RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 2 Week 3 – cultivation and soil water
Quiz <ul><li>Tests last two week’s material.  </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes, test conditions. </li></ul>
Quiz Answers <ul><li>Surface  capping  arises when the particles in the soil (particularly in  silty  soils) bond together...
Quiz answers continued <ul><li>Question 2 – (a) and (c)  </li></ul><ul><li>Question 3 – (c) </li></ul><ul><li>Question 4 –...
Learning Outcomes <ul><li>2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6...
Cultivation techniques <ul><li>Single digging – used for previously cultivated soil with good structure. </li></ul><ul><li...
Benefits and limitations - digging Leaves a bare surface which may lead to leaching or capping Incorporates organic matter...
Benefits and Limitations - Rotavation Not ideal for incorporating organic matter Has most of the benefits of single diggin...
No Dig Systems Pests may build up in the soil as the larvae are not exposed by winter digging  Soil organisms are not dist...
How Water is lost from the soil
What water is available to plants?
Saturation Point, Field Capacity and Permanent Wilting Point
Available Water Content <ul><li>The amount of water that a soil holds between the point at which Field Capacity is reached...
Drainage <ul><li>Symptoms of poor drainage – standing water; gleys; indicator plant species; surface run off. </li></ul><u...
Water retention and irrigation <ul><li>Irrigate to restore Field Capacity – so add enough to do so when needed rather than...
Learning Outcomes <ul><li>2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6...
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Rhs year 2 week 3 presentation

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 2 Week 3 – cultivation and soil water
  2. 2. Quiz <ul><li>Tests last two week’s material. </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes, test conditions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quiz Answers <ul><li>Surface capping arises when the particles in the soil (particularly in silty soils) bond together. This means that water cannot soak into the soil and air cannot enter. This prevents seedlings from breaking through the soil surface. It also means that roots cannot get the oxygen they need to respire. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation pan may either be made up of iron leached from the top soil and bonded to clay particles, or of stones that have settled out of the top soil during cultivation. This prevents the roots of plants from penetrating into the sub soil and may lead to poor establishment. Cultivation pan may be rectified by double digging </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quiz answers continued <ul><li>Question 2 – (a) and (c) </li></ul><ul><li>Question 3 – (c) </li></ul><ul><li>Question 4 – (a) </li></ul><ul><li>Question 5 – Sandy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Question 6 – 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay. </li></ul><ul><li>Question 7 – (b) </li></ul><ul><li>Better than 3 or 4 out of 7 is a good result at this stage. Less than that you need to review your notes again. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Describe the use of pedestrian operated soil cultivating machines </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 Describe the management of minimal cultivation systems e.g. no dig systems. </li></ul><ul><li>3.6 Describe two methods by which soil structure can be improved and two practices which damage soil structure, to include: incorporation of organic matter; addition of inorganic soil improvers; compaction; and cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>3.7 State what is meant by ‘surface capping’; explain how it may happen and what effects it can have on plant establishment and growth. 3.8 Describe how a cultivation pan can be formed, what effect it has on plant growth, and how it can be rectified. </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Describe the relationship between air and water content in the pore space of soils and growing media. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Explain the importance of an appropriate balance between air and water for the healthy growth of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 Define the terms: ‘saturation point’,’ field capacity’, ‘permanent wilting point’ and ‘available water’ </li></ul><ul><li>.4.4 Identify a range of management techniques for maintaining soil moisture at appropriate levels </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 Identify the surface symptoms of poor drainage, to include: standing water, surface run-off and indicator plant species. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cultivation techniques <ul><li>Single digging – used for previously cultivated soil with good structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Double digging – for uncultivated soil or to improve clay soils or those with cultivation pan, poor drainage etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotavation – for larger areas. Safety considerations – PPE, maintenance, correct operation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Benefits and limitations - digging Leaves a bare surface which may lead to leaching or capping Incorporates organic matter and buries crop residues and weeds Brings dormant weed seeds to the surface where light will stimulate germination Breaks up cultivation pans and improves drainage. Can damage soil structure if the texture and wetness of the soil are not taken into account. Exposes pests to predators and the weather. Allows clay clods to be frosted. Disturbs natural structure of the soil and may harm beneficial organisms Improves the structure of the soil – allows access for water and air Limitations Benefits
  8. 8. Benefits and Limitations - Rotavation Not ideal for incorporating organic matter Has most of the benefits of single digging. Will not effectively break up hard or stone pan and may cause a cultivation pan by smearing wet clay soils. Provides a good tilth in a short period of time Can produce a very ‘fluffy’ tilth with large air pockets – will need raking and possibly firming before planting Makes larger areas more manageable Expensive to buy or hire, safety considerations. Less hard work than manual digging Limitations Benefits
  9. 9. No Dig Systems Pests may build up in the soil as the larvae are not exposed by winter digging Soil organisms are not disturbed Some risk of long term soil acidification – which reduces beneficial organisms Weed seeds are not brought to the surface Large amounts of organic matter are required Does not damage soil structure where this is already good Will not remedy soil structure problems like hard pan or poor drainage Less work than traditional digging approaches to soil management Limitations Benefits
  10. 10. How Water is lost from the soil
  11. 11. What water is available to plants?
  12. 12. Saturation Point, Field Capacity and Permanent Wilting Point
  13. 13. Available Water Content <ul><li>The amount of water that a soil holds between the point at which Field Capacity is reached and Permanent Wilting Point. </li></ul><ul><li>The total of the capillary water remaining in the soil at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>The water that plants can use. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Drainage <ul><li>Symptoms of poor drainage – standing water; gleys; indicator plant species; surface run off. </li></ul><ul><li>Cures – double digging; incorporate coarse organic matter; install tile drains or sub-soiling (clay soils) on large areas. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Water retention and irrigation <ul><li>Irrigate to restore Field Capacity – so add enough to do so when needed rather than water little and often. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulches and timing of irrigation can reduce evaporation. Water at the roots – not on the leaves and bare soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter acts like a sponge and creates aggregates with both intermediate and macro pores. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Describe the use of pedestrian operated soil cultivating machines </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 Describe the management of minimal cultivation systems e.g. no dig systems. </li></ul><ul><li>3.6 Describe two methods by which soil structure can be improved and two practices which damage soil structure, to include: incorporation of organic matter; addition of inorganic soil improvers; compaction; and cultivation techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>3.7 State what is meant by ‘surface capping’; explain how it may happen and what effects it can have on plant establishment and growth. 3.8 Describe how a cultivation pan can be formed, what effect it has on plant growth, and how it can be rectified. </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Describe the relationship between air and water content in the pore space of soils and growing media. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Explain the importance of an appropriate balance between air and water for the healthy growth of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 Define the terms: ‘saturation point’,’ field capacity’, ‘permanent wilting point’ and ‘available water’ </li></ul><ul><li>.4.4 Identify a range of management techniques for maintaining soil moisture at appropriate levels </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 Identify the surface symptoms of poor drainage, to include: standing water, surface run-off and indicator plant species. </li></ul>

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