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  • 1. Group Presentation Paper 3.1 Techniques of Research Mentor : Dr. Sailaja Chennat
  • 2. Case StudyPresenters :-Pooja, Rekha, Taruna &Vikram 2
  • 3. Examples where thisresearch method is used 3
  • 4. Examples where this method is used  सुल्तानपुरी की पुनवार्वास बस्ती मे रहने वाले छात्रों के शिक क्षिक ै एवम व्यावसािक यक आकांशाओं का अध्ययन |  उद्देश्य: o बस्ती के स्वरुप का प्रकरण िक विक धि द्वारा गहन अध्ययन करना| o इस बस्ती मे रहने वाले छात्रों की शिक क्षिक आकांशाओं का ै अध्ययन करना| o इस बस्ती मे रहने वाले छात्रों की व्यवसािक यक आकांशाओं का अध्ययन करना| 4
  • 5. Examples where this method is used  TITLE : Critical appraisal of non-formal education in achieving Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) : Case study of a voluntary agency.  AUTHOR:  YEAR:  CALL NO.: ACC. NO.:  OBJECTIVES : o To critically review the policy perspective and programme of action on the role and vision of NFE in achieving UEE. o To critically review specific aspects of a NFE programme and examine its viability as a system of education. 5
  • 6. Examples where this method is used  TITLE: Teaching, Learning and Technology : A case study of selected schools.  AUTHOR : S. Sivaraj Pandian  YEAR : 1993 M.Phil Dissertation  CALL NO. : 371.102 SIV / DI  ACC. NO. : 84999  OBJECTIVES : o To assess availability of educational technology equipment in D.T.E.A. schools. o To examine how far teachers are able to properly handle educational technology equipment in promoting teaching-learning process. 6
  • 7. Examples where this method is used o To identify the status of educational technology in school context. o To investigate utilization of educational technology equipment in teaching-learning across various curricular subjects. o To find out the option of teachers about the impact and use of educational technology equipment on teaching- learning. o To assess user- educational technology interface. o To develop suggested guidelines for improved use of educational technology. 7
  • 8. Examples where this method is used  Communication in the early stage of language development in children with CHARGE syndrome – by Sini Peltokorpi and Kerttu Huttunen in British Journal of Visual Impairment 2008 Vol – 26: Pg – 24.  Including visually impaired student in physical education lessons: a case study of teacher and pupil experiences - by Frank Herold and Jack Dandolo in British Journal of Visual Impairment 2009 Vol - 27(1): Pg 75–84. 8
  • 9. Is there any difference b/wcase studies done inB.Ed./B.El.Ed & M.Ed. ? 9
  • 10. What is a “CASE”according to you ? 10
  • 11. Meaning of “CASE” 11
  • 12. Meaning of Case  The unit of analysis in the research.  A comprehensive story of a real situation, decision, event, or managerial process.  Contains data and information for analysis.  Contains situations requiring decisions and/or recommendations  Simulates real-world experiences 12
  • 13. Meaning of Case Study  A case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident, and in which multiple sources of evidence are used. (Yin 1984)  A case study is a specific instance that is frequently designed to illustrate a more general principle (Nisbet & Watt 1984 :72) 13
  • 14. Why To Use Case Study Research?  To explain the causal links in real-life interventions that is too complex for the survey or experimental strategies (explanatory study).  To describe the real-life context in which an intervention has occurred (descriptive study).  To evaluate an intervention that has already occurred (evaluative study).  To explore those situations in which intervention being evaluated has no clear, single set of outcomes (exploratory study). 14
  • 15. के स स्टडी (प्रकरण अध्ययन )  प्रकरण अध्ययन िक शक्षिा अनुसन्धिान जगत मे पारस्पिरक सम्बन्धि (Interrelationship studies) के अतगर्वात आता है | ं 15
  • 16. प्रकरण अध्ययन  पारस्पिरक सम्बन्धि अध्ययन के अतगर्वात केवल वतर्वामान मे ं िक वद्यमान तथ्यों का ही एकत्रीकरण नहीं िक कया जाता बिक ल्क तथ्यों मे सम्बन्धि को खोजने का प्रयास होता है, िक जससे पिरघटनाओं की गहन अतदृर्वािक ष्टि प्राप्त हो सके | ं  प्रकरण अध्ययन सामािक जक ईकाई का गहन अन्वेषण होता है | यह सामािक जक ईकाई व्यिक क, पिरवार, स्कल, बच्चों का समूह ू आिक दि हो सकता है| 16
  • 17. प्रकरण अध्ययन के कायर्वा  इसमे अनुसधिायक व्यिक क या ईकाई से गहन पूछताछ करने का ं प्रयास करता है |  वह वतर्वामान िक स्तिक थ, िक पछले अनुभवों, व वातावरण की शिक कयाँ, जो व्यिक क या सामािक जक ईकाई के व्यवहार के िक लए उत्तरदिायी है यह घटक िक कस प्रकार परस्पर सम्बन्धिी है के िक वषय मे प्रासिक गक ं आंकड़े एकत्र करता है |  घटकों व उनके पारस्पिरक सबधिों के िक वश्लेषण से अनुसधिायक ं ं ं को ईकाई का व्यापक िक चत्र बनाने मे मदिदि िक मलती है | 17
  • 18. Logic of Case Study 18
  • 19. Logic of Case Study 19
  • 20. Characteristics 20
  • 21. Characteristics  The study of particular instances.  An in-depth study of the case-a substantial amount of data should be collected about the specific case (or cases) selected to represent the phenomenon. The data may come in the form of physical objects, words, or images.  Study of a phenomenon in its natural environment-Observing the phenomenon in its own environment helps to close the boundaries between the phenomenon and context. 21
  • 22. Characteristics  Representation of emic and etic perspectives. o Emic- the participant’s view of the phenomenon being studied. o Etic- the researcher’s interpretation of the phenomenon being studied. The etic perspective helps the researcher to make sense of findings. 22
  • 23. प्रकरण अध्ययनों की प्रक िति ृ  इसके अतिगरति अनुसध्यक सीमिमिति सख्या मिे िनरुपिपिति प्रकरणों का ं ं ं गहरा व गहन अध्ययन करतिा है |  यह प्रकिति मिे समिग्र व अिधिक सूचनादायक होतिा है| ृ  यह अिधिक गुणात्मिक आंकड़े प्रदान करतिा है |  इसको प्रायः वणारत्मिक अनुसन्धिान के अतिगरति वगीकति िकया ं ृ जातिा है | 23
  • 24. Sources of DataCollection 24
  • 25. Sources of Data Collection  Documentation- Use of documents: to corroborate and augment evidence from other sources. An Internet search prior to field visit is feasible. o Strengths: Stable, unobtrusive, exact, broad coverage o Weaknesses: Retrievability, biased selectivity, reporting bias, and access  Interviews- o Strengths: Targeted, insightful. o Weaknesses: Bias due to poorly articulated questions, Response bias, Inaccuracies due to poor recall, Reflexivity etc. 25
  • 26. Sources of Data Collection  Archival records- Often take a form of computer files and records E.g., organizational records (budget or personnel records).Usefulness of archival records vary: from essential to passive relevance. o Strengths: Precise and usually quantitative. o Weaknesses: Accessibility due to privacy reasons.  Direct observation- Observations of meetings, factory work, classrooms, etc. o Strengths: Reality, contextual o Weaknesses: time-consuming, selectivity, reflexivity, and cost 26
  • 27. Sources of Data Collection  Participant observation o Strengths: Insightful into interpersonal behavior and motives. o Weaknesses: Bias due to participant-observer’s manipulation of events.  Physical artefacts- E.g., technological device, tool or instrument, a work of art o Strengths: Insightful into cultural features and technical operations. o Weaknesses: Selectivity and availability is less. 27
  • 28. Components 28
  • 29. Components  A study’s question- concerned with how and why questions, so the initial task is to clarify precisely the nature of your study questions in this regard.  Its propositions- help to direct attention to something that should be examined within the scope of the study. 29
  • 30. Roadmap & Steps OfCase Study 30
  • 31. Roadmap for case study  Object  Case selection  Literature review  Propositions/hypotheses  Data collection  Data organization  Data analysis  Findings and interpretation. 31
  • 32. Steps of case research  Selection of the case or cases  Determining initial status of symptoms  Formulation of hypothesis  Collection of explanatory data  Diagnosis or identification of casual factors  Remedial or developmental treatment  Follow up of rechecking 32
  • 33. An Illustration  Initial status on symptoms – reading disability of a child  Collection of explanatory data – factors associated with learning disability : physical intellectual, pedagogical, emotional, social or environmental  Diagnosis or identification – defective vision  Developmental treatment – correctly fitted glasses  Follow-up program 33
  • 34. प्रकरण अध्ययन के चरण  सवरप्रथमि, व्यिक्ति या सामिािजक ईकाई की प्रत्यक्ष प्रेक्षण या मिापिन द्वारा वतिरमिान िस्तििथ ज्ञाति करने का होतिा है |  प्रकरण मिे संभािवति पिूवरवितिरयों को जानकर लाभप्रद पििरकल्पिना या समिुच्य का िनमिारण |  पििरकल्पिना का सत्यापिन करने का प्रयास वतिरमिान व ऐतितिहािसक िस्तििथ के आधिार पिर | ै  सत्यापिन के बाद, िनदान और वधिीमकरण के ओर होतिा है |  िनदान व उपिचार से आए पििरवतिरन को जांचना | 34
  • 35. Skills for Researcher 35
  • 36. Skills for Researcher  Ask good questions.  Be a good ”listener”.  Be adaptive and flexible.  Have a firm grasp of the issues being studied.  Be unbiased by preconceived notions. 36
  • 37. Principles Of CaseResearch 37
  • 38. Principles  Principle 1- Use multiple sources of evidence. o Triangulation -> findings are more convincing and accurate o Convergence and nonconvergence of sources o Prerequisites for using multiple sources: costs, knowledge in different data collection methods. 38
  • 39. Principles  Principle 2- Create a case study database. o Way of organizing and documenting the data collected o Increases reliability of research o Database includes: • case study notes (results of interviews & observations) & case study documents • tabular materials (e.g., survey and other quantitative data) • narratives (open-ended answers to the questions) 39
  • 40. Principles  Principle 3- Maintain a chain of evidence. o To allow an external observer to follow the derivation of any evidence from initial research questions to ultimate conclusions o Not only the actual evidence but the circumstances of its collection 40
  • 41. Types 41
  • 42. Types  Merriam (1988) - on the basis of o Descriptive o Interpretative o Evaluative  Merriam (1988) – on the basis of o Ethnographic o Historical o Psychological o Sociological 42
  • 43. Types  Stenhouse (1985) : - o Ethnographic case study o Action- research case study o Evaluative case study o Educational case study  Stake (1984) :- o Intrinsic case study o Instrumental case study o Collective case study 43
  • 44. Types  Ethnographic- an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a social unit or phenomenon. This type of case study is concerned with the cultural aspect of the phenomenon being studied.  Sociological- attend to the constructs of society and socialization in studying phenomena.  Psychological- employs concepts, theories, and measurement theories from psychology in investigating problems.  Historical- involves searching for data to answer questions about a past phenomenon for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of present institutions, trends, issues in education. 44
  • 45. Types  Collective or multiple - focuses on an issue by analysing multiple cases. This approach uses the logic of replication in which the researcher replicates the procedures for each case.  Intrinsic - focuses on the case itself because it presents an unusual or unique situation.  Single instrumental - focuses on an issue or concern, and then selects one bounded case to illustrate this issue. 45
  • 46. Purpose/Goals 46
  • 47. Purpose/Goals  Description- provide a detailed account of the phenomenon. A good depiction will provide what is called a thick description, that is, statements that re-create a situation in as much of its context as possible. In creating thick description the researcher looks for constructs (concepts that are observed from phenomena) and themes (salient, characteristic features of a case).  Exploratory & Explanatory - It finds the problematic area concerned & gives the prescriptive explanations. 47
  • 48. Purpose/Goals  Interpretation- descriptive data are used to develop conceptual categories or to illustrate, support, or challenge theoretical assumptions held prior to data gathering.  Evaluation- involve description, explanation, and judgment. Case studies serve as a good evaluation because they provide a thick description and are holistic. 48
  • 49. Analyzing The Data 49
  • 50. Analyzing The Data  Interpretational Analysis- the process of examining case study data closely in order to find constructs, themes, and patterns that can be used to describe and explain the phenomenon being studied. Interpretational analysis involves developing categories, coding segments, and grouping category segments. 50
  • 51. Analyzing The Data  Structural Analysis- the process of examining case study data for the purpose of identifying patterns inherent in discourse, text, events, or other phenomena.  Reflective Analysis- a process in which the researcher relies mainly on their own judgment and intuition to evaluate the phenomena being studied. 51
  • 52. Reliability & Validity 52
  • 53. Reliability  Reliability remains to be problematic for case study research simply because human behaviour is never static. Techniques that researchers can use to ensure that results are dependable are: o the investigator should be thorough in providing information about the data collected so that replication can take place. o multiple methods of data collection should be used (triangulation). o Long tem observation of the same phenomenon. 53
  • 54. Validity  Questions also arise about the validity of case studies due to the biases of the researcher and the individuality of the participant. Strategies to increase validity include: o using multiple investigators, sources, and methods to confirm findings o member checks- asking participants to recheck data given o asking colleagues to comment on findings o be aware of researcher biases, assumptions, and world view 54
  • 55. Strengths 55
  • 56. Strengths  The result are more easily understood by a wide audience (including non-academics) as they are written in everyday, non-professional language.  immediately intelligible, they speak for themselves.  catch unique features that may otherwise be lost in larger scale data; these unique features might hold the key to understanding the situation. 56
  • 57. Strengths  strong on reality.  provide insights into other, similar situations and cases, thereby assisting interpretation of other similar cases.  can be undertaken by a single researcher without needing a full research team.  can embrace and build in unanticipated events and uncontrolled variables. 57
  • 58. प्रकरण अध्ययन के लाभ  व्यि यक्ति या ईकाई को गहराई मे समझना प्रकरण की वातावरण या परिरि यस्थिति यतओं के सधर्बर मे | ं  अनुसंधर्ायक को मानव व्यवहार के मूलभूत परक्षों को जानने का प्रयास ि यकया जाता है |  इससे अनुसंधर्ायक को शि यक्षक ि यस्ति यथितयों के भीता व बहार उनकी ै सम्परूणरता मे घटनाओं के प्रेक्षण मे सहायता ि यमलती है |  अनुसधर्ायक को परिरकल्परना के ि यवरमान मे सहायता ि यमलती है | ं 58
  • 59. Limitations/Criticism 59
  • 60. Limitations/Criticism  result may not be scientific generalizable except where other readers/ researchers see their applications.  not easily open to cross-checking, hence they may be selective, biased, personal and subjective.  problems of observer bias, despite attempts made to address reflexivity.  Rigor of case study research is too much.  Too long, result in massive, unreadable documents.  Can’t directly address causal relationships. 60
  • 61. Limitations/Criticism  Researcher must be thoroughly familiar with the existing knowledge of the field of enquiry and should be skillful in isolating the significant variables from the irrelevant variables.  It is very difficult to select subjects or units for a study that are representative or typical.  Sources of data may not be very reliable.  Sources of data may be reliable but data may suffer from over-emphasis on unusual events or distortion. 61
  • 62. प्रकरण अध्ययन की सीमाए ं  इस अध्ययन मे व्यि पक्ति परकता की सम्भावना बहुत अि पधिक रहती है |  इसमे अनुसंधिायक के स्वयं के ि पवचार, मानक आने की सम्भावना बहुत रहती है |  सम्पूर्णर प्रकरण के वास्ति पवक अध्ययन मे बहुत अि पधिक समय लगता है |  प्रकरण अध्ययन एक खर्चीला प्रि पवि पधि है | 62
  • 63. Myths and realities ofcase research 63
  • 64. Myths and realities of case research  Rigor o Myth - “Case studies do not use standard methodologies; hence, they lack rigour.” o Reality: Case studies use multiple sources of data collection like observation, interviews, archives, and quantitative data. This ensures triangulation and provides stronger substantiation of constructs and hypotheses (Eisenhardt, 1989). 64
  • 65. Myths and realities of case research  Generalizability o Myth : “Case studies are subjective, lack rigour and not capable of arriving at generalisation”. o Reality: An investigators goal is to expand and generalise theories (analytic) and not to enumerate frequencies (statistical). For case studies generalisability is determined by the strength of the description of the context. 65
  • 66. Myths and realities of case research  Data overload o Myth : Case study involves collection of data from several sources. Thus, it accumulates massive amount of data (documentation overload) & is time consuming . Researcher has to analyze this massive amount of data.. o Reality: Multiple data collection & analysis is the strength of case research as it helps in understanding complex phenomena in their context. Case researchers always develop a strategy of time management & documentation overload. 66
  • 67. Uses 67
  • 68. Uses  Mode of investigation into the casual relationships of complex educational phenomenon  Study cases of problem children, maladjusted students and students showing academic & other difficulties  Find out the general characteristics of phenomenon of a given class or an area e.g. case studies of truant students in slum areas or learning difficulties of students in mathematics 68
  • 69. Uses  Investigation of normal & gifted children  Find out the factors which are responsible for successful institutions & groups  Investigation of ideal teachers  Forms basis of guidance in preventing maladjustment  Important source of educational programs & reforms  Study teaching difficulties of beginning teachers 69
  • 70. Paradigms where it canbe situated 70
  • 71. Paradigms where it can be situated  Post-Modernism o maintains the ‘death of metanarratives’(Lyotard) o dismiss the idea that there is one definitive interpretation of an event or history o scepticism about the notion of truth and objectivity o no unique truth, but a supposed plurality of conflicting yet valid claims and a choice of mini narratives rather than one overarching explanation 71
  • 72. Paradigms where it can be situated  Critical Theory o involves critical reflection on current practices, questions taken-for-granted assumptions, and critiques the status quo based on the theories of one or more critical theorists o words such as ‘validity’ and ‘reliability’, which imply an objective reality independent of social reality, are not normally used in critical studies 72
  • 73. Paradigms where it can be situated  Interpretivism o attempt to understand phenomena through the meanings that people assign to them o define quality in terms of the plausibility of the story and the overall argument (not validity and reliability) o focus on the social construction of reality – how and why people see the world the way they do 73
  • 74. References  R. Yin, 2009, Case Study Research: design and methods, 4th Ed., SAGE.  Willis, Jerry, 2007, Foundations of qualitative research : interpretive and critical approaches, Sage Publications, Inc.  Cohen L., Manion L. & Morrison k. ____, Research methods in Education, _____.  Best, John W & James V. Kahn, 1998, Research in Education, Allyn and Bacon. 74
  • 75. References  Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (2006). Qualitative research in education: An introduction to theory and methods. Allyn & Bacon.  ODonoghue, T., Punch K. (2003). Qualitative Educational Research in Action: Doing and Reflecting. Routledge.  Gary Thomas, 2011, How to do your Case Study, Thousand Oaks: Sage. 75
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