Six Sigma Tools and Techniques
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Six Sigma Tools and Techniques

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Six Sigma Tools and Techniques

Six Sigma Tools and Techniques

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Six Sigma Tools and Techniques Six Sigma Tools and Techniques Document Transcript

  • What is 6 activity? Six Sigma 1. What are the statistics ? 2. Solution of the Practical Problem 3. What is the 6concept ? 4. 6 as the Business Strategy 5. 6 Application 6. 6 Activity Process 7. Comparing other tools 8. 6 Philosophy Page 1 What is 6 activity? 1. What are the statistics ? What is Six Sigma? Originally: Metric Based on the Statistical Measure Called Standard Deviation ◆ Population & Sample Measure 10 samples (Spec. : 100±4) LSL USL Population Expanded To: N = 1,000 Total inspection is (Lower Spec (Upper Spec impossible ! Limit) Ⅹ Limit) WORLD CLASS QUALITY Ⅹ Low High Ⅹ Ⅹ Ⅹ Spec Spec Sample Ⅹ Ⅹ Ⅹ Ⅹ Ⅹ Providing a Statistical variables 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 (mean, variance) BETTER product or service, estimate population FASTER, and ○ You may say “ This Population is Good because all the sample’s data are located VARIATION is the enemy! between LSL & USL. BUT, If you estimate the defect rate using statistical analysis, at a LOWER COST this population has the probability of 2.8% defects per unit. Then this is - we call - “An epidemic” quality defect level. than our competition. "Always know the language of the enemy." ○ Measuring defect rate on process through an expanding statistical concept, we can use measuring process capability. Page 2 Page 3. What is 6 activity? 2. Solution of the Practical Problem Graphical Meaning of y and  Shift to Shifting to Target & Precise but not Accurate Target Reducing Variation T T USL USL USL USL Object of 6 is μ n μ Accurate but not Precise Shift to y Target Center of Process: y i1 i T n USL USL Reducing  y) n  (yi 2 variation Process Variance:   2 i 1 μ n Reducing Variation Process Standard Deviation:    2 Page 4 Page 5 1
  • Graphical View of Variation and Graphical View of Variation Six Sigma Performance and Six Sigma Performance Normal Distribution Each unit of measure is a numerical value on a continuous scale. VARIATION: COMMON AND SPECIAL CAUSES PIECES VARY FROM EACH OTHER: -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 SIZE SIZE SIZE SIZE 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 BUT THEY FORM A PATTERN THAT, IF STABLE, IS CALLED A DISTRIBUTION: 68.27% 95.45% 99.73% SIZE SIZE SIZE 99.9937% DISTRIBUTIONS CAN DIFFER IN: 99.999943% LOCATION SPREAD SHAPE 99.9999998% Typical Areas under the Normal Curve SIZE SIZE SIZE . . . OR ANY COMBINATION OF THESE Page 6 Page 7. What is 6 activity? 3. what is the 6 concept ? . What is 6 activity? 3. what is the 6 concept ? Statistical Definition of 6 6 as the Business Strategy LSL Target USL  PPM • 1 misspelled word in all of the books 6.68% contained in a small library 3σ 6 3.4 σ • $340 indebtedness per $100 millions assets 5 233 • 1.8 minutes per year -3 +3 6 Quality means that area of the estimated normal 4 6,210 distribution is located between • 1.5 misspelled words per page in a book 3.4ppm USL&LSL with 6 . 3 66,807 • $6.7 millions indebtedness per $100 millions assets 6σ σ In that case area of 2 308,537 • 24 days per year the outlier spec. -6 +6 (In other words estimated defects) is just 3.4 PPM.  : Standard Deviation Statistic index measures how much is data apart from target value Page 8 Page 9. What is 6 activity? 3. what is the 6 concept ? . What is 6 activity? 4. 6 as the Business Strategy 6 as the Activity 1. It is a statistical measurement. • It tells us how good our products, services, and processes really are. • 6 helps us to establish our course and gauge our pace in the race for total customer satisfaction. What is 6 activity? 2. It is a improvement tool. It‟s a full packaged tool applying to design, manufacturing, sales& SVC. • In all Design, Manufacturing, and SVC processes • Applying for 6 statistic Tools & Processes 3. It is a business strategy. Achieving • It can greatly help us gain a competitive edge • To find factors causing defects 3.4 PPM • As you improve the σ rating of a process, the product quality improves and costs • Acting the Analysis and Improvement (3.4 Defects Per Million) go down. Naturally, the customer becomes more satisfied as a result. • Through the Defect Reduction, Increase Yield & Total Customer Satisfaction 4. It is a philosophy. • This is one of working smarter, not harder. • Management Innovation Tool contributes to • Also it makes fewer and fewer mistakes in everything we do. Management Output PPM : Parts per Million Page 10 Page 11 2
  • Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 4. 6 as the Business Strategy #. 6 Common term Harvesting the Fruit of 6 Fruit-bearing 6 • Sweet Fruit • Design for Manufacturability 1. CTQ Wall of 5 2. DPU / DPMO • Bulk of Fruit • Process Characterization and 3. Z Value Optimization 4. Process Capability Index Wall of 4 • Low Hanging Fruit 5. Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) • Seven Basic Tools Wall of 3 • Ground Fruit • Logic and Intuition Page 12 Page 13#. 6Common term 1. CTQ #. 6 Common term 2. DPU / DPMO Defects Per Unit : Number of defects per unit Definition of CTQ Typical Tools DPU → Judging the process as “No good”, we could not know if it had a defect. So 6 handling it. ● Customer states as critical to quality • Customer surveys of product, service or process. Ex) A Claim report has 10 blanks, 2 blanks are wrong • Focus Groups Interview DPU= Defect / Unit = 2 / 1 = 2 • Customer needs Mapping ● Most CTQ’s are customer-driven, • Quality function deployment(QFD) but risk, economics, and regulation • Quick Market Intelligence Defects Per Opportunity : Number of defects related opportunities per unit may drive others. • Logic Tree DPO → Expanding concept of DPU by opportunities Ex.) • Spec. of anything part • Pareto Diagram • Accuracy and reliability of billing Ex) A Claim report has 10 blanks, 2 blanks are wrong statements 2 Defect / (1Unit x 10 Opportunity) = 0.2, DPO=0.2 ☞ Main purpose of CTQ control is selecting • Time to repair the factors to the most important to customer. • Courteousness It is not hard to do, but right to do! Defect Per Million Opportunities : Value of DPO x 1,000,000, DPMO → Changing DPO to million unit because 6 uses PPM(Part Per Million) usually Ex) DPMO = 0.2 DPO x 1,000,000 = 200,000 Page 14 Page 15#. 6 Common term 3. Z Value #. 6Common term 4. Process Capability Index Definition of Z Value Concept of Z Value ◆ What is Process Capability? As Unique capability of the process, reflects uniformity degree of producing product. ** ◆ It is standard normalized value for various Process Capability Index normal distributions*to make easy LSL USL statistical analysis. 1 m T X -T Z= σ - When the process is stable, it should ◆ be measured by degree of satisfying Z is ratio value that difference between T=μ limits. *** X(USL or LSL) and target is divided -6σ -3σ 1σ +3σ +6σ stadard deviation (). ☞ In a Process, if six standard deviations are - Computing Cp, Cpk to know process variation between spec.(USL, LSL), then we call How much mean is shifted and “6 level” . design tolerance variation is good. ◆ That is numeric part of Level. It is good process that has 3.4ppm, that is - Cpk considers shifting mean. Design tolerance When Z is 6, it is 6 level. 3 or 4 defects per million. Cp = Process variation - K value is deference target(T) from mean. | T-m | Cpk = Cp(1-K) K= * Normal distribution : As bell shaped distribution, left side is same as right side by axis mean(μ) (Upper limit-Lower limit)/2 ** Standard normal distribution : mean is “0”, standard deviation is “1” normal distribution *** USL : Upper Spec Limit / LSL : Lower Spec Limit Page 16 Page 17 3
  • #. 6Common term 5. Rolled Throughput Yield Knowledge-gaining Tools Pareto Diagram of Effects (for the factors affecting Process) ◆ Rolled throughput yield is probability ratio to accept for all processes. Size of coefficient Input Object Productivity elevation through Process 1 : quality improvement 99% Accept ratio RTY Apply Defect of all processes, Equipment Control Process2 : 92% Model Change Loss Process3 : 93% Tool 6σ Final Process Inspection defect Method 1person 1Project, Team activity : 97% ratio Control Loss by Process Final un-control Defect Ratio Good Added Improvement (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) RTY* 0.99 X 0.92 X 0.97 X 0.97 = 85.7% for hidden factory = * RTY : Rolled Throughput Yield Page 18 Page 19 Knowledge-gaining Tools Knowledge-gaining Tools Process Flow Diagram Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Design Input Correlation No Decision? Customer Requirements Yes Process Step Output Design Requirements Page 20 Page 21 Knowledge-gaining Tools Knowledge-gaining Tools Probability Distributions Cause & Effect Diagram Measurement Manpower Materials Causes or Sources of Exponential Variation Effect or Normal Response Miscellaneous Methods Machines Uniform Parabolic Page 22 Page 23 4
  • Knowledge-gaining Tools Knowledge-gaining Tools Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Scatter Diagram (from Doralese Blending & Compression Process) Tablet Component Failure Failure S Cause O D R “Fool Proof” Plan Mode Effect Hardness S: Severity, O: Occurrence, D: Detection, R: Risk Priority Number R=S•O•D Magnesium Stearate Concentration Page 24 Page 25 Knowledge-gaining Tools Knowledge-gaining Tools Regression Modeling Control Chart y y UCL 20 y = 18 - .65x CENTERLINE 15 10 LCL 5 Time x 5 10 15 20 Page 26 Page 27#. 6Common term 6. Other terms Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 1. QFD - Quality function deployment 2. FMEA - Failure Mode & effect analysis. 3. ANOVA - Analysis of Variance 4. Gage R&R - Gage Repeatability & reproducibility. 5. DOE - Design of experiments. 6. RSM - Response surface methodology 7. DMAIC - Define measure analyse improve control 1. Quality & Failure Cost 8. DFR - Design for reliability. 2. Paradigm Shift 3. Character of 6 4. 6 Case Study Page 28 Page 29 5
  • Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 1. Quality & Failure Rate Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 1. Quality & Failure Rate * Trend of Quality Index “Generally controlled F-Cost has small portion considering of Hidden Loss” SVC Inspection Defect ● Quality Traditional F-Cost SVC Scrap Rate Innovation ( Easy Definition) (%) Reject Rework Tool ● ● ● ○ Potential(Additional) Design Change Loss Opp. Sales F-Cost (Difficult to measure) Delivery Delay ☆ Long cycle time ‘93 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 2002 Over Rework Brand Image Down Office Loss Over Storage * Average of the SVC Defect rate of Home Appliance products Page 30 Page 31Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 2. Paradigm Shift Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 2. Paradigm Shift Paradigm Shift for Quality Comparing 6 with 3 Old Belief New Belief The 3  Company The 6  Company Appraisal Appraisal • Spends 15~25%of sales dollars on cost • Spends 5%of sales dollars on cost of $ $ $ Internal& & Prevention Internal & & Prevention of failure failure External Failure Costs External Failure Costs Costs Costs • Produces 66,807 ppm opportunities • Produces 3.4 ppm opportunities Increased Quality Increased Quality • Relies on inspection to find defects • Relies on capable processes that don’t means Higher Cost reduces Total Cost produce defects $ 4 • Believes high quality is expensive • Knows that the high quality producer is 5 4 6 the low cost producer • Does not have a disciplined approach • Use Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control to gather and analyze data and Measure, Analyze, Design Quality Improves Quality Improves • Benchmarks themselves against their • Benchmarks themselves against the best competition in the world The high quality producer is the low cost producer not expensive. • Believes 99% is good enough • Believes 99% is unacceptable Internal Failure : Scrap / Remake / Supplier Rework • Define CTQ’s internally • Define CTQ’s externally External Failure : Cost to Customer / Warranty Cost / Compliant Adjustments / Returned Material Appraisal : Inspection / Test / Quality Audits / Test Equipment Prevention : Quality Planning / Process Planning / Process Control / Training Page 32 Page 33Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 2. Paradigm Shift Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 3. Character of 6 Traditional Quality / 6 Quality Method Practical Meaning of “99% Good” ISSUE Traditional Approach 6σ Approach • 20,000 lost articles in mail per hour. Index • %(Defect Rate) • • Unsafe drinking water almost 15 minutes each day Data • Discrete Data • Discrete + Continuous Data • 5,000 incorrect surgical operations per week Target • Satisfaction for Mfg • Customer Satisfaction Process • 2 short or long landings at most major airports each day Range • Spec Outlier • Variation Improvement • 200,000 wrong drug prescription each year Method • Experience + Job • Experience + Job + Statistical Ability • No electricity for almost 7 hours each month Action • Bottom Up • Top Down Application • Mfg Process • Design, Mfg, Sales, SVC 4  = 99.38% Page 34 Page 35 6
  • Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 3. Character of 6 Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 3. Character of 6 Benefits and superiority of 6 Good Point of 6 Benefits : - Decrease cost of loss, Improve quality of product and service , satisfy the customer - It can make clear the output of Business. • Pursue common goal → Innovation through all Biz. Superiority ■ Variety of applications : Can apply all industry include financing Biz. * ■ 3P Focus & reasonable index for appraisal • Control main factors at upstream → Reduce claim and rework Not only product and service, but also process and quality of human resource can be clear the goal and status by measuring. • Apply Statistics on all Biz. → Easy to access difficult problem ■ High Effect of Investment No invest on hardware, only on human resources. • Support Statistics S/W → Foolproof for statistics ■ Clearness of effect for cost Output can be estimated clearly by financial part take part in which control • Data analysis by experiment → Make indistinct facts clear cost and benefit form the beginning of project. ■ Data driven mind & easy to use statistics Tool. • Make decision base on Data → Exclude wrong ideas & prejudice Through experimental data analysis indistinct fact can be clear. Exclude experience and prejudice. Can handle statistics by the S/W package(Minitab). * 3P : Product, Process, People Page 36 Page 37Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 5. 6 Application Measures of Quality Cp: Process Capability Potential (assumes a centered process) USL  LSL Specification Width 6 is a tool that applies to all business systems - Design, Manufacturing, Cp   6 Process Width Sales and SVC Cp dpm 15.0 Design Guarantee for the Design completion 7.0 De- R&D in developing stage 4.5 << 1PPB sign 6 • Selecting CTQ to meet customer needs 3.0 • Decision reasonable Tolerance 2.0 .0018 • Guarantee of the CTQ’s capability analysis 1.67 < 1PPM 6 1.33 55 Quality assurance in manufacturing 1.0 2,700 Mfg. .9 6,900 Mfg. stage .8 16,400 • Improvement serious problem using S/W .67 45,500 Sales Manufacturing • Real Time Monitoring system .5 133,600 &SVC 6 → CTQ Control system LCL LSL TARGET USL UCL Transaction 6 Sales& Maximizing for sales & SVC Cpk: Process Capability (takes into consideration a shift in average) SVC • Improvement cycle time and accuracy • Cost Improvement  USL  y y  LSL  Cpk  min  or   3 3  Page 38 Page 39 Formal Definition of a Six Sigma Is It 6 at all cost? Capable Process Total Cost Typical Six Sigma Barrier CP = 2.0 DFSS CPK = 1.5 Design for six sigma dpm = 3.4 Optimal Point 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sigma Rating Page 40 Page 41 7
  • Why Six Sigma? The Cost of Poor Quality  There is a correlation between a companys COPQ( cost of Where Does the Cost of Poor Quality poor quality) and the  rating of its key processes (Waste or Muda) Come From? ... COPQ (% of Sales) Internal Failure Costs 40 External Failure Costs 35 30 25 20 Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs £ 15 10 Lost Opportunity Costs 5 2 3 4 5 6 Sigma Rating Page 42 Page 43 Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 6. 6 Activity Process Why Six Sigma?  A 4 company will spend >10% of revenue on internal and external repair 6 Activity Process(manufacturing & Transaction)  A 6 company will spend <1% of revenue on internal and external repair Identify Customer-Driven 1. Who are your customers? CTQ* (Critical to Quality) - Internal / External 2. What do you provide your customers? Characteristics ** 3. What is critical to quality for your customers? D DEFECT REDUCTION Identify Key Processes that 1. What are your internal processes for cause Defects in a CTQ providing your product or service CTQ‟s to Defects / M Characteristics your customers? 2. Where do defects occur in these processes? 100K 66810 For Each Product or 10K Process CTQ • Practical Problem •Process Mapping Average 6210 M • Measurement System  Calculation 1K Company Measure, Analyze, Improve, • Yield Calculation & Control • Benchmarking • Cause & Effect Diagram >> 100x 233 A 100 • Pareto Chart & Stratification • DOE • Action Workout Techniques 10 I • Brainstorming • Piloting “Best in Class” 3.4 6is a rigorous analytical 1 • Control Mechanism • Procedures 2 3 4 5 7 process for solving problem!!! C • Control Chart 6 Note: The ± 1.5 sigma shift is included. Sigma * CTQ(Critical To Quality) : Your customers feel that characteristic of product, service or process is critical. ** D : Define Page 44 Page 45Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 6. 6 Activity Process Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 7. Comparing other tools Example of development process apply R&D 6 By Improvement Process Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation meeting for meeting for E/S Kick meeting for basic planning drawing Development -Off present condition concept confirm confirm Measure Analysis Inprovement Control Process - Symptoms - Present con- - Improved - Control by Others - Discrete Data - Frequency dition Analysis by expert’s control chart • Focusing Idea - Process - Difficult to apply practical Custo- QFD Design Process QFD Spare Similar Z Value Z Value Meeting problem because of R&D mer S-1 FMEA FMEA S-2 CTQ process of CTQ값 optimize, for CTQ experience/ 4M control 6 Needs Selec- Data Analysis Design Check technology complextity Survey tion gathering improve E/S Development P/L P.P E/S Quality drawing Income P/L Quality Income P.P Quality making meeting confirm Parts Making Meeting parts Making meeting 6 - Define/ - Analysis for - Optimizing - Control by - Discrete+Continuous Measurement statistics condition by PTS * data - Variance of - Effect analysis statistical (CTQ, - Easy to apply because CTQ caused factors analysis Benefits) of supporting statistical software. CTQ CTQ Activity CTQ Z Value of deci- Data for for new CTQ sion for new process parts confirm parts improve- Confirm * PTS : Project Tracking System gather- ment ing Page 46 Page 47 8
  • Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 7. Compare with other tool Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 8. 6 Philosophy 100ppm / 6 Focusing Point 100ppm / 6 Application CTQ(Y) = F( X1, X2, X3, ... Xn ) 100ppm 6 ● 6 activity is selecting the cost issue → Selecting Line • Detecting process • Control process Y X problem on some system in view of → Do process FMEA defects variation - Selecting Cost issue customer. ◆ Dependent ◆ Independent process view of customer This is we called “CTQ” and • Managing Tool • Improvement Tool ◆ Output ◆ Input-process → Conform CTQ process We achieved 6 target through → Sorting the process ◆ Effect ◆ Cause the 6 process just selecting CTQ • Product managing • Prevention Control - Just need control process ◆ Symptom ◆ Problem compare with spec. vital few factors - Important control process ● Also, 6 activity is focusing - Law application process ◆ Monitor ◆ Control • Judging each • Judging the statistic the causing factor(x1,x2...xn), - Variation improvement person‟s Know-How Data not selecting CTQ itself → 100ppm / 6 application X factor effects on CTQ(Y) has • Manual Data • Simple & Effective according to sorting gathering & analysis analysis using the the vital few 20% & trivial many process S/W 80%. Page 48 Page 49Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 8. 6 Philosophy Ⅰ. What is 6 activity? 8. 6 Philosophy ◆ Our survival is dependent upon growing the business. ◆ We don‟t know what we don‟t know. ◆ Our business growth is largely determined by customer satisfaction. ◆ If we can‟t express what we know in the form ◆ Customer satisfaction is governed by quality, price, and delivery. of numbers, we really don‟t know much about it. ◆ Quality, price, and delivery are controlled by process capability. ◆ If we don‟t know much about it, ◆ Our Process capability is greatly limited by variation. we can‟t control it. ◆ Process variation leads to an increase in defects, cost, and cycle time. ◆ To eliminate variation, we must apply the right knowledge. ◆ If we can‟t control it, we are at the mercy of chance. ◆ In order to apply the right knowledge, we must first measure it. ◆ Measure the problem, we„ll get the right knowledge. Page 50 Page 51Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 4. 6 Case Study Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 4. 6 Case Study Start & Prosperity Cases of other companies Start : Motorola Prosperity :GE MOTOROLA T I G E SONY ● At the beginning of 80’s, In the Japanese ● In 1995 GE launched 6σ process Introduce 1987 1988 1995 1997 market, Motorola’s beeper lost its name to overcome a difficult business value because of the quality difference environment and to challenge compared to Japan’s World Class Quality. Outcome Q. Cost Down Q. Cost Down Q. Cost Down By 2000 years $3.2billion 1988:30% $3.8billion Train 2,000 ● In 1981 they tried to meet a challenge to ● They made new processes such as →1993:7.4% Black Belts improve quality 5 times in 5 years and they Productivity,Inventory Return and NPI, couldn’t. but improvement was delayed Character Origin of 6σ Adopt to all Biz. First in Japan because of defects in processes. -ristics (Quality level elevated 100 times ● They developed a consistent process base in 4 years) on statistical knowledge. ● GE thinks World Class Quality is big challenge. GE will focus on Remarks Culture harmony TOP DOWN Train and do pjt. Consult with ● In 1987, they established 6σ goal 6σ process for next generation . Western & Oriental Quality Train 6 σ Academy as a key initiative. Page 52 Page 53 9
  • Ⅱ. Why should we do 6? 4. 6 Case Study Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? Output of other companies Benefits Qualitative output Motorola Motorola reached 5.5σ level in 1992. 1. Key Factor for Success of 6 Outcome is $3.2billion from1987 to 1992. 2. 6 Operating system 1200 Costs ● 6 do the role of Boundaryless Behavior. 3. Project tracking system 1000 Benefits ● Organization become learning & logical 800 4. Case study for Infra. ● Use 6 as worldwide common language. G E 600 ● GE believes that 6 would take part 400 central role in the future. 200 0 96 97 98 Page 54 Page 55Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 1. Key Factor for Success of 6 Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 2. 6 Operating system System requirement Methodology Chief of executive division - 6 Driving - 6 Involvement & Commitment ■ Need Top Down Drive ■ Start at Customer’s voice. ● Need Top management’s strong will for 6σ. ● CTQs from Customer’s voice, ● Top management’s strong and periodical Improve the item which has big impact first! Champion announcement about 6σ policy. - 6 Operating ■ All employees must participate... ■ Need Training Program for All employees ● Not only manufacturing part, but also ● Complete understanding for 6σ program. nonmanufacturing part should join the program ● Hard training for all employees. ● Focus on Customer’s requirements. ● Need resource investment resolutely. Champion Review ■ 6 as Pan-Company’s common standard. ■ Construct Infra Coaching/Supporting MBB(Master Black Belt) Project Team ● Common language .(CTQ, σ, Cp,Z ....) ● Need successful case study project. - Supporting 6σskill Request supporting - Operating Project ● Avoid personal translation about 6σ. ● Resource reformation for organization and system. ● All of Goal and target are represented as σscale. ● Reasonable appraisal and reward system. - Achieving 6 level for CTQ ● Basic process for all of projects. * Champion Review : Decision making meeting that controls progress by project steps(Selecting theme → Output review) Page 56 Page 57Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 2. 6 Operating system Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 2. 6 Operating system Champion MBB(Master Black Belt) Definition Roles Definition Role - Present the Vision - Support Skill • Set the 6 goal • Assignment subject for total optimization • Coach BB/GB for 6σskill and tools • Guide direction and goal of Project • Level Up for 6 skill & tools • Share best practice - Drive 6 Activity • 6 Technical Leader • Chief of 6 operating • Continuously lead Activity through strong commitment - Drive project results • Evaluate Output and Share best practice with MBB • Full Time Job for 6 • Chief of business groups • Check the Project by 6σ progress step - Involvement • Report champion about project status and output (Chief of OBU, Business • Complete MBB Course or • Monitor and support through Champion Review • Assure benefits are real Executives, Chief of acquire MBB Cert. subsidiary) • Directly support to settle bottleneck for 6σactivity - Support Projects - Support Project • Mentor BB / GB and Train individuals in tools • Lead supporting all department in improvement • Support settlement for 6Activity Barrier and control step for 6 Project team • continuous management and control for improved process • Deciding Investment and allocate resources • Generate motives ☞ It is very important to select excellent MBB and continuously improving skill It☞ very important that the Champion gets involved in project and take ownership for 6 is Page 58 Page 59 10
  • Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 2. 6 Operating system Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 3. Project Tracking System Belt Certification PTS* Flow Benefit Belt Main Job Role Requirements All - Update and control CTQ of Closed Project PTS Project • 6σ Technical Leader • Leading BB/GB • More than 4 Projects Projects Reviews - Easily manage and report for Project status Master • Needs Stat. Skill • Project Drive & Belt Champion, • Consulting More than Owners - Evaluate reduction cost of 6Project BlackBelt Propagate • Verity Output 5 Projects a year • Training - Share Project information - Defect Data,Goal • Weekly Review - Monitor 6 Project status - Project status • Confirm cost benefits • Full Time Project • Execute Project • 2 Projects - Results Benefits • Project Theme/Z value/Reduction cost BlackBelt On TDR Theme • Leader of Pjt. team & - Weekly update Amount • Check & monitor • Team member • 1 Project a year • By Division/OBU/Product/Model training • Join Project by • Execute Project • 2 Projects GreenBelt Part time • Team Leader or Member * PTS : Project Tracking System Page 60 Page 61Ⅲ. How to Launch 6? 4. Case Study For Infra. Evolution of Six Sigma Start Business Metrics Supplier Training Reward Amount of Return on Date Areas of Involvement Emphasis System Cultural Investment Emphasis Change Motorola 1987 Production Defects Intimidation Six Sigma Black Belt Low £1.4 Billion Basics and Recognition in 7 Years Statistics Organizing Planning 6Training Construct Training For DSEG 1990 Production Defects and Training Six Sigma Black Belt Low Not Case Study (Raytheon/TI) Cycle Time Suppliers Basics, Recognition Published 6Team 6Strategy Material IT System All Employees in the Tools Statistics, and Soft - Due part - Briefing 6 - Intoduce 6 - Impove Chronic - 6 Team - Training for Employees Skills MFG : QA Team Process : All Employee Defects Leader : Minitab S/W - Case Study - Training for Boards AlliedSignal 1992 Production Defects, Training Six Sigma Black Belt Medium £1.4 R&D : Chief of - Planning 6 - 6 GB : 1 / OBU → Project Review and Design Cycle Time, Suppliers Basics, Recognition Billion in Lab. Strategy/Goal Training Prg. - Optimize COPQ, Black Statistics, Monetary 4 Years Cost Belts KISS for Rewards : Engineer, Process IT - MBB & BB : 80/Year Reduction Suppliers - Organize 6 Staff : Real Time Surport Part Monitoring - Training General 1995 Production, Defects, Training Six Sigma Black Belt, High £3 + :2~3 person/OBU - 6 WB : Data Base : 2,400 person Electric Design, Cycle Time, Suppliers Basics, Green Belt, Billion in Training Prg. For CTQs R&D, and COPQ, Black Belts Statistics, and 4 Years → Organize : Supervisor Transactional, Cost Reduction, Soft Skills, Management (Taken 6 Team - PTS i.e., the whole Stable Finance Promotions, from : Project Tracking organisation Operations, Skills, (KISS Bonuses, 1999 System Annual and KBM) and Annual Operating ROI Stock Report) (Intellectual Options Capital) * Case :LGE Home Appliance Division. Page 62 Page 63 Design For Six Sigma Manufacturing Goal: Design Goal: Reduce Sigma Relax Specs LSL USL Page 64 11