Sax Dom Tutorial

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  • 1. DOM & SAX
  • 2. Roadmap
    • What are XML APIs good for?
    • Overview of JAXP
      • JAXP XML Parsers
      • SAX vs. DOM
    • SAX
      • SAX Architecture
      • Using SAX
      • SAXExample.java
    • DOM
      • DOM Architecture
      • Using DOM
      • DOMExample.java
    • JDOM
  • 3. What are XML APIs for?
    • You want to read/write data from/to XML files, and you don't want to write an XML parser.
    • Applications:
      • processing an XML-tagged corpus
      • saving configs, prefs, parameters, etc. as XML files
      • sharing results with outside users in portable format
        • example: typed dependency relations
      • alternative to serialization for persistent stores
        • doesn't break with changes to class definition
        • human-readable
  • 4. Overview of JAXP
    • JAXP = Java API for XML Processing
      • Provides a common interface for creating and using the standard SAX, DOM, and XSLT APIs in Java.
      • All JAXP packages are included standard in JDK 1.4+. The key packages are:
    Defines the XSLT APIs that let you transform XML into other forms. (Not covered today.) javax.xml.transform Defines the basic SAX APIs. org.xml.sax Defines the Document class (a DOM), as well as classes for all of the components of a DOM. org.w3c.dom The main JAXP APIs, which provide a common interface for various SAX and DOM parsers. javax.xml.parsers
  • 5. JAXP XML Parsers
    • javax.xml.parsers defines abstract classes DocumentBuilder (for DOM) and SAXParser (for SAX).
      • It also defines factory classes DocumentBuilderFactory and SAXParserFactory . By default, these give you the “reference implementation” of DocumentBuilder and SAXParser , but they are intended to be vendor-neutral factory classes, so that you could swap in a different implementation if you preferred.
    • The JDK includes three XML parser implementations from Apache:
      • Crimson : The original. Small and fast. Based on code donated to Apache by Sun. Standard implementation for J2SE 1.4.
      • Xerces : More features. Supports XML Schema. Based on code donated to Apache by IBM.
      • Xerces 2 : The future. Standard implementation for J2SE 5.0.
  • 6. SAX vs. DOM
    • Java-specific
    • interprets XML as a stream of events
    • you supply event-handling callbacks
    • SAX parser invokes your event-handlers as it parses
    • doesn't build data model in memory
    • serial access
    • very fast, lightweight
    • good choice when
      • no data model is needed, or
      • natural structure for data model is list, matrix, etc.
    • W3C standard for representing structured documents
    • platform and language neutral (not Java-specific!)
    • interprets XML as a tree of nodes
    • builds data model in memory
    • enables random access to data
    • therefore good for interactive apps
    • more CPU- and memory-intensive
    • good choice when data model has natural tree structure
    SAX = Simple API for XML DOM = Document Object Model There is also JDOM … more later
  • 7. SAX Architecture
  • 8. Using SAX
    • import javax.xml.parsers.* ;
    • import org.xml.sax.* ;
    • import org.xml.sax.helpers.* ;
    • // get a SAXParser object
    • SAXParserFactory factory = SAXParserFactory.newInstance();
    • SAXParser saxParser = factory.newSAXParser();
    • // invoke parser using your custom content handler
    • saxParser.parse(inputStream, myContentHandler);
    • saxParser.parse(file, myContentHandler);
    • saxParser.parse(url, myContentHandler);
    (This reflects SAX 1, which you can still use, but SAX 2 prefers a new incantation…) Here’s the standard recipe for starting with SAX:
  • 9. Using SAX 2
    • // tell SAX which XML parser you want (here, it’s Crimson)
    • System.setProperty( "org.xml.sax.driver" , "org.apache.crimson.parser.XMLReaderImpl" );
    • // get an XMLReader object
    • XMLReader reader = XMLReaderFactory.createXMLReader();
    • // tell the XMLReader to use your custom content handler
    • reader.setContentHandler(myContentHandler);
    • // Have the XMLReader parse input from Reader myReader:
    • reader.parse(new InputSource(myReader));
    But where does myContentHandler come from? In SAX 2, the following usage is preferred:
  • 10. Defining a ContentHandler
    • Easiest route: define a new class which extends org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler .
    • Override event-handling methods from DefaultHandler :
      • (All are no-ops in DefaultHandler .)
    startDocument () // receive notice of start of document endDocument () // receive notice of end of document startElement () // receive notice of start of each element endElement () // receive notice of end of each element characters () // receive a chunk of character data error () // receive notice of recoverable parser error // ...plus more...
  • 11. startElement() and endElement()
    • For simple usage, ignore namespaceURI and localName , and just use qName (the “qualified” name).
    • XML namespaces are described in an appendix, below.
    • startElement () and endElement () events always come in pairs:
      • “ <foo/> ” will generate calls:
        • startElement ( &quot;&quot; , &quot;&quot; , &quot;foo&quot; , null)
        • endElement ( &quot;&quot; , &quot;&quot; , &quot;foo&quot; )
    startElement ( String namespaceURI, // for use w/ namespaces String localName, // for use w/ namespaces String qName, // &quot;qualified&quot; name -- use this one! Attributes atts) endElement ( String namespaceURI, String localName, String qName) The SAXParser invokes your callbacks to notify you of events:
  • 12. SAX Attributes
    • Every call to startElement () includes an Attributes object which represents all the XML attributes for that element.
    • Methods in the Attributes interface:
    getLength () // return number of attributes getIndex ( String qName ) // look up attribute's index by qName getValue ( String qName ) // look up attribute's value by qName getValue ( int index ) // look up attribute's value by index // ... and others ...
  • 13. SAX characters()
    • May be called multiple times within each block of character data—for example, once per line.
    • So, you may want to use calls to characters () to accumulate characters in a StringBuffer , and stop accumulating at the next call to startElement () .
    public void characters ( char [] ch , // buffer containing chars int start , // start position in buffer int length ) // num of chars to read The characters () event handler receives notification of character data (i.e. content that is not part of an XML element):
  • 14. SAXExample : Input XML <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?> <dots> this is before the first dot and it continues on multiple lines <dot x=&quot;9&quot; y=&quot;81&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;11&quot; y=&quot;121&quot; /> <flip> flip is on <dot x=&quot;196&quot; y=&quot;14&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;169&quot; y=&quot;13&quot; /> </flip> flip is off <dot x=&quot;12&quot; y=&quot;144&quot; /> <extra> stuff </extra> <!-- a final comment --> </dots>
  • 15. SAXExample : Code Please see SAXExample.java
  • 16. SAXExample : Input  Output startDocument startElement: dots (0 attributes) characters: this is before the first dot and it continues on multiple lines startElement: dot (2 attributes) endElement: dot startElement: dot (2 attributes) endElement: dot startElement: flip (0 attributes) characters: flip is on startElement: dot (2 attributes) endElement: dot startElement: dot (2 attributes) endElement: dot endElement: flip characters: flip is off startElement: dot (2 attributes) endElement: dot startElement: extra (0 attributes) characters: stuff endElement: extra endElement: dots endDocument Finished parsing input. Got the following dots: [(9, 81), (11, 121), (14, 196), (13, 169), (12, 144)] <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?> <dots> this is before the first dot and it continues on multiple lines <dot x=&quot;9&quot; y=&quot;81&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;11&quot; y=&quot;121&quot; /> <flip> flip is on <dot x=&quot;196&quot; y=&quot;14&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;169&quot; y=&quot;13&quot; /> </flip> flip is off <dot x=&quot;12&quot; y=&quot;144&quot; /> <extra> stuff </extra> <!-- a final comment --> </dots>
  • 17. DOM Architecture
  • 18. DOM Document Structure Document +--- Element <dots> +--- Text &quot;this is before the first dot | and it continues on multiple lines&quot; +--- Element <dot> +--- Text &quot;&quot; +--- Element <dot> +--- Text &quot;&quot; +--- Element <flip> | +--- Text &quot;flip is on&quot; | +--- Element <dot> | +--- Text &quot;&quot; | +--- Element <dot> | +--- Text &quot;&quot; +--- Text &quot;flip is off&quot; +--- Element <dot> +--- Text &quot;&quot; +--- Element <extra> | +--- Text &quot;stuff&quot; +--- Text &quot;&quot; +--- Comment &quot;a final comment&quot; +--- Text &quot;&quot; XML Input: Document structure:
    • There’s a text node between every pair of element nodes, even if the text is empty.
    • XML comments appear in special comment nodes.
    • Element attributes do not appear in tree—available through Element object.
    <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?> <dots> this is before the first dot and it continues on multiple lines <dot x=&quot;9&quot; y=&quot;81&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;11&quot; y=&quot;121&quot; /> <flip> flip is on <dot x=&quot;196&quot; y=&quot;14&quot; /> <dot x=&quot;169&quot; y=&quot;13&quot; /> </flip> flip is off <dot x=&quot;12&quot; y=&quot;144&quot; /> <extra> stuff </extra> <!-- a final comment --> </dots>
  • 19. Using DOM import javax.xml.parsers.* ; import org.w3c.dom.* ; // get a DocumentBuilder object DocumentBuilderFactory dbf = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance(); DocumentBuilder db = null; try { db = dbf.newDocumentBuilder(); } catch ( ParserConfigurationException e ) { e.printStackTrace(); } // invoke parser to get a Document Document doc = db.parse(inputStream); Document doc = db.parse(file); Document doc = db.parse(url); Here’s the basic recipe for getting started with DOM:
  • 20. DOM Document access idioms // get the root of the Document tree Element root = doc.getDocumentElement(); // get nodes in subtree by tag name NodeList dots = root.getElementsByTagName( &quot;dot&quot; ); // get first dot element Element firstDot = ( Element ) dots.item(0); // get x attribute of first dot String x = firstDot.getAttribute( &quot;x&quot; ); OK, say we have a Document . How do we get at the pieces of it? Here are some common idioms:
  • 21. More Document accessors Node access methods: String getNodeName () short getNodeType () Document getOwnerDocument () boolean hasChildNodes () NodeList getChildNodes () Node getFirstChild () Node getLastChild () Node getParentNode () Node getNextSibling () Node getPreviousSibling () boolean hasAttributes () ... and more ... Element extends Node and adds these access methods: String getTagName () boolean hasAttribute ( String name ) String getAttribute ( String name ) NodeList getElementsByTagName ( String name ) … and more … Document extends Node and adds these access methods: Element getDocumentElement () DocumentType getDoctype () ... plus the Element methods just mentioned ... ... and more ... e.g. DOCUMENT_NODE , ELEMENT_NODE , TEXT_NODE , COMMENT_NODE , etc.
  • 22. Creating & manipulating Document s // get new empty Document from DocumentBuilder Document doc = db.newDocument(); // create a new <dots> Element and add to Document as root Element root = doc.createElement( &quot;dots&quot; ); doc.appendChild(root); // create a new <dot> Element and add as child of root Element dot = doc.createElement( &quot;dot&quot; ); dot.setAttribute( &quot;x&quot; , &quot;9&quot; ); dot.setAttribute( &quot;y&quot; , &quot;81&quot; ); root.appendChild(dot); The DOM API also includes lots of methods for creating and manipulating Document objects:
  • 23. More Document manipulators Node manipulation methods: void setNodeValue ( String nodeValue ) Node appendChild ( Node newChild ) Node insertBefore ( Node newChild , Node refChild ) Node removeChild ( Node oldChild ) ... and more ... Element manipulation methods: void setAttribute ( String name , String value ) void removeAttribute ( String name ) … and more … Document manipulation methods: Text createTextNode ( String data ) Comment createCommentNode ( String data ) ... and more ...
  • 24. Writing a Document as XML
    • Strangely, since JAXP 1.1, there is no simple, documented way to write out a Document object as XML.
    • Instead, you can exploit an undocumented trick: cast the Document to a Crimson XmlDocument , which knows how to write itself out:
    • There is a supported way to write Document s as XML via the XSLT library, but it is far more clumsy than this two-line trick.
    • Of course, one could just walk the Document tree and write XML using println s.
    • JDOM remedies this with easy XML output!
    import org.apache.crimson.tree.XmlDocument ; XmlDocument x = ( XmlDocument ) doc; x.write(out, &quot;UTF-8&quot; );