Energy Crisis and
Vikram and Gandharv rana
• At the end of 2007, the
gap between the demand
and supply of coal was 35
•Hydro power continues to
flounder because of
Authority (CEA) has
estimated the growth of
demand to increase to
100,000 mw additionally .
The pie chart above depicts the energy usage in India.
Coal being the largest source of energy in Non renewable resource and
wind energy in renewable resource.
Solution For Energy
•Need of awareness
•Growth in Power Plants
•Proper planning and
protection against erratic
•More dependency on
•India has a huge water
quantity that could be
used for power generation
• Flowing water creates energy that can be
captured and turned into electricity. This is
called hydroelectric power or hydropower.
• The most common type of hydroelectric
power plant uses a dam on a river to store
water in a reservoir.
• Another type of hydroelectric power plant -
called a pumped storage plant - can even store
Hydrological Cycle :Water
as a source of energy
The stages of the cycle are:
Hydropower Plant Basic Layout
Shown above is the basic layout of hydropower plant., depicting the
• Dams are structures built over rivers to stop
the water flow and form a reservoir.
• This water is diverted to turbines in power
• Dams are also used for controlling floods and
irrigation. The dams should be water-tight and
should be able to withstand the pressure
exerted by the water on it.
Types Of Dams
• A spillway as the name suggests could be called
as a way for spilling of water from dams.
• It is used to provide for the release of flood
water from a dam. It is used to prevent over
toping of the dams which could result in damage
or failure of dams.
• Spillways are of two types
controlled and uncontrolled
• The uncontrolled types start releasing water
upon water rising above a particular level. But
in case of the controlled type, regulation of
flow is possible.
Penstock and Tunnel
• Penstocks are pipes which carry water from
the reservoir to the turbines inside power
• Water under high pressure flows through the
• A tunnel serves the same purpose as a
penstock used when an obstruction is present
between the dam and power station such as a
• Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water
• The sudden surges of water in penstock is
taken by the surge tank.
• It regulates the water flow by increasing and
reducing the supply as per the storage.
•Power station contains a
turbine coupled to a
•The water brought to the
power station rotates the
vanes of the turbine
producing torque and
rotation of turbine shaft.
This rotational torque is
transferred to the
generator and is converted
• Turbines take the energy from moving water
and change to convert it into electrical energy.
• Types of turbines:
• Propeller-type water turbine which has
The Kaplan turbine is an inward
flow reaction turbine, which means that the
working fluid changes pressure as it moves
through the turbine and gives up its energy.
• Francis turbines are the most common
water turbine in use today.
• It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that
combines radial and axial flow
concepts. The turbine powered generator
power output generally ranges from 10 to
• Principle :
The Francis turbine is a type of reaction
turbine, a category of turbine in which the
working fluid comes to the turbine under
immense pressure and the energy is
extracted by the turbine blades from the
•Hydroelectric power is a
clean source of renewable
energy where an adequate
water source is readily
plants that rely on
negatively affect the
reservoir site and the
•Inhabitation of people
•Damage to flora and
Hydropower and India
Yet to be
•Hydro potential assessed to be about
84,000 MW at 60% load factor.
•The present installed capacity as on
30-06-2011 is approximately 37,367.4
MW which is 21.53% of total
Electricity Generation in India.
•Some of the organizations engaged in
Hydropower generation are: