to diversify the selection of potential participants. That list contained: 0 Jesuits, 2 Catholics, and 3 unknown religious affiliations. All of the potential participants were separated according to being Jesuit, Catholic, and non-Catholic. In situations when the religious orientation of a prospective participant was not available, the name was placed in a category labeled “unknown” until personal contact could be made for verification. From the completed list of potential participants a listing was made with names representing each of the three religious affiliation categories. The rationale was to ensure there would be sufficient participants in each of the three categories. Prospective participants were contacted initially by telephone. The title, purpose, brief explanation of the study, and time commitment to participate all were described to each individual. Upon receipt of a verbal consent to participate, an informed consent form and letter explaining the study were provided through use of an on-campus mail service. All participants received, signed, and returned a copy of consent prior to being interviewed. Only one person, who originally agreed to participate, later declined. That individual was a non-Catholic faculty member, and after reviewing the list of interview questions, notified the researcher of an inability to discuss Ignatian spirituality for lack of understanding the concept. All remaining persons initially contacted for the study agreed to participate during the initial phone conversation. A replacement participant was chosen from the list developed. Participant Demographics Relevant demographics appear in Tables 1-6. Importantly, an inclusionary criterion was that a person had to have been employed at Holy University for a minimum of three years to ensure they were acculturated into the community of the institution. The 15 faculty members consisted of 10 males and 5 females, with the sole administrator being the university president, a male. TABLE 1 Demographics according to Faculty Rank or Title (N = 15)* Associate Assistant Professor Instructor Director Professor Professor *Administrator/University President (16th person interviewed) N = 1.5 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 6. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Associate Assistant Professor Instructor Director Professor Professor N=5 N=5 N=3 N=1 N=1 *Administrator/University President (16th person interviewed) N = 1. TABLE 2 Average Number of Years Employed at Holy University (excluding the President) Male Female Aggregate 16.2 yrs 11 yrs 14.4 yrs TABLE 3 Departments Represented Academic Department Number of Participants Political Science 1 Classical and Near Eastern Studies 3 Sociology and Anthropology 1 Arts and Sciences 2 English 1 Justice and Peace Studies 1 Education 1 Theology 4 Fine Arts 16 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 7. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Academic Department Number of Participants Administration (President) 1 TABLE 4 Selected Characteristics of the Non-Catholic Faculty Participants (N = 5). Claire Marco Ronaldo Wonka Sister Anne Highest Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Degree Earned Academic Associate Associate Assistant Professor Professor Rank Professor Professor Professor Classical and Classical and Classical and Sociology Academic Political Near Eastern Near Eastern Near Eastern and Department Science Studies Studies Studies Anthropology Length of Employment at 28 years 8 years 9 years 10 years 4 years Holy University Undergraduate 100% 30% 99% 100% 90% Teaching Load All had earned their terminal Academic Degree and varied between the ranks of Assistant through Full Professor. One participant (Marco) had a modest undergraduate teaching assignment (30% FTE). TABLE 5 Selected Characteristics of the Catholic Faculty Participants (N = 5). Bill Harry Jane Eyre Martin Rose Highest Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. M.A. Ph.D. Degree Earned Academic table it can be seen that four ofAssociate In the above Professor Associate Director Associate the five participants held the highest Rank Professor Professor Professor Academic Degree for their discipline. The one person without a terminal degree was assigned the title of Director for the Department of Justice and Peace Studies. All persons in this category had instructional assignments ranging from 50% to 100% FTE. Justice and Academic Arts and Arts and English Peace Education Department Sciences Sciences Studies7 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 8. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... TABLE 6 Selected Characteristics of the Jesuit Faculty Participants (N = 5) RJH Inigo Murphy Andy Bobadilla Highest 2 Masters 3 Masters Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Degree Earned Degrees Degrees Academic Assistant Associate Professor Professor Instructor Rank Professor Professor Academic Theology Theology Theology Fine Arts Theology Department Length of Employment at 31 years 30 years 3 years 13 years 4 years Holy University Undergraduate 75% 75% 100% 100% 100% Teaching Load Table 6 shows three Jesuit faculty persons held terminal Academic Degrees, four of them were Theology Instructors, and they ranged in faculty rank from Instructor (Murphy with two Masters Degrees and three years of tenure at Holy University) to RJH with 31 years at Holy University. All participants in this study chose a personal pseudonym for the purpose of anonymity, but were aware that the information culled would be made available to the professional community in aggregate form, except for the Holy University president. The resident of Holy University was assigned the pseudonym Fr. Spirit by the researcher. The following tables display demographic data regarding the participants from each faculty unit. Data Collection Interview Protocol Interviews were scheduled at a time and place convenient to each participant. The average time for each interview session was between 40 and 60 minutes. All interviews were audiotaped, using two microcassette recorders sequentially, and the researcher made handwritten notes to complement the recordings. Each person interviewed was provided with 14 predetermined questions prior to data collection following a procedure outlined by Creswell (1998). Open-ended questions were utilized, and when necessary, question probes (also on the questionnaires) were incorporated. Of note is8 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 9. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... that the interview process used in this study was piloted in a previous research project (Luparell, Wackel, & Peck, 2003). Interview Transcripts Each set of interviews was transcribed by the researcher within three days using a portable electronic transcription unit. To enhance internal validity the transcriptions were returned to respective participants by electronic mail for a review of content and accuracy, a process Merriam (2001) referred to as member checks. After receiving feedback from individual participants, transcript data were then manually coded into categories and themes as outlined by Creswell (1994) and Strauss and Corbin (1998). Data Coding Transcript data were analyzed using both open and axial coding procedures as described by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Strauss and Corbin explained open coding as a process whereby text data were analyzed by identifying, naming, categorizing, and describing phenomena. Text data in this study were organized for open coding analysis by organizing participant responses to the sequence of interview questions into 13 distinct segments, one for each participants response to a given question. The 14th question asked was not related directly to any aspect of the study, and therefore not coded. It was open-ended in the sense of inquiring whether a participant wanted to add information or address something not covered. Open coding of text data consisted initially of identifying key words and word phrases characterizing the overall meaning of participant responses in relation to each interview question. The initial coding process continued for the 13 questions until the researcher determined data collection had been exhausted. The findings from that initial coding process yielded a list of 13 distinct groups of open codes that related to the 13 interview questions. Then that set of 13 groups of coded word and word phrases were analyzed further and coded into conceptual subcategories. Depending on the number of open codes listed in each group, between one and eight subcategories was generated. Subcategories were written in the right-hand margins of participant transcripts, and used later for axial coding. Results The axial coding process yielded 10 unit themes. Catholic and non-Catholic participant units each were described by three themes, while four themes emerged from the Jesuit participant unit. Unit themes from all participants then were used to derive aggregate case-study themes. Strauss and Corbin (1998) described a method of constant comparison used to compare two or more data sets to identify emerging phenomena. The method was incorporated in this study to compare all 10 participant unit themes. Unit themes were grouped by similar meanings, and then analyzed to identify aggregate case-study themes. A total of three aggregate case-study themes emerged. Figures 1, 2, and 39 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 10. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... display the three case-study themes, and corresponding participant unit themes used for analysis. FIGURE 1 Case study: Aggregate Theme One. FIGURE 2 Case-Study: Aggregate Theme Two. FIGURE 3 Case-Study: Aggregate Theme Three. Discussion Theme One: Faculty Role to Foster Ignatian Spirituality Influenced by Religious Beliefs10 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 11. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... The ability to foster Ignatian spirituality varied according to religious faith beliefs, but it was an important factor reflecting the overall identity of Holy University. In this study, non-Catholic participants were less inclined to openly express or discuss Ignatian spirituality presumably because of not fully understanding the concept. For example, Marco revealed how his non-Catholic faith background influenced his ability to foster Ignatian spirituality. He said, “I have a conservative Jewish background which is not, as one might think, the most traditional. It is Orthodox Jewish, but in a world where we really did not discuss spiritual matters, it was not a part of my upbringing.” He added, Although the institutional history betweens Jews and Catholics has not necessarily been very good, nonetheless, there is a lot of commonality between Jews and Catholics. There is a sense of history, there is a strong sense of ritual that is both a life cycle, and the annual cycle, there is a sense in which the biblical text is very important, but it does not limit it is not Gods revelation that limits it to that. Marcos comments were viewed as meaning he was willing to find commonalities between his Jewish faith, and Catholicism; however, it also indicated a recognized limitation. He was not able to adequately address the concept of Ignatian spirituality because it was a form of spirituality uncommon to the Jewish faith. Regardless of perceptions, non-Catholic participants expressed a sense of comfort and belonging at Holy University. They reported having faith beliefs similar to or, at minimum, not contradictory to Ignatian spirituality. When expressing her beliefs about fostering Ignatian spirituality, Sister Anne replied, Well, I think that is largely because I am Lutheran and we are so close to Catholicism. You know, in a real deep sense, Lutheranism is still Catholicism without the Pope. So we try to foster real reflective and almost a bold bold is the word Luther said bold spirituality. So it is very consistent with my own spiritual development. Jesuit and Catholic participants were comfortable with and agreed to the general ethos of Ignatian spirituality. However, Jesuit participants described being more overt about discussing the topic with students, and colleagues. That was not surprising because Ignatian spirituality was considered an essential element to the Society of Jesus, and thus an integral part of being a Jesuit faculty member at Holy University. Theme Two: Academic Mission of Ignatian Spirituality Fostered by a Responsibility to Instill an Ethos of Shared Values The second theme to emerge emphasized the importance participants placed on promoting and role modeling a shared system of values as a way to foster Ignatian spirituality. Charisms, such as cura personalis (Latin for care for the whole person), the magis (Latin for the more), and men and women for and with others, were just a few examples of values mentioned by participants. Participants described several mechanisms to foster Ignatian-based values including faculty role modeling, interactions with colleagues and administrators, and demonstrating an attitude of care towards students in their personal growth. When asked about opportunities she had to foster Ignatian Spirituality, Claire stated,11 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 12. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... I would like to think that a lot of what I do fosters spirituality in a very indirect sense because I confront students to think about their values, and I certainly confront people to think comparatively about religion, and about what they are going to do with their lives. Another point of view was expressed by Jane, who offered a more definitive description of how Ignatian spirituality was manifested in human behavior. She stated, I think the way spirituality is integrated is in your disposition. Disposition is the word I would use, your disposition toward your work, your disposition toward your students. Finally, RJH reflected on a personal concern he had for fostering Ignatian values. When asked what he liked about his faculty role and ability to influence students, he described the freedom he and other faculty in the theology department had to express personal beliefs, and “safe commitments.” He stated, Kids are trying to find meaning in life, and we can help them. I think we could help them more than we do if we overcome our self-consciousness about our own faith. And maybe it is just outside of class we feel free to share, but I still think there is a role in class for integrating the finding God in all things not as a major, but at least in context for the study of a discipline. Theme Three: Prevailing Institutional Tensions Pose Barriers to Fostering Spirituality The third theme identified concerns participants had regarding their ability to adequately foster Ignatian spirituality at Holy University. The participants cited multiple challenges to fulfilling the academic mission due to a lack of faculty commitment, a lack of personal time to develop spiritually, increased faculty and student secularization on campus, and a lack of a formal rewards system recognized by administration. When asked about academic administrations expectations for faculty to foster Ignatian spirituality, Andy replied, I think the key is in the hiring process. When people are asked they are given Holy Universitys mission statement, which is rather simple, and asked, “Do you think that you can support the Catholic and Jesuit worldview as a faculty member here?” And of course most people say yes. It is making everyone conscious that this is a sectarian university. Another challenge to fostering Ignatian spirituality was articulated as a lack of a formal rewards system. RJH explained that faculty members typically were recognized for accomplishments by elevation in rank and awarding of tenure. His issue dealt with, “What if a person is an active person practicing and witnessing to the centrality of the Christian life on campus. Should not that be a factor for tenure? Is not that person embodying the identity we are trying to teach?” Harry echoed the thoughts of RJH when he stated, We try to foster this celebration of truth in all forms, and they call it an integrating vision of reality. The way we do stuff here, I think, the trying interdepartmental, interdivisional faculty forums and things like that I think works to foster that. Beyond that, expectations do not get to the point of job12 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 13. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... performance though. Additional challenges mentioned, by selected participants, as inhibiting an ability to foster Ignatian spirituality included a lack of time and resources. When asked about the challenges to fostering spirituality, Sister Anne stated, I think I alluded to that earlier, that there is this notion that lots of times our jobs are based on something other than spiritual ends, that there are all these busy agendas. The numbers and the time and all that stuff that just take you away from thinking about what am I really here for, what am I really doing, when behind the scenes, there is never any doubt you know. And the support is there if you really reach out for it. But you can get caught up in thinking, really what I am doing is working in a salt mine, because I have got so much work to do, so little time, and everybody is under pressure, and you know if you do not look for the spiritual part, you might miss it. Bill added that the amount of time he spent fostering the intellectual growth of students and developing professional relationships with colleagues deterred him from personal spiritual growth. He poignantly stated, “I have come to a fate where time with my students is more important than time with my God.” So lack of time for faculty to foster their own spirituality was perceived as another challenge to addressing the academic mission at Holy University, a challenge Murphy may have summarized best when he said, “Time You know, I would go there first, but I am busy, and I know my colleagues are busy, they are going 15 different ways from Sunday, and what any spirituality, any spiritual discipline takes is time, and to reflect, to pray, to journal. I think that is one of the keys.” Limitations on participants abilities to foster Ignatian Spirituality were multifaceted. However, no particular challenge superseded another in terms of significance; rather they were all equally expressed as creating tension among faculty to fulfill the academic mission of Holy University. Administrative Perspective Father Spirit, president of Holy University, was interviewed to learn how faculty members observations on fostering Ignatian spirituality compared to the perceptions of a key academic administrator. His position granted him authority to govern, communicate with faculty, and function as a human liaison between Holy University and the Catholic Church. His opinion about the role of faculty at the institution was considered instrumental in this case study. Four themes emerged from Father Spirits interview: (a) spiritual mission fostered by engaged faculty and administration, (b) spirituality fostered through values, and respect for Catholic identity, (c) institutional identity challenged by secularism, and (d) academic mission sustained by graduate outcomes. Interview questions for Father Spirit were modified from the faculty questionnaire. The intent was to address his role as an academic administrator being in a position to encourage faculty members in the academic mission of Ignatian spirituality. In relation to the first theme of “engaging faculty in the spiritual mission,” Father Spirit13 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 14. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... said that he encouraged faculty to foster Ignatian spirituality by challenging them during faculty orientation speeches. When asked to address new faculty hires, he told them to “be hard on the students, and to engage the students, give them the tools for inquiry but not the answers, and how to make ethical decisions without the answers.” When he spoke to students he relayed a similar message by saying, “I have told the faculty to challenge you, and I have told the faculty to give you the tools but you have got to reach your own conclusions.” To engage students in the Jesuit mission, Father Spirit emphasized the importance of quality teaching, and how it relied upon the methods used for instruction. He stated, You know it is not Jesuit education simply to amass the facts, and pass an exam. That will get you into medical school, but it will not get you a place in heaven kind of thing. You know there is more to life than that. The mere acquisition of knowledge is not a Jesuit education. There has to be the reflection that goes with it. And that is both sides, I mean that is service learning to me is an absolute dead end, just another trend or novelty if there is not a reflective piece in there. Engaging students by incorporating methods of active reflection on personal behaviors was a hallmark of Ignatian pedagogy. Father Spirit emphasized the concept of using reflection as a pedagogical strategy and explained it by providing examples during the interview, including projects related to student engagement with the poor. Research Implications Theme One: Faculty role to foster Ignatian spirituality influenced by religious beliefs. Implication: Hiring faculty members who supported the academic mission of Ignatian Spirituality might have implications on preserving identity in Catholic and Jesuit institutions of higher education. Theme Two: Academic mission of Ignatian spirituality fostered by a responsibility to instill an ethos of shared values. Implication: A high level of importance was placed on fostering human values in fulfilling the academic mission of Ignatian spirituality at Holy University. Catholic and Jesuit institutions might benefit from further exploration and faculty education on promoting a set of shared values to foster an academic mission of Ignatian spirituality. Theme Three: Prevailing institutional tensions pose barriers to fostering spirituality. Implication: Administrators and faculty in Catholic and Jesuit institutions of higher education need to consider many factors creating potential barriers to fulfilling academic mission. Themes: Father Spirit Theme One: Spiritual mission fostered by engaged faculty and administration.14 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 15. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Implication: Both academic administrators and faculty members are accountable to fulfilling academic mission, and collaboration between the two entities is essential. Theme Two: Spirituality fostered through values, and respect for Catholic identity. Implication: This finding supported the second participant case study theme. Its implication was discovering the importance of teaching shared values, as opposed to requiring faculty to foster Ignatian spirituality explicitly. Theme Three: Institutional identity challenged by secularism. Implication: The concern about increased secularization in higher education implied the need for ongoing dialogue between Catholic and non-Catholic faculty and administration in Jesuit higher education; an important reminder for both administrators and faculty alike. Theme Four: Academic mission sustained by graduate outcomes. Implication: This theme was specific only for Father Spirit, but was deemed as being significant when identifying a tool to measure success in Jesuit education. Delimitations and Limitations This study was limited by several factors, including both delimitations and limitations. The three delimitations were (a) a relatively small number of participants (N = 16), (b) the study was conducted at only one out of the 28 Jesuit institutions of higher education in the United States, and (c) only faculty members teaching undergraduate education were interviewed for this study. Delimitations In this study, only 15 participants were selected. Including a larger number of participants might have resulted in data leading to different unit and aggregate case study themes. In addition, including more participants would have increased the chances of selecting persons from a greater number of scholastic disciplines and academic departments. The decision to explore faculty perceptions at only one Jesuit institution of higher education composed the second delimitation of the study. Holy University was chosen as a site of convenience. The researcher was affiliated with the institution, thus providing a better understanding of the campus culture, and simplifying the process of participant selection. In addition, this research was designed to be a case-study exploration; therefore, it was logical to select only one Jesuit institution for study. This design, however, limited the ability to generalize the findings to other Jesuit or secular institutions of higher education. A third delimitation to this study was selecting participants who were primarily responsible for teaching only undergraduate education at Holy University. This delimitation was established intentionally to maintain a level of homogeneity in the type of participants interviewed. It was assumed that faculty members in graduate and15 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 16. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... professional programs at Holy University held different perceptions about fostering Ignatian spirituality, based on the type of student they encountered, as opposed to faculty in undergraduate education. Based on that assumption, faculty persons assigned to teach graduate level education were intentionally excluded. Limitations Four limitations to this study were acknowledged. First, participants were selected using a “snowball or chain sampling” procedure described by Patton (1990, p. 176). This technique was used intentionally to select participants who might provide rich, thick data regarding Ignatian spirituality. Had other faculty at Holy University been chosen, different themes might have resulted from data analysis. Second, the faculty questionnaire used in this study might have biased participant responses. Thirteen questions were developed based on modifications made from an unpublished study using a similar questionnaire (Luparell, Wackel, & Peck, 2003). However, the same questionnaire was used during all interviews, and questions were asked in the same order to decrease researcher bias. The research questions used in this study might have influenced participant responses. For example, an operational definition of Ignatian spirituality intentionally was never offered to participants prior to or during data collection. Had one been provided, data might have resulted in different case study themes. A third limitation is related to the procedures selected for data analysis of participant interviews. Data in this study was analyzed without using computer software commercially designed for qualitative research projects. Although use of computer software might have resulted in alternative thematic development, participant data in this study was perceived as being adequately manageable for manual coding without a computer database. A fourth limitation in this study was researcher bias. Data analysis was conducted solely by the researcher and thus subject to the sensitivity and integrity of one interpretation (Merriam, 2001). In this case, the researcher was a declared Catholic; a character trait potentially influencing data interpretation based on personal beliefs and assumptions. As a result, generalizing the findings of this study to a larger population of Holy University, or to other institutions of higher education, was limited. Recommendations Five recommendations were derived from this study. First, this investigation was based on a small number of participants at Holy University. Although appropriate for case-study design, future research might incorporate a greater number of participants to explore the potential for additional thematic results. In addition, participant representation from other academic departments at Holy University, or other institutions, should be considered. Second, this study was designed to explore faculty responsibility to foster the academic mission at only one Catholic and Jesuit institution. A future study investigating the same phenomenon at other Jesuit and/or Catholic institutions might16 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 17. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... shed a different light on the topic. Third, data from this study were dependent upon the faculty questionnaire used for interviewing participants. Standardizing the questionnaire or using an alternative approach to the interview process might result in different findings. Fourth, this study interviewed 15 faculty members, and one administrator (president) at Holy University. Future studies should consider interviewing other constituents such as authorities in the Catholic Church, a greater selection of academic administrators, and students directly involved with participants selected for data collection. The additional perspectives might be instrumental in acquiring a more in-depth understanding about how Ignatian spirituality is fostered in Jesuit education. Finally, aggregate themes from this study would benefit from a more in-depth investigation. Two themes indicated fostering Ignatian spirituality at Holy University was based on the religious beliefs of participants, and an ability to foster Catholic and Jesuit-based values. A third theme described several factors challenging the ability for faculty to foster spirituality. Collectively, those findings were interpreted to mean that faculty responsibility for fostering the academic mission of Ignatian Spirituality was multifaceted, and subject to various interpretations. Further research might benefit those interested in exploring faculty responsibility to fulfill a faith-based academic mission, and how it contributes to preserving institutional identity. Conclusion In this study, motivation to foster Ignatian spirituality was not expressed explicitly by participants. Instead, it was viewed as an activity reflecting individuals values in an academic environment open to freedom of expression. Jesuit, Catholic, and non-Catholic participants were inclined to discuss responsibilities in relation to fostering spirituality in more general terms. Multiple challenges limited the ability of participants in this study to foster the mission of Ignatian spirituality at Holy University including a growing concern over increasing faculty secularization. Although findings from this study are limited in scope of generalization they are relevant to institutions of higher education where fostering academic mission is paramount to upholding specific faith-based traditions for preservation and strengthening of identity. In a publication entitled The Illustrated Book of Sacred Scriptures, Timothy Freke (1998) described the concept of spirituality as being a complex phenomenon when explored through a perspective from ancient scripture and wisdom. In the books introduction, Freke described a “common human spirituality,” a spirituality of cohesion rather than diversion among various cultural religious beliefs. He stated, Each tradition offers something unique and yet essentially similar. Is this really surprising? Arent people of every race and time different and yet universally human? If our common ground is to be found anywhere, it is in our spirituality which takes us beyond the apparent separateness of things to a vision of oneness, lifting us beyond our personal differences to the unifying knowledge of God. (p. 12) Father Kolvenbach (1989) described a similar vision about spirituality, and one even more specific to those affiliated with Jesuit institutions. He proclaimed,17 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 18. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... The many views of all members of the higher education community who follow Ignatius with their own perspective must come together to affect the universitys life and the developing Ignatian tradition. In this way value- centered education evolving out of the ideals of Ignatian spirituality and the Gospels will continue in Jesuit institutions. (p. 7) If Ignatian spirituality truly does imbue more similarities than differences between faith beliefs, then it should be viewed less as a threat, and seen more as a commonality to be embraced by all religious traditions, including those represented by faculty members at Holy University. References 1. Aschenbrenner, G. (1982) The Jesuit university today: An introduction to the Ignatian vision in higher education. The Scranton Journal pp. 2-10. 2. Buckley, M. (1998) The Catholic university as promise and project Georgetown University Press , Washington, DC 3. Creswell, J. W. (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions Sage , Thousand Oaks, CA 4. Currie, C. (2001) As I see it: Ex Corde Ecclesiaes challenge to the Catholic University — Retrieved January 15, 2003, from http://www.companysj.com /v181/asiseeit.htm 5. Ex Corde Ecclesiae (1990) — Retrieved March 12, 2001, from http://www.cin.org/jp2/excorde.html 6. Freke, T. (1998) The illustrated book of sacred scriptures. Theosophical Publishing House, Godsfield Press , Wheaton, IL 7. Heft, J. (1999) Have Catholic colleges reached an impasse?. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (12), B6-7 — Retrieved July 31, 2002, from http://chronicle.com 8. Holy University Bulletin (2001) Holy University mission statement, 92(4). Omana, NE Holy University Publications 9. Johnson, E. Goodchild, L. and Wechsler, H. (eds) (1997) Misconceptions about the early land-grant colleges. The history of higher education (2nd ed) (pp. 222-233). ASHE Reader Series Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing , Needham Heights, MA 10. Kolvenbach, P. (1989) Themes of Jesuit higher education. Extracted from two addresses by the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, delivered June 7, 1989, at Georgetown University and Georgetown Prep. Heartland III Conference, Creigton University, May 22-25, 2000 — Retrieved October 24, 2002, from http://www.creighton.edu/Heartland3/r-themes.html 11. Luparell, S. , Wackel, J. and Peck, K. (2003) Faculty perceptions of their responsibility in fulfilling the academic mission of spirituality: A single case study in one Catholic Midwestern university — Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 12. Merriam, S. (2001) Qualitative research and case study applications in education Jossey-Bass Publishers , San Francisco, CA 13. Moser, M. (2002) A warm heart and a clear eye: Ex Corde Ecclesiae and the university. Conversations 22 , pp. 19-23. 14. National Conference of Catholic Bishops (2000) The application of Ex Corde Ecclesiae for the United States. United States Catholic Conference Washington, DC — NCR Online. Retrieved November 26, 2002, from http://www.natcath.com18 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 19. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... /NCR_Online/archives/102502/102502.u.htm 15. Patton, M. (1990) Qualitative evaluation methods (2nd ed.) Sage , Thousand Oaks, CA 16. Spirit, J. (2000) Presidents inaugural response embracing the future together — Retrieved June 24, 2002, from http://www.Holy.edu/President/Speeches /Inaugural.html 17. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.) Sage , Thousand Oaks, CA 18. Veysey, R. (1965) The emergence of the American university University of Chicago Press , Chicago, IL 19. Wilson, C. (2001) Implementation of Ex Corde Ecclesiae in the United States: The civil law implications for American Catholic colleges — A presentation to the Annual Meeting of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities. Retrieved November 26, 2002, from http://www.accunet.org/ece/wilson.asp List of Figures FIGURE 1 Case study: Aggregate Theme One. FIGURE 2 Case-Study: Aggregate Theme Two.19 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 20. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... FIGURE 3 Case-Study: Aggregate Theme Three. List of Tables TABLE 1 Demographics according to Faculty Rank or Title (N = 15)* Associate Assistant Professor Instructor Director Professor Professor N=5 N=5 N=3 N=1 N=1 *Administrator/University President (16th person interviewed) N = 1. TABLE 2 Average Number of Years Employed at Holy University (excluding the President) Male Female Aggregate 16.2 yrs 11 yrs 14.4 yrs TABLE 3 Departments Represented Academic Department Number of Participants Political Science 120 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 21. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Academic Department Number of Participants Classical and Near Eastern Studies 3 Sociology and Anthropology 1 Arts and Sciences 2 English 1 Justice and Peace Studies 1 Education 1 Theology 4 Fine Arts 1 Administration (President) 1 TABLE 4 Selected Characteristics of the Non-Catholic Faculty Participants (N = 5). Claire Marco Ronaldo Wonka Sister Anne Highest Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Degree Earned Academic Associate Associate Assistant Professor Professor Rank Professor Professor Professor Classical and Classical and Classical and Sociology Academic Political Near Eastern Near Eastern Near Eastern and Department Science Studies Studies Studies Anthropology All had earned their terminal Academic Degree and varied between the ranks of Assistant through Full Professor. One participant (Marco) had a modest undergraduate teaching assignment (30% FTE).21 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 22. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... Claire Marco Ronaldo Wonka Sister Anne Length of Employment at 28 years 8 years 9 years 10 years 4 years Holy University Undergraduate 100% 30% 99% 100% 90% Teaching Load All had earned their terminal Academic Degree and varied between the ranks of Assistant through Full Professor. One participant (Marco) had a modest undergraduate teaching assignment (30% FTE). TABLE 5 Selected Characteristics of the Catholic Faculty Participants (N = 5). Bill Harry Jane Eyre Martin Rose Highest Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. M.A. Ph.D. Degree Earned Academic Associate Associate Associate Professor Director Rank Professor Professor Professor Justice and Academic Arts and Arts and English Peace Education Department Sciences Sciences Studies Length of Employment at 14 years 35 years 8 years 14 years 6 years Holy University Undergraduate 50% 100% 66% 100% 60% Teaching Load In the above table it can be seen that four of the five participants held the highest Academic Degree for their discipline. The one person without a terminal degree was assigned the title of Director for the Department of Justice and Peace Studies. All persons in this category had instructional assignments ranging from 50% to 100% FTE.22 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.
  • 23. Catholic and Jesuit Identity in Higher Education - Christian Higher Educ... http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a793338030&full... TABLE 6 Selected Characteristics of the Jesuit Faculty Participants (N = 5) RJH Inigo Murphy Andy Bobadilla Highest 2 Masters 3 Masters Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. Degree Earned Degrees Degrees Academic Assistant Associate Professor Professor Instructor Rank Professor Professor Academic Theology Theology Theology Fine Arts Theology Department Length of Employment at 31 years 30 years 3 years 13 years 4 years Holy University Undergraduate 75% 75% 100% 100% 100% Teaching Load Table 6 shows three Jesuit faculty persons held terminal Academic Degrees, four of them were Theology Instructors, and they ranged in faculty rank from Instructor (Murphy with two Masters Degrees and three years of tenure at Holy University) to RJH with 31 years at Holy University. Bookmark with: CiteULike Del.icio.us BibSonomy Connotea More bookmarks23 de 23 11/04/2011 10:53 p.m.

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