Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Year 2 week 13 presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Year 2 week 13 presentation

5,178
views

Published on

Published in: Education

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,178
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
109
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 2 Week 13 – Integrated Pest Management, Containers and Specific Plant Raising Techniques
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • 4.6 Describe the importance of cultural and biological controls to limit the damage caused by plant pests and diseases
    • Know the types of container used for production and display in protected environments.
    • 5.1 Compare the properties and characteristics of materials used in the manufacture of plant containers, including terracotta, plastic, polystyrene, peat, paper, natural and reconstituted stone, and recycled materials.
    • 5.2 Describe the factors that should be considered when choosing containers for the display of plants in greenhouses and interior displays, including management considerations and visual appeal.
    • 6. Understand the horticultural uses of the protected environment.
    • 6.1 Describe the use of protected environments for the over-wintering, production and display of plants.
    • 6.2 Describe the production of a range of plants which can be grown in a protected environment in a garden situation under the following headings: propagation and establishment; maintenance; control of pests, diseases and disorders.
  • 3. Quiz - answers
    • 1. Carbon dioxide + water + Light -> glucose + oxygen
    • (when in the presence of Chlorophyll )
    • 2. Because the rate of the reaction is restricted by whichever factor is in shortest supply.
    • 3. Orientation, site (no shade), cladding material, thickness of glazing bars, time of year, cleaness of cladding
    • 4. (d)
    • 5. Protection from blight; extended growing season
    • 6. Spraying water onto the floor and structure of the greenhouse
    • 7. Raises humidity and lowers temperature
    • 8.The RH will fall.
  • 4. Integrated Pest Management
    • Why? - Pests are becoming resistant to chemicals; chemicals are expensive and dangerous to the operator; chemicals are being withdrawn from sale.
    • What? To combine prevention of pests and diseases with biological and cultural controls, using chemical controls as a last resort and only when and where needed.
  • 5. Integrated Pest Management – How?
    • Prevention – grow resistant varieties where available; good hygiene; growing strong healthy plants; controlling ventilation and humidity.
    • Monitoring – regular inspection for signs of pests or diseases and taking prompt effective action when seen.
    • Biological controls – using ‘good bugs’ to control ‘bad bugs’
    • Chemical controls – using the least harmful control and treating only the infested plants or areas.
  • 6. IPM – advantages and disadvantages Not suitable for all crops – some damage is inevitable Safer for operators Needs well trained staff if used commercially Lower chemical inputs – so little ‘harvest interval’ delay Can be more expensive Higher health crops due to monitoring and prompt control Need a population of pests before biological control used Effective against pesticide resistant pests Disadvantages Advantages
  • 7. Containers – advantages and disadvantages Pots may overheat in summer Can move sensitive species outdoors in summer e.g. Mediterranean plants Not all containers are attractive Can move containers – e.g. to update display during season Need more watering and other maintenance Can grow plants that would not tolerate outdoor conditions Disadvantages Advantages
  • 8. Containers – factors influencing choice for display
    • Appearance – colour and shape can work with the plants or against them. Can you hide cheap ugly pots with trailing plants?
    • Watering – larger volumes will need less frequent watering (but avoid stagnant wet compost); terra cotta dries out quickly, plastic retains water better. Use of hidden water reservoirs.
    • Feeding – CRF or liquid feed.
    • Weight – safety in handling; load considerations on floors with large displays.
    • Suit the container to the environment and the planting design.
  • 9. Protected Growing - Cyclamen persicum
    • Propagation – grown from seed, soaked in warm water, light inhibits germination, 15°C germination temperature, well drained growing medium essential but must not dry out. Sporadic germination – perhaps 12 months.
    • Maintenance – become dormant in the Summer so high temperatures indoors will lead to dormancy. Need good light. Water by soaking from below and allow to dry out partially between waterings. Do not over feed.
  • 10. Cyclamen persicum – pests and diseases
    • Botrytis cinerea – Mould that attacks living plant tissues. No chemical controls available. Do not over water or splash the leaves and tuber. Remove all dead or damaged leaves and flower stalks.
    • Fusarium Wilt – no chemical control. pH above 6 limits development of symptoms. Avoid water stress.
    • Vine Weevil – adults nibble the leaves but the grubs do the damage. Use biological controls or thiacloprid (can’t use both together).
  • 11. Protected Growing - Chrysanthemum x morifolium
    • Propagated from cuttings as varieties do not ‘come true’ from seed. Softwood basal cuttings taken March or April from overwintered stools.
    • Need bottom heat, high humidity and 21 to 29°C air temperature to root well.
    • Potted 4-5 to a 15cm pot to give a good bushy appearance. Pinched out to encourage side shoots.
    • Compost must be kept moist and air temperature at 21°C or thereabouts. Need good light.
  • 12. Chrysanthemum x morifolium – day length
    • Naturally flower when day length is under 14 hours – they are Autumn flowering plants.
    • Develop green leafy growth when day length over 15 hours.
    • Starting in April from cuttings allows good strong plants to develop before flowering.
    • Commercial growers manipulate day length by supplementary lighting and black out shading to allow sale of flowering Pot Chrysanthemums all year round.
  • 13. Chrysanthemum x morifolium - Maintenance
    • Do not allow the compost to dry out.
    • Keep warm – 18 to 21°C and out of draughts.
    • Once finished flowering reduce watering and move to a cooler (but frost free) place. Cut off the stems as the plant becomes dormant. Store in moist (not wet) compost in a frost free greenhouse or shed until Spring. Take cuttings rather than try to revive the old plant.
  • 14. Chrysanthemum x morifolium – pests and diseases
    • Aphids and whitefly are significant pests.
    • Botrytis is a problem as is Fusarium Wilt.
    • Western Flower Thrips cause severe damage to buds and flowers and spread virus diseases. Controls – contact insecticide or biological controls (could use both as part of IPM)
    • Chrysanthemum white rust - yellow spots on top of leaves and white pustules below. Controls – systemic fungicides and hot water treatment of dormant plants. Strict hygiene – destruction of all affected plants.
  • 15. Homework - research exercise
    • Prepare notes on the propagation and establishment, maintenance and control of pests and diseases in the following plants:
    • Bedding plant Impatiens walleriana
    • Bulb – forced for winter flowering Narcissus ‘Tete a Tete’
    • Resources needed are on the web site or you could use a gardening encyclopaedia or other reference books.
  • 16. Learning outcomes
    • 4.6 Describe the importance of cultural and biological controls to limit the damage caused by plant pests and diseases
    • Know the types of container used for production and display in protected environments.
    • 5.1 Compare the properties and characteristics of materials used in the manufacture of plant containers, including terracotta, plastic, polystyrene, peat, paper, natural and reconstituted stone, and recycled materials.
    • 5.2 Describe the factors that should be considered when choosing containers for the display of plants in greenhouses and interior displays, including management considerations and visual appeal.
    • 6. Understand the horticultural uses of the protected environment.
    • 6.1 Describe the use of protected environments for the over-wintering, production and display of plants.
    • 6.2 Describe the production of a range of plants which can be grown in a protected environment in a garden situation under the following headings: propagation and establishment; maintenance; control of pests, diseases and disorders.

×